Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Tour of the Cell
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Tour of the Cell

1,433

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,433
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. A Tour of the Cell
    Tour Guide…
    Mrs. Erin Fortenberry
  • 2. Question ?
    Can cells be seen with the naked eye?
    Yes, a few are large enough, but most require the use of a microscope.
  • 3.
  • 4. Microscope History
    1590 - Janseen Brothers invent the compound microscope.
    1665 - Robert Hooke “discovers” cells in cork.
    Early 1700’s - von Leeuwenhoek makes many observations of cells including bacteria.
  • 5. Light Microscope - LM
    Uses visible light to illuminate the object.
    Relatively inexpensive type of microscope.
    Can examine live or dead objects.
  • 6. Electron Microscopes
    Use beams of electrons instead of light.
    Invented in 1939, but not used much until after WWII.
  • 7. TEM
    SEM
  • 8. Advantages
    Much higher magnifications.
    Magnifications of 50,000X or higher are possible.
    Can get down to atomic level in some cases.
  • 9. Disadvantages
    Need a Vacuum.
    Specimen must stop the electrons.
    High cost of equipment.
    Specimen preparation.
  • 10. Cell Biology or Cytology
    Cyto = cell
    - ology = study of
  • 11. History of Cells
    Robert Hooke - Observed cells in cork.
    Coined the term "cells” in 1665.
  • 12. History of Cells
    1833 - Robert Brown, discovered the nucleus.
    1838 - M.J. Schleiden, all plants are made of cells.
    1839 - T. Schwann, all animals are made of cells.
  • 13. Cell Theory
    All living matter is composed of one or more cells.
    The cell is the structural and functional unit of life.
  • 14. Types of Cells
    Prokaryotic - lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.
    Eukaryotic - have a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.
  • 15. Prokaryotic
    Eukaryotic
    Nucleus
  • 16. Basic Cell Organization
    Membrane
    Nucleus
    Cytoplasm
    Organelles
  • 17. AnimalCell
  • 18. Plant Cell
  • 19. Membrane
    Separates the cell from the environment.
    Boundary layer for regulating the movement of materials in/out of a cell.
  • 20.
  • 21. Cytoplasm
    Cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
    The “fluid” part of a cell. Exists in two forms:
    gel - thick
    sol - fluid
  • 22. Organelle
    Term means "small organ” Formed body in a cell with a specialized function.
    Important in organizational structure of cells.
  • 23. Organelles - function
    Way to form compartments in cells to separate chemical reactions.
    Keeps various enzymes separated in space.
  • 24. Nucleus
    Most conspicuous organelle.
    usually spherical, but can be lobed or irregular in shape.
  • 25. Structure
    Nuclear membrane
    Nuclear pores
    Nucleolus
    Chromatin
  • 26.
  • 27. Nuclear Membrane
    Double membrane separated by a 20-40 nm space.
    Inner membrane supported by a protein matrix which gives the shape to the nucleus.
  • 28. Nuclear Pores
    Regular “holes” through both membranes.
    100 nm in diameter.
    Protein complex gives shape.
    Allows materials in/out of nucleus.
  • 29. Nucleolus
    Dark staining area in the nucleus.
    0 - 4 per nucleus.
    Storage area for ribosomes.
  • 30. Chromatin
    Chrom: colored
    - tin: threads
    DNA and Protein in a “loose” format. Will form the cell’s chromosomes.
  • 31. Nucleus - Function
    Control center for the cell.
    Contains the genetic instructions.
  • 32. Ribosomes
    Structure: 2 subunits made of protein and rRNA.
    No membrane.
    Function: protein synthesis.
  • 33.
  • 34. Locations
    Free in the cytoplasm - make proteins for use in cytosol.
    Membrane bound - make proteins that are exported from the cell.
  • 35. Endomembrane System
    Membranes that are related through direct physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segments called vesicles.
  • 36. Endomembrane System
  • 37. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Often referred to as ER.
