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Phonology to be used
 

Phonology to be used

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By Prof. Nazeer Malik

By Prof. Nazeer Malik

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    Phonology to be used Phonology to be used Presentation Transcript

    • Phonology
    • What is Phonological Knowledge?
      • We all have instinctual knowledge of the phonemes of our own language
      • It allows us to produce sounds that form meaningful utterances (even if they are new)
      • It allows us to recognize and understand a foreign accent
    • What is phonology?
      • The study of the structure and systematic patterns of sounds in human language
    • It allows us to make up new words that “sound right”
      • It allows us to make up new words that “sound right”
      • It allows us to add appropriate sounds to make plurals, past tense, etc.
      • It allows us to know what is and what is not a sound in our own language.
    • Branches of Phonology
      • Phonemics : narrow study of sounds
      • Ex. [p h ] in peak , [p] in speak
      • Phonetics : broad study of sounds
      • Ex. /p/ in speak and peak
    • Essential Terms in Phonology
      • Phonemes
      • Allophones
      • Minimal pairs
      • Distinctive features
      • Syllable structure
      • Phonotactics
      • Morphophonemics
    • Phonemes
      • Distinctive or contrastive sound (phonological segment) in the sound system of a language. PHONE
        • A Phonetic Segment Occurring in Language
      • PHONEME
        • A Segment that differentiates meaning
    • How to distinguish phonemes?
      • Place of articulation
      • Ex. /p/ VS /t/
      • p op VS t op
      • Manner of articulation
      • Ex. /b/ VS /m/
      • B ob VS m ob
      • Voicing
      • Ex. /s/ VS /z/
      • S ue VS z oo
    • An Allophone
      • An Allophone is:
      • A predictable phonetic variant of a phoneme
      • It is rule-governed
      • An Allophone is Predictable, Nondistinctive and Redundant
    • Allophone
      • An alternative pronunciation or a variant of a phoneme.
      • Ex. /p/ - [p h ] p en
      • - [p] s p y
      • /t/ - [t h ] t op
      • - [t] s t op
      • - [?] bi tt en
      • - [D] bu tt er
    • Aspiration in English
      • Aspiration in English is another example of a predictable, allophonic rule
      • Occurs with certain consonants at the beginning of a word (if the syllable is stressed)
      • Presence/Absence of Aspirated Consonant does not change the meaning of the word
    • Minimal Pairs
      • A pair of words that differ by just one phoneme in the same position and have different meanings .
      • Ex. s ip VS z ip
      • t ip VS d ip
    • Distinctive Features
      • Phonetic properties or features that distinguish phonemes from one another
    • Distinctive Features of English Consonants
      • Syllabic
      • Consonantal
      • Sonorant
      • Obstruent
      • Voiced
      • Continuant
      • Nasal
      • Lateral
      • Distributed
      • Affricate
      • Labial
      • Round
      • Coronal
    •  
    • Distinctive Features of English Vowels
      • High
      • Back
      • Low
      • Round
      • Tense
      • Lax
    • Phonotactics
      • Study of the sound and phoneme combinations allowed in a given language.
      • Phonotactic Constraints : the rules that characterize permissible syllable structures in a language.
    • What is a syllable?
      • A phonological unit that is composed of one or more phonemes.
    • Examples of Phonotactic Constraints
        • 1) After Consonants like /b/, /g/, /k/, or /p/
          • another stop is not permitted
        • 2) If a word begins with /l/ or /r/
          • Every speaker knows the next letter will be a vowel
        • 3) If word begins with /c&/ or /j&/
          • The next letter will be a vowel
        • 4) No more than three consonants Allowed
          • Even this restricted to the following sequence:
          • /s/ + /p, t, k/ + /r, l, w, y/
    • Phonotactic Constraints in English
      • VC : on, at, out
      • VCC : ant, oust
      • CV : to, shoe
      • CCV : spy, snow
      • CVC : tin, chap
      • CVCC : part, tenth
      • CCVC : spin, cloud, pride
      • CCCVC : splash, spread, split
      • CCCVCCC : scripts, sprints
    • Syllable Structure
    • Syllable Structure
    • Syllable Structure of “book”
    • Syllable Structure of “pumpkin”
    • Syllable Structure of “splints”
    • Morphophonemics
      • pertaining to the alternation or change of one phoneme to another in a particular environment. For example, the change of the phoneme / k / to / s / before front vowels, which can be seen in the words " electric " and
      • " electric-ity ", is morphophonemic
      • A study of a phonemic difference among allomorphs of the same morpheme. It describes changes in pronunciation modified by neighboring sounds .
      • Morphophonemic Rule : the rule that assigns the phonetic form, determined by both morphology and phonology
    • English Plural Morphemes /s/
      • voiceless phonemes + [s]
        • Ex. boo k s, ra t s, for k s
      • voiced phonemes + [z]
        • Ex. jo b s, do g s, pumpki n s
      • tense vowels, or diphthongs + [z]
        • Ex. toe s , z oo s, b oy s
      • [+strident] + [ ә z]
        • Ex. chur ch es, gara g es, ju dg es, cour s es
    • Negative Prefix in-
      • [ I n] + vowels or alveolar
      • Ex. in e xpensive, in t olerant
      • [ I m] + labials
      • Ex. im p ossible, im m ature
      • [ I ŋ] + velars
      • Ex. in c omparable, in c omplete