Morphology2

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Morphology2

  1. 1. <ul><li>MORPHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Presented to </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Nazir Malik </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Amnah Moghees </li></ul><ul><li>100784015 </li></ul><ul><li>Nouman Malik </li></ul><ul><li>100784014 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Morphology <ul><li>The study of internal structure of words, and of the rules by which words are formed </li></ul>
  3. 3. Morphology: the word of language <ul><li>Important part of our linguistic knowledge </li></ul>
  4. 4. Word <ul><li>“ A unit of expression which has universal intuitive recognition by native speaker, in both spoken and written language” </li></ul><ul><li>(Crystal) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The smallest of linguistic unit which can occur on its own in speech or writing” </li></ul><ul><li>(Richard & Schmidt) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conti…. <ul><li>“ A unit of meaning” </li></ul><ul><li>(Finch) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A minimal free form” </li></ul><ul><li>(Bloomfield) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Word at different level <ul><li>Orthographic word (I saw a cat on sofa) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological word (Deer is dear but dear) </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical item Lexeme (take,took,taken…) </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical word form Morphosyntactic word (ball, balls) </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic words (table, table) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>analysis of song at levels of words </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lost” </li></ul><ul><li>by Coldplay </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dictionaries <ul><li>Lexicography </li></ul>
  9. 9. Content words <ul><li>Noun, verbs, adjectives and adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Denote concept such as objects, action, attributes and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Open class words </li></ul>
  10. 10. Function words <ul><li>Grammatical function </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions, preposition, articles, pronouns, </li></ul><ul><li>Articles indicate definite or indefinite noun </li></ul><ul><li>Preposition indicate relationship or possession </li></ul><ul><li>Closed-class </li></ul>
  11. 11. Content words and function words <ul><li>Brain treats differently </li></ul><ul><li>Slip of tongue phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition </li></ul>
  12. 12. Morpheme <ul><li>“ the minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function”. </li></ul><ul><li>The minimal grammatical linguistic unit- is thus an arbitrary union of a sound and meaning that cannot be further analysed. </li></ul><ul><li>Every word in every language is composed of one or more morphemes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>boy  (one syllable) </li></ul><ul><li>  desire, lady, </li></ul><ul><li>boy + ish </li></ul><ul><li>desire + able </li></ul><ul><li>boy + ish + ness </li></ul><ul><li>  desire + able + ity </li></ul><ul><li>gentle + man + li +ness </li></ul><ul><li>  un + desire + able +ity un + gentle + man + li+ness anti +dis + establish +ment+ari + an + ism </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>lexical (child, teach) </li></ul><ul><li>free functional (and, the) </li></ul><ul><li>Morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>bound inflectional (re,ness) </li></ul><ul><li>derivational (‘s, -ed) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bound Morphemes <ul><li>Cannot normally stand alone or typically attached to another form </li></ul><ul><li>All affixes (prefixes and suffixes) in English </li></ul>
  16. 16. Prefix <ul><li>Bound morphemes which occur only before other morphemes. Examples: un- ( uncover, undo ) dis- ( displeased, disconnect), pre- ( predetermine, prejudge ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Suffixes <ul><li>Bound morphemes which occur  following other morphemes. Examples: -er ( singer, performer) -ist (t ypist, pianist) -ly ( manly, friendly ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Infixes <ul><li>Bound morphemes which are inserted  into other morphemes. Example:             fikas &quot;strong&quot;             fumikas &quot;to be strong&quot;                (Bontoc Language) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Circumfixes <ul><li>Bound morphemes that are attached to a root or stem morpheme both initially and finally. Example:              chokma &quot;he is good&quot;          ik + chokm + o &quot;he isn’t’ good&quot;        (Chickasaw Language) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Root <ul><li>Non-affix lexical content morphemes that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts  (ex.) cran (as in cranberry), act, beauty, system, etc..  </li></ul><ul><li>     Free Root  Morpheme: run bottle, phone, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>     Bound Root  Morpheme: receive, remit, uncount, uncouth, nonchalant, etc.  </li></ul>
