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By Prof. Nazeer Malik

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  1. 1. Airstream Mechanisms Modes of Phonation Organs of Speech Segmental Articulation
  2. 2. The Sounds of Language Phonetics
  3. 3. The Sound Producing System
  4. 5. Speech organs Sagittal section of the vocal tract (Techmer 1880) [From: Dan Jurafsky slide] Nasal Cavity Oral Cavity Larynx: vocal folds in it Pharynx Trachea: the windpipe Lung: supply airstream
  5. 7. Airstream Mechanisms
  6. 8. <ul><li>Airstream process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ways in which the lung (or the closed glottis, even the tongue) pushes air out or sucks it in during speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egressive sounds: air is pushed out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingreessive sounds: air is sucked in. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The actions of the vocal folds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Articulatory process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The movements of the tongue and the lips interacting with the roof of the mouth and the pharynx. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including the oro-nasal process. </li></ul></ul>Speech production mechanism
  7. 9. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><li>3 Airstream Mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung airflow (pulmonic airflow mechanism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glottalic airflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Velaric airflow </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><ul><li>Pulmonic Airstream Mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>air is pushed out of the lungs by downward movement of rib cage and/or upward movement of diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plosives </li></ul><ul><li>stops made with an egressive pulmonic airstream </li></ul><ul><li>these are our familiar stops, e.g. [p, t, k] </li></ul>
  9. 11. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><li>Glottalic </li></ul><ul><li>we can move different bodies of air </li></ul><ul><li>move a closed glottis up, you’ll push air out of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>move closed glottis down, air will be sucked into the mouth </li></ul>
  10. 12. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><li>Two Types of Glottalic Airstream Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Glottalic Egressive Airstream </li></ul><ul><li>Glottalic Ingressive Airstream </li></ul>
  11. 13. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><li>Glottalic Egressive Airstream </li></ul><ul><li>glottis acts as a kind of piston </li></ul><ul><li>compressing air in the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>compressed air released when tongue body is lowered, i.e. when stop is released </li></ul><ul><li>Glottalic egressive sound [k’] </li></ul><ul><li>These sounds are also called EJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Hausa and Lakota are just two languages with ejectives. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><li>Glottalic Ingressive Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>glottis moves downward </li></ul><ul><li>sucking air inwards </li></ul><ul><li>but the glottis is not completely closed </li></ul><ul><li>some pulmonic air is still being pushed out </li></ul><ul><li>keeping the vocal cords vibrating </li></ul><ul><li>Bilabial implosive </li></ul><ul><li>Glottalic ingressive stops are also called IMPLOSIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Sindhi is an example of a language with implosives </li></ul>
  13. 15. Airstream Mechanisms <ul><li>Velaric Airstream Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>this is the mechanism used to make clicks!! </li></ul><ul><li>they involve trapping a body of air rarefying it (adding a pinch of salt for taste) and then releasing it, resulting in a click </li></ul>
  14. 17. Larynx and Voice
  15. 19. Anatomy of the larynx
  16. 20. Modes of Phonation <ul><li>Phonation :larynx function as a source </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) generate airstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) serve as an articulator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonation modes are categories in which laryngeal muscles manipulate the folds </li></ul>
  17. 21. Voicing/phonation
  18. 22. Modes of Phonation <ul><li>Five phonation modes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiceless: vocal folds far apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whisper: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vocal folds adducted (closed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opening between arytenod cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>air forced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Modes of Phonation <ul><ul><li>Breathy: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incomplete close of glottalic cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle of arytenoids remain apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vibration of vocal folds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creak: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low frequency vibration of vocal folds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folds open briefly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vibration is irregular from cycle to cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glottal stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinatory Phonation Modes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breathy + Creaky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creak accompanied by breathy leakage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Voice Onset Time (VOT) <ul><li>refers to the relationship between the onset of voicing and the release of a closure </li></ul><ul><li>so, aspirated consonants have a large VOT </li></ul>
  21. 25. Other Organs of Speech Production and Classification of Speech Sounds
  22. 27. The Vocal Tract
  23. 29. English Consonants
  24. 37. Place of Articulation Plosives: bilabial alveolar velar (palatal)
  25. 50. Speech Production oral & nasal cavities larynx lungs
  26. 61. How much constriction? plosive: completely blocked fricative: partly blocked approximant: slightly hindered nasalization Does the air flow through both the nose and the mouth, or just the mouth? Consonants: 3 phonetic features
  27. 64. Vowels Chart
  28. 65. English Vowels
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