WHAT IS BASIC RESEARCH? Zulfiqar Ali Jahanzeb Jahan M.Phil Applied Linguistics
Describe what is meant by the term research
Describe what Basic Research is
Describe some of the more common qualitative approaches
Describe some of the more common quantitative approaches
How to write a research question
The difference between research / audit
Organised Research is….. Systematic Finding answers Questions
Definitions of Research
Organised scientific investigation to solve problems, test hypothesis, or develop or invent new products. (Atomic research or cancer research).
the systematic application or use of a set of methods to provide trustworthy information about problems.
a systematic investigation to increase knowledge and understanding.
is very careful, critical and disciplined inquiry varying in technique and method according to the nature and conditions of the problem identified, directed towards the clarification or resolution (or both) of a problem.
Definition of Research
conceived as the process of arriving at dependable solutions to the problems through the planned and systematic collections, analysis and interpretation of data. It is the most important tool for advancing knowledge, for promoting progress and for enabling man to relate more effectively to his environment, to accomplish his purposes and to resolve his conflicts. Although it is not the only way, research is certainly one of the most effective ways of solving scientific problems.
According to B.W. Tuckman (1978) following are the characteristics of research:
An older description of research may be explained with the five characterizations spelling out the word MOVIE.
M stands for mathematical precision and accuracy
O stands for Objectivity
V stands for verifiability
I stands for impartiality
E stands for Expertness
Research is logical
Research is empirical
Research is reductive
Research is replicable and transmittable
Classification of Research
Classification by Purpose
Research & Development
Classification by Method
Classification by Approach
Classification by Purpose
Classification of Research by purpose is based on the degree to which findings have direct application and the degree to which they are generalizable to other situations.
Basic Research It involves the process of collecting and analyzing data/information to develop or enhance theory. In its purist form basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, Jean Piaget conducted a research on intellectual growth of all children. In this research, he gave a new theory that children learn something new in each passing stage. He said that the child’s habits get mature and fixed what he learns in Formal Operational Stage, which is the last learning stage,
Basic Research Basic research or fundamental research (sometimes pure research) is research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles. Many times the end results have no direct or immediate commercial benefits: basic research can be thought of as arising out of curiosity. However, in the long term it is the basis for many commercial products and applied research. Basic research is mainly carried out by universities.
Basic Research Basic research advances fundamental knowledge about the human world. It focuses on refuting or supporting theories that explain how this world operates, what makes things happen, why social relations are a certain way, and why society changes. Basic research is the source of most new scientific ideas and ways of thinking about the world. It can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory; however, explanatory research is the most common. Basic research generates new ideas, principles and theories, which may not be immediately utilized; though are the foundations of modern progress and development in different fields.
Basic Research Today's computers could not exist without the pure research in mathematics conducted over a century ago, for which there was no known practical application at that time. Basic research rarely helps practitioners directly with their everyday concerns. Nevertheless, it stimulates new ways of thinking about deviance that have the potential to revolutionize and dramatically improve how practitioners deal with a problem. A new idea or fundamental knowledge is not generated only by basic research can build new knowledge. Nonetheless, basic research is essential for nourishing the expansion of knowledge. Researchers at the center of the scientific community conduct most of the basic research.
Basic Vs Applied Research Its very difficult to discuss basic and applied research separately, as they are really on a continuum. Classification of a given study along this continuum is based primarily on the degree to which the findings have direct educational application and the degree to which they are generalizable to other educational situations. Basic research, either directly or indirectly, involves the development of theory; applied is concerned with the application of theory to the solution of problems.
Basic Vs Applied Research There is disagreement among educators and researchers concerning toward which end of basic-applied continuum research should be directed. Basic research is concerned merely with theory development and refinement. It is not concerned with practical applicability and most closely resembles the laboratory conditions and controls usually associated with scientific research. Basic research is concerned with establishing general principles of learning; applied research is concerned with their utility in educational settings. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Applied Research has tested these principles to determine their effectiveness in improving learning.
Basic Vs Applied Research Basic research provides the theory that produces implications for solving educational problems; applied research provides data to support theory, guide theory revision, or suggest development of new theory.