  21. 21. Stem <ul><li>When a root morpheme is combined with affix morphemes,  it forms a stem.  </li></ul><ul><li>Other affixes can be added to a stem to form a more complex stem.   </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Root           believe    (verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem           believe + able (verb + suffix) </li></ul><ul><li>Word          un + believe + able   </li></ul><ul><li>(prefix + verb + suffix) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Free Morphemes <ul><li>Can stand by themselves as a single word Example:    girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happy. .   </li></ul><ul><li>Set of separate English word form such as basic noun, adjectives, verbs, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Root        system    (noun) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem       system + atic    (noun + suffix) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem       un + system + atic    </li></ul><ul><li>(prefix + noun + suffix) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem       un + system + atic + al  </li></ul><ul><li>(prefix + noun + suffix + suffix) </li></ul><ul><li>Word      un + system + atic + al + ly  </li></ul><ul><li>prefix + noun + suffix + suffix + suffix        </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rules of word formation <ul><li>Knowledge of individual morphemes, their pronunciation and their meaning and the knowledge of the rules for combining morphemes into complex words. </li></ul><ul><li>V+ify->verb </li></ul><ul><li>V+ify-> </li></ul><ul><li>+ify+ication->noun </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The form that result from addition of a derivational morpheme is called a derived word </li></ul>
  27. 27. Derivational Morphology <ul><li>Derivational morphemes derive a new word by being attached to root morphemes or stems </li></ul><ul><li>They can be both suffixes and prefixes in  English. Examples:    beautiful, exactly, unhappy, impossible, recover </li></ul><ul><li>Change of Meaning  Examples: un+do (the opposite meaning of ‘do’) sing+er ( deriving a new word with the meaning of a person who sings).   </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Hierarchical Structure of Words <ul><li>A word is not a simple sequence of morphemes. It has an internal structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical structure is an essential property of human language. </li></ul>
  29. 29. More about Derivational Morphemes <ul><li>Moralise </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Conformist </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>reprint </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul>
  30. 30. Lexical gaps <ul><li>Recognition of possible and impossible words. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Rule productivity <ul><li>Morphological rules can be used freely to form new words from the list of free and bound morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Un -> antonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Does not change grammatical class </li></ul>
  32. 32. Sign language morphology
  33. 33. Pullete surprise <ul><li>Knowledge of the morphemes of the language and morphological rules we may guess the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Errors lead to non deviant form e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Diatribe-> food for the whole clan </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography-> holy geography </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous-> devoted to home life </li></ul>
  34. 34. Word Coinage <ul><li>Invention of totally new terms </li></ul><ul><li>Words are used usually without capital letters e.g,Kleenex, Xerox, etc </li></ul>
  35. 35. Compound <ul><li>Joining of two words together to form third </li></ul><ul><li>Involves two nouns (frequently) </li></ul><ul><li>Book+case=bookcase </li></ul><ul><li>Wall+paper=wallpaper </li></ul><ul><li>Lambs+wool=lambswool </li></ul>
  36. 36. Acronyms <ul><li>Words derived from the initial s of several words </li></ul>
  37. 37. National Aeronautics and Space Agency
  38. 38. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
