Gl second lecture


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Gl second lecture

  1. 1. Design Features of Human and Animal Communication systems The Properties of Language
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is Language (“big-L”)? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a language (“little-L”)? </li></ul>grammar <ul><li>The systematic “rules” and patterns that govern word ordering. </li></ul><ul><li>The body of knowledge that allows one to produce a particular language </li></ul>{
  3. 3. Grammar <ul><li>A Body of Linguistic Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combine sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build sentences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in conversations </li></ul></ul></ul>Language is axiomatic to being human.
  4. 4. Communicative Signs
  5. 5. Core Properties of all Communication } sign <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analyze this Non-Linguistic Sign
  7. 7. Three Types of Signs <ul><li>Iconic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signifier (form) resembles signified (meaning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indexical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signifier gives directional information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No inherent relationship between form and meaning </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How About This Sign? ? ? ? Q: If words are signs – and they are – what kind of sign are they?
  9. 9. Arbitrariness <ul><li>the connection between the signifier (form) and the signified (meaning) is arbitrary </li></ul><ul><li>these arbitrary relationships are agreed upon by speakers, i.e. a matter of convention (consensus) </li></ul><ul><li>even interjections and onomatopoetic signs are arbitrary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ouaoua ~ bow-wow ~ mŏng-mŏng ~ wan-wan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aïe! ~ ouch! ~ aigo! ~ aiya! </li></ul></ul>signifier signified moon
  10. 10. Arbitrariness lune yueiliang luna mwezi moon
  11. 11. Arbitrariness shoe “ shu” all “ tu” two/too/to “ tu” cabbage “ shu”
  12. 12. Productivity (“ Creativity ”) <ul><li>How many utterances are there in a language? </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are capable of unlimited expression. </li></ul><ul><li>We routinely create and comprehend novel utterances. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rule Governed Creativity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An infinite number of utterances can be created by a limited number of rules / patterns. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Duality <ul><li>Linguistic units have a dual nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are observable physical events  “noise” or “image” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are more than simple physical events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are produced in order to communicate meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are connected to a concept </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Discreteness <ul><li>What is “discrete” vs. “continuous”? </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete entities have clear boundaries; they’re units; categorical. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous entities don’t have clear boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is… </li></ul>DISCRETE <ul><li>Language is made up of structured units if… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… you have knowledge of the system! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, utterances can sound like continuous streams of sound, without discernible units. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Last Three Design Features <ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can communicate beyond the here and now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are not “stimulus bound” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammars are transmitted from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquiring “a language” requires involvement in a culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPARE  Genetic Transmission of big-L “Language” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each human is born with Language; it’s a biological instinct. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interchangeability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All members of the community are physically capable of transmitting and receiving messages </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Assessing the Design Features <ul><li>Arbitrariness </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Duality </li></ul><ul><li>Discreteness </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Interchangeability </li></ul>
  17. 17. Focus on Sentences <ul><li>Consider the following finite lexicon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hugged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laughed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>big </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>baby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we </li></ul></ul>Create two different sentences using only these words *The we laughed a cute. *A a a baby cat dog the the. *Cat the hugged baby the.
  18. 18. Which of the Following Strings are Grammatical? <ul><li>I shall speak to her tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>I shall her tomorrow speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow her to speaking do shall. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak shall I with her tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Ik zal haar morgen spreken. Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Naeil ke-ege mal-ha-gessumnida. Korean </li></ul><ul><li>Falar-ei com ela amanhã. Portuguese </li></ul>* * *
  19. 19. What do we Mean by “Grammatical”? <ul><li>Prescriptive Grammar (Prescriptively Grammatical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of rules (or patterns) that are deemed to be the “correct” or “proper” way to use a language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set by members of the community that possess the power to enforce the rules: teachers, editors </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What do we Mean by “Grammatical”? <ul><li>Descriptive Grammar (Descriptively Grammatical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of rules (or patterns) that characterize observed language behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by observing language users and extracting relevant generalizations </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Determine the Grammaticality of… Prescriptively Grammatical Descriptively Grammatical If a student is sick, they should go to the school nurse. No Yes What are you talking about? Nancy danced a jig. No Yes Yes Yes I’m going to just quickly finish my lunch. I haven’t never been to New York. No No Yes Yes/No Bubba ain’t very bright. No Yes/No Her I saw the house in. No No
  22. 22. Grammaticality vs. Semantically Odd <ul><li>We believe that each men were created equal. </li></ul><ul><li>The industrious bunnies baked a delicious cake for Mimi’s birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>The red roses are yellow. </li></ul>* √ !
  23. 23. Relationship between Prescription and Description Universe of all word combinations in language X Combinations that speakers actually produce Combinations that are officially sanctioned by the authorities Descriptively grammatical but prescriptively ungrammatical Descriptively ungrammatical but prescriptively grammatical
  24. 24. Comparing Languages: Who’s is Better? <ul><li>Do you have the right to say that somebody else’s language is too hard or backwards or illogical or ugly? </li></ul><ul><li>We have to be wary of 2 traps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because language is changing, it is getting “corrupted.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My language variety is more X than another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All languages are capable of communicating what they need to communicate. </li></ul>Who gets to judge what is good?