Research is an organised activity. There has to be a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one and is focused and limited to a specific topic. It is systematic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow, and there are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results. Finding answers is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is ‘no’, but it is still an answer. Questions are central to research. If there is no question then the answer is of no use. Without a question, research has no focus, drive or purpose.
WHAT IS BASIC RESEARCH? Zulfiqar Ali Jahanzeb Jahan M.Phil Applied Linguistics
Aims <ul><li>Describe what is meant by the term research </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what Basic Research is </li></ul><ul><li>Describe some of the more common qualitative approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Describe some of the more common quantitative approaches </li></ul><ul><li>How to write a research question </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between research / audit </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul>
Organised Research is….. Systematic Finding answers Questions
Definitions of Research <ul><li>Research is: </li></ul><ul><li>Organised scientific investigation to solve problems, test hypothesis, or develop or invent new products. (Atomic research or cancer research). </li></ul><ul><li>the systematic application or use of a set of methods to provide trustworthy information about problems. </li></ul><ul><li>a systematic investigation to increase knowledge and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>is very careful, critical and disciplined inquiry varying in technique and method according to the nature and conditions of the problem identified, directed towards the clarification or resolution (or both) of a problem. </li></ul>
Definition of Research <ul><li>Research is: </li></ul><ul><li>conceived as the process of arriving at dependable solutions to the problems through the planned and systematic collections, analysis and interpretation of data. It is the most important tool for advancing knowledge, for promoting progress and for enabling man to relate more effectively to his environment, to accomplish his purposes and to resolve his conflicts. Although it is not the only way, research is certainly one of the most effective ways of solving scientific problems. </li></ul>
Research <ul><li>According to B.W. Tuckman (1978) following are the characteristics of research: </li></ul><ul><li>An older description of research may be explained with the five characterizations spelling out the word MOVIE. </li></ul><ul><li>M stands for mathematical precision and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>O stands for Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>V stands for verifiability </li></ul><ul><li>I stands for impartiality </li></ul><ul><li>E stands for Expertness </li></ul>
Research <ul><li>Research is logical </li></ul><ul><li>Research is empirical </li></ul><ul><li>Research is reductive </li></ul><ul><li>Research is replicable and transmittable </li></ul>
Classification of Research <ul><li>By Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>By Method </li></ul><ul><li>By Approach </li></ul>
Classification by Purpose <ul><li>Basic Research </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Research </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Research </li></ul><ul><li>Research & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Action Research </li></ul>
Classification by Method <ul><li>Historical Research </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Research </li></ul><ul><li>Casual-Comparative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Research </li></ul>
Classification by Approach <ul><li>Qualitative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Research </li></ul>
Classification by Purpose <ul><li>Classification of Research by purpose is based on the degree to which findings have direct application and the degree to which they are generalizable to other situations. </li></ul>
Basic Research It involves the process of collecting and analyzing data/information to develop or enhance theory. In its purist form basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, Jean Piaget conducted a research on intellectual growth of all children. In this research, he gave a new theory that children learn something new in each passing stage. He said that the child’s habits get mature and fixed what he learns in Formal Operational Stage, which is the last learning stage,
Basic Research Basic research or fundamental research (sometimes pure research) is research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles. Many times the end results have no direct or immediate commercial benefits: basic research can be thought of as arising out of curiosity. However, in the long term it is the basis for many commercial products and applied research. Basic research is mainly carried out by universities.
Basic Research Basic research advances fundamental knowledge about the human world. It focuses on refuting or supporting theories that explain how this world operates, what makes things happen, why social relations are a certain way, and why society changes. Basic research is the source of most new scientific ideas and ways of thinking about the world. It can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory; however, explanatory research is the most common. Basic research generates new ideas, principles and theories, which may not be immediately utilized; though are the foundations of modern progress and development in different fields.
Basic Research Today's computers could not exist without the pure research in mathematics conducted over a century ago, for which there was no known practical application at that time. Basic research rarely helps practitioners directly with their everyday concerns. Nevertheless, it stimulates new ways of thinking about deviance that have the potential to revolutionize and dramatically improve how practitioners deal with a problem. A new idea or fundamental knowledge is not generated only by basic research can build new knowledge. Nonetheless, basic research is essential for nourishing the expansion of knowledge. Researchers at the center of the scientific community conduct most of the basic research.
Basic Vs Applied Research Its very difficult to discuss basic and applied research separately, as they are really on a continuum. Classification of a given study along this continuum is based primarily on the degree to which the findings have direct educational application and the degree to which they are generalizable to other educational situations. Basic research, either directly or indirectly, involves the development of theory; applied is concerned with the application of theory to the solution of problems.
Basic Vs Applied Research There is disagreement among educators and researchers concerning toward which end of basic-applied continuum research should be directed. Basic research is concerned merely with theory development and refinement. It is not concerned with practical applicability and most closely resembles the laboratory conditions and controls usually associated with scientific research. Basic research is concerned with establishing general principles of learning; applied research is concerned with their utility in educational settings. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Applied Research has tested these principles to determine their effectiveness in improving learning.
Basic Vs Applied Research Basic research provides the theory that produces implications for solving educational problems; applied research provides data to support theory, guide theory revision, or suggest development of new theory.