  39. 39. <ul><li>R andom A ccess M emory </li></ul><ul><li>V ideo C assette R ecorder </li></ul>
  40. 40. Some Commonly Used Acronyms <ul><ul><li>CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ompact D isk </li></ul><ul><li>R adio D etecting and R anging </li></ul><ul><li>L ight a mplification by s timulated e mission of r adiation </li></ul><ul><li>A utomatic t eller m achine </li></ul><ul><li>P ersonal i dentification n umber </li></ul><ul><li>G iga B yte </li></ul>
  41. 41. Back-formation <ul><li>Specified reduction process </li></ul><ul><li>Word of one type is reduced to form a word of another type (usually N -> V) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Continued……. <ul><li>Television ………Televise </li></ul><ul><li>Donation………...Donate </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion………… Emote </li></ul><ul><li>Editor …………... Edit </li></ul>
  43. 43. Clipping <ul><li>Abbreviation of longer words may become lexicalised </li></ul>
  44. 44. Eponyms <ul><li>Sandwich </li></ul><ul><li>Robot </li></ul><ul><li>Gargantuan </li></ul><ul><li>Jumbo </li></ul>
  45. 45. Gargantuan
  46. 46. Robot
  47. 47. Sandwich
  48. 48. Jumbo
  49. 49. Blends
  50. 50. Smog
  51. 51. Motel
  52. 52. Broast
  53. 53. Brunch
  54. 54. Grammatical Morphemes <ul><li>Have not any clear lexical meaning </li></ul><ul><li>have only clear sense in a sentence , e.g. to , it and etc </li></ul>
  55. 55. Inflectional Morphemes <ul><li>Inflectional morphemes signal grammatical information such as number (plural), tense, possession and so on. They are thus often called bound grammatical morphemes  </li></ul><ul><li>They are only found in suffixes in  English.  Examples:  boys,  Mary’s , walked   </li></ul>
  56. 56. Inflectional Morphemes <ul><li>Inflectional morphemes signal grammatical information such as number (plural), tense, possession and so on. They are thus often called bound grammatical morphemes  </li></ul><ul><li>They are only found in suffixes in  English.  Examples:  boys,  Mary’s , walked  </li></ul>
  57. 57. Conti…. <ul><li>No change of Meaning  Examples:       walk vs. walks                          toy vs. toys  </li></ul><ul><li>Never change the syntactic category of the words or morpheme to they which they are attached. </li></ul><ul><li>They are always attached to completed words Examples:          walk vs. walked or walks (V--> V)  </li></ul>
  58. 58. Conti…. <ul><li>In English, inflectional morphemes typically follow derivational morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>  Examples: unlikelihood,  unlikelihoods    ( not   *unlikeslihood) </li></ul>
  59. 59. English Inflectional Morphemes <ul><li>-s     third person singular present              </li></ul><ul><li>She waits at home . </li></ul><ul><li>-ed   past tense  </li></ul><ul><li>She waited at home. </li></ul><ul><li>-ing  progressive                                      </li></ul><ul><li>She is eating the donut. </li></ul><ul><li>-en   past participle                                  </li></ul><ul><li>Mary has eaten the donuts. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>- s     plural                                               </li></ul><ul><li>She ate the donuts. </li></ul><ul><li>-’s    possessive                  </li></ul><ul><li>           Disa's hair is short. </li></ul><ul><li>-er    comparative                   </li></ul><ul><li>             Disa has shorter hair than Karin. </li></ul><ul><li>-est  superlative                                       </li></ul><ul><li>Disa has the shortest hair. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Morph <ul><li>Phonological realization of a morpheme </li></ul><ul><li>Allomorphs and variants </li></ul><ul><li>The appearance of one morph over another </li></ul>
  62. 62. Exceptions and suppletions <ul><li>Exception of irregular plural form and past tense </li></ul><ul><li>Some morphological shape </li></ul><ul><li>Noun is used in compound words and lose its meaning </li></ul>
  63. 63. Morphological analysis <ul><li>Speaker of a language have the knowledge to perceive the component morphemes and morphological rules for their combination </li></ul>
  64. 64. Conclusion
  65. 65. Reference Books <ul><li>An Introduction to Language </li></ul><ul><li>By Victoria Fromkin </li></ul><ul><li>The Study of Language </li></ul><ul><li>By Goerge Yule </li></ul><ul><li>What is morphology? </li></ul><ul><li>By Mark Arnoff & Kristen Ferdiman </li></ul><ul><li>An Introduction to English Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy </li></ul><ul><li>An Introduction to Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>By Loreto Todd </li></ul>
  66. 66. No Questions? Pleeease ! W

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