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Sexually Transmitted Infections & The Youth
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Sexually Transmitted Infections & The Youth


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This explores common Sexually Transmitted Infections and how they affect the youth and the preventive measures that can be put in place.

This explores common Sexually Transmitted Infections and how they affect the youth and the preventive measures that can be put in place.

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  • 2. Definition STIs - Infections acquired during heterosexual or homosexual intercourse with an infected partner HIV - Virus that causes AIDS AIDs - A disease of immune system caused by a retrovirus, the human immune deficiency virus that presents with symptoms and development of opportunistic infections and or malignant lesions
  • 3. ESTIMATES OF STI’S & HIV/ AIDS • HIV infections (over 6500 each day) are among young people aged 10 – 24 years • 40million people currently living with HIV/AID world wide • Young women in the age groups 15 to 19 and 20 to 24 years are more twice as likely to be infected as males in the same age groups • Sexual conducts account for 80 to 90 % of all infections while the rest are due to exposure to infected blood and mother to Child transmission.
  • 4. TYPES OF STIs Caused by bacteria • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphilis Caused by parasites • Trichomoniasis • Pubic lice (crabs) • Scabies (Mites) Caused by viruses • Hepatitis B- liver cancer/ failure • Herpes- type I(facial), type II (genital) • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)- • HIV Fungal
  • 5. Bacterial Infections Chlamydia Is one of the most common STI. Most people don’t notice any symptoms. If present symptoms include pain when urinating, unusual discharge & in women bleeding between periods or after sex. Diagnosis is done with a swab of the affected area or urine test. If left untreated it can cause infertility in both men and women. Gonorrhea Shares most of the symptoms as chlamydia and can lead to serious long-term health problems if left untreated. Diagnosis is by a simple swap test and is treated by antibiotics. Syphilis It causes painless but highly infectious sores on the genitals or around the mouth. The sores last 2-6 weeks before disappearing on their own but the disease progresses.
  • 6. Bacterial Infections Cont.. Syphilis Syphilis has 3 stages: primary, secondary and tertiary. It progresses from one stage to the next if left untreated. After the initial infection the syphilis bacteria can lie dormant in your body for decades before becoming active again hence proceeds to the next stage. Secondary symptoms like skin rash and sore throat develop. They disappear within few weeks and a symptom-free phase follows. If diagnosed early syphilis can be treated using antibiotics usually single dose injections. If left untreated it can cause serious conditions such as stroke , paralysis, blindness or even death. Pregnant mothers infected with syphilis need to be treated. It can infect the unborn baby cause serious complications. Spreads via skin or mucous membrane contact with the sores. Don’t touch sores.
  • 7. Parasitic Infections Trichomoniasis Caused by the single celled protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the common site of infection in women and the urethra in men. Symptoms are more common in women. Can be transmitted through sexual activity or by sharing sex toys. Pubic Lice Also called crabs as they resemble them when viewed under a microscope. They live in pubic hairs around the genitals and lay their eggs at the base of the hairs. They cause itching around the genital area. Scabies (Mites) Is a contagious skin condition in which intense itching is the main symptom. Caused by tiny mites that burrow under the skin. It is not only spread through sex but also skin – skin contact for long periods of time with an infected person.
  • 8. Viral infections Hepatitis B It affects the liver and is not only transmitted through sexual activity but by sharing items like needles, toothbrushes and razors. Herpes Caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV type I affects the facial region while type II affects the genital area. In these regions it causes the occurrence of sores. Transmitted Through skin-skin contact and sexual activities. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) There are over 30 different types of HPV that are transmitted sexually through oral, anal or vaginal sex. It causes cervical cancer, painless genital warts at times unseen or throat cancer in case of oral sex. HIV??
  • 9. Fungal Infections Yeast Infection (Candida) While not technically an STI, this infection can be passed through sexual contact in rare cases. It is a common fungal infection caused by the overgrowth of candida, naturally occurring yeast. When this yeast is in excess they change the normal balance of bacterial growth and results into candidiasis.
  • 10. SYMPTOMS • Discharge from vagina, penis and/or rectum • Pain or burning during urination and/or intercourse • Pain in the abdomen(women), testicles (men), buttocks and legs (both) • Blisters, open sores, warts, rash, and swelling in the genital area, sex organs and/or mouth • Flu like symptoms including fever , headache, aching muscles and/or swollen glands
  • 11. Risk Factors/ Behaviors Among youths • Cultural practices and taboos • Multiple sexual partners • Early marriage • Early onset of sexual activity • Unprotected sexual contact • Commercial sex work • Drugs and substance abuse • Gender inequality • Serial Monogamy • Lack of access to HIV testing to self or sex partners
  • 12. Preventive Measures • Abstinence/secondary virginity • Proper and consistent use of condoms/ dental dams • Communicate before any serious sexual contact (safe sex) • Avoid anonymous casual sex • Don’t drink alcohol excessively or use drugs • Counseling and testing • Delay of sexual debut • Early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs • Compliance with treatment • Contact tracing and follow-up • Being faithful to one faithful partner • Vaccination before sexual exposure- HPV or Hep B
  • 13. FACTS • Early in infection there may be no symptoms • Can cause fatal tubal pregnancies • Death/ damage to baby born of an infected mum • Damage to other parts of the body liver, heart, brain • Curable if detected early • Sterility and barrenness • Condoms can prevent (less protection to STIs involving sores) • Only sure way is by getting tested • Abstinence is the only 100% method
  • 14. STI’S Don’t care if the sex is…. • Oral • Anal • Vaginal
  • 16. THE END Contacts: 0715 565 519 | 0719 555 938 | 0710 952 179 Email: Facebook: Kenyatta university Students Aids Control Organisation (KUSACO) Twitter: @acukusaco