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Phonology to be used

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By Prof. Nazeer Malik

By Prof. Nazeer Malik

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  • 1. Phonology
  • 2. What is Phonological Knowledge?
    • We all have instinctual knowledge of the phonemes of our own language
    • It allows us to produce sounds that form meaningful utterances (even if they are new)
    • It allows us to recognize and understand a foreign accent
  • 3. What is phonology?
    • The study of the structure and systematic patterns of sounds in human language
  • 4. It allows us to make up new words that “sound right”
    • It allows us to make up new words that “sound right”
    • It allows us to add appropriate sounds to make plurals, past tense, etc.
    • It allows us to know what is and what is not a sound in our own language.
  • 5. Branches of Phonology
    • Phonemics : narrow study of sounds
    • Ex. [p h ] in peak , [p] in speak
    • Phonetics : broad study of sounds
    • Ex. /p/ in speak and peak
  • 6. Essential Terms in Phonology
    • Phonemes
    • Allophones
    • Minimal pairs
    • Distinctive features
    • Syllable structure
    • Phonotactics
    • Morphophonemics
  • 7. Phonemes
    • Distinctive or contrastive sound (phonological segment) in the sound system of a language. PHONE
      • A Phonetic Segment Occurring in Language
    • PHONEME
      • A Segment that differentiates meaning
  • 8. How to distinguish phonemes?
    • Place of articulation
    • Ex. /p/ VS /t/
    • p op VS t op
    • Manner of articulation
    • Ex. /b/ VS /m/
    • B ob VS m ob
    • Voicing
    • Ex. /s/ VS /z/
    • S ue VS z oo
  • 9. An Allophone
    • An Allophone is:
    • A predictable phonetic variant of a phoneme
    • It is rule-governed
    • An Allophone is Predictable, Nondistinctive and Redundant
  • 10. Allophone
    • An alternative pronunciation or a variant of a phoneme.
    • Ex. /p/ - [p h ] p en
    • - [p] s p y
    • /t/ - [t h ] t op
    • - [t] s t op
    • - [?] bi tt en
    • - [D] bu tt er
  • 11. Aspiration in English
    • Aspiration in English is another example of a predictable, allophonic rule
    • Occurs with certain consonants at the beginning of a word (if the syllable is stressed)
    • Presence/Absence of Aspirated Consonant does not change the meaning of the word
  • 12. Minimal Pairs
    • A pair of words that differ by just one phoneme in the same position and have different meanings .
    • Ex. s ip VS z ip
    • t ip VS d ip
  • 13. Distinctive Features
    • Phonetic properties or features that distinguish phonemes from one another
  • 14. Distinctive Features of English Consonants
    • Syllabic
    • Consonantal
    • Sonorant
    • Obstruent
    • Voiced
    • Continuant
    • Nasal
    • Lateral
    • Distributed
    • Affricate
    • Labial
    • Round
    • Coronal
  • 15.  
  • 16. Distinctive Features of English Vowels
    • High
    • Back
    • Low
    • Round
    • Tense
    • Lax
  • 17. Phonotactics
    • Study of the sound and phoneme combinations allowed in a given language.
    • Phonotactic Constraints : the rules that characterize permissible syllable structures in a language.
  • 18. What is a syllable?
    • A phonological unit that is composed of one or more phonemes.
  • 19. Examples of Phonotactic Constraints
      • 1) After Consonants like /b/, /g/, /k/, or /p/
        • another stop is not permitted
      • 2) If a word begins with /l/ or /r/
        • Every speaker knows the next letter will be a vowel
      • 3) If word begins with /c&/ or /j&/
        • The next letter will be a vowel
      • 4) No more than three consonants Allowed
        • Even this restricted to the following sequence:
        • /s/ + /p, t, k/ + /r, l, w, y/
  • 20. Phonotactic Constraints in English
    • VC : on, at, out
    • VCC : ant, oust
    • CV : to, shoe
    • CCV : spy, snow
    • CVC : tin, chap
    • CVCC : part, tenth
    • CCVC : spin, cloud, pride
    • CCCVC : splash, spread, split
    • CCCVCCC : scripts, sprints
  • 21. Syllable Structure
  • 22. Syllable Structure
  • 23. Syllable Structure of “book”
  • 24. Syllable Structure of “pumpkin”
  • 25. Syllable Structure of “splints”
  • 26. Morphophonemics
    • pertaining to the alternation or change of one phoneme to another in a particular environment. For example, the change of the phoneme / k / to / s / before front vowels, which can be seen in the words " electric " and
    • " electric-ity ", is morphophonemic
    • A study of a phonemic difference among allomorphs of the same morpheme. It describes changes in pronunciation modified by neighboring sounds .
    • Morphophonemic Rule : the rule that assigns the phonetic form, determined by both morphology and phonology
  • 27. English Plural Morphemes /s/
    • voiceless phonemes + [s]
      • Ex. boo k s, ra t s, for k s
    • voiced phonemes + [z]
      • Ex. jo b s, do g s, pumpki n s
    • tense vowels, or diphthongs + [z]
      • Ex. toe s , z oo s, b oy s
    • [+strident] + [ ә z]
      • Ex. chur ch es, gara g es, ju dg es, cour s es
  • 28. Negative Prefix in-
    • [ I n] + vowels or alveolar
    • Ex. in e xpensive, in t olerant
    • [ I m] + labials
    • Ex. im p ossible, im m ature
    • [ I ŋ] + velars
    • Ex. in c omparable, in c omplete