    Makes up to 1/2 of the total membrane in cells.
    Often continuous with the nuclear membrane.
  • 38.
  • 39. Structure of ER
    Folded sheets or tubes of membranes.
    Very “fluid” in structure with the membranes constantly changing size and shape.
  • 40. Types of ER
    Smooth ER: no ribosomes.
    Used for lipid synthesis, carbohydrate storage, detoxification of poisons.
    Rough ER: with ribosomes.
    Makes secretory proteins.
  • 41. Golgi Apparatus
    Structure: parallel array of flattened cisternae. (looks like a stack of Pita bread)
    3 to 20 per cell.
    Likely an outgrowth of the ER system.
  • 42.
  • 43. Function of Golgi Bodies
    Processing - modification of ER products.
    Distribution - packaging of ER products for transport.
  • 44. Golgi Vesicles
    Small sacs of membranes that bud off the Golgi Body.
    Transportation vehicle for the modified ER products.
  • 45. Cell-On-The-Ceiling Project
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49. Lysosome
    Single membrane.
    Made from the Golgi apparatus.
  • 50. Function
    Breakdown and degradation of cellular materials.
    Contains enzymes for fats, proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.
    Over 40 types known.
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53. Lysosomes
    Important in cell death.
    Missing enzymes may cause various genetic enzyme diseases.
  • 54. Vacuoles
    Structure - single membrane, usually larger than the Golgi vesicles.
    Function - depends on the organism.
  • 55. Protists
    Contractile vacuoles - pump out excess water.
    Food vacuoles - store newly ingested food until the lysosomes can digest it.
  • 56.
  • 57. Plants
    Large single vacuole when mature making up to 90% of the cell's volume.
    Tonoplast - the name for the vacuole membrane.
  • 58.
  • 59. Function
    Water regulation.
    Storage of ions.
    Storage of hydrophilic pigments. (e.g. red and blues in flower petals).
  • 60. Function: Plant vacuole
    Used to enlarge cells and create turgor pressure.
    Enzymes (various types).
    Store toxins.
    Coloration.
  • 61. Microbodies
    Structure: single membrane.
    Often have a granular or crystalline core of enzymes.
  • 62. Function
    Specialized enzymes for specific reactions.
    Peroxisomes: use up hydrogen peroxide.
    Glyoxysomes: lipid digestion.
  • 63. Enzymes in a crystal
  • 64. Mitochondria
    Structure: 2 membranes. The inner membrane has more surface area than the outer membrane.
    Matrix: inner space.
    Intermembrane space: area between the membranes.
  • 65.
  • 66. Inner Membrane
    Folded into cristae.
    Amount of folding depends on the level of cell activity.
    Contains many enzymes.
    ATP generated here.
  • 67. Function
    Cell Respiration - the release of energy from food.
    Major location of ATP generation.
    “Powerhouse” of the cell.
  • 68. Mitochondria
    Have ribosomes.
    Have their own DNA.
    Can reproduce themselves.
    May have been independent cells at one time.
  • 69. Chloroplasts
    Structure - two outer membranes.
    Complex internal membrane.
    Fluid-like stroma is around the internal membranes.
  • 70.
  • 71. Inner or Thylakoid Membranes
    Arranged into flattened sacs called thylakoids.
    Some regions stacked into layers called grana.
    Contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
  • 72. Function
    Photosynthesis - the use of light energy to make food.
  • 73. Chloroplasts
    Contain ribosomes.
    Contain DNA.
    Can reproduce themselves.
    Often contain starch.
    May have been independent cells at one time.
  • 74. Plastids
    Group of plant organelles.
    Structure - single membrane.
    Function - store various materials.
  • 75. Cytoskeleton
    Network of rods and filaments in the cytoplasm.
  • 76.
  • 77. Functions
    Cell structure and shape.
    Cell movement.
    Cell division - helps build cell walls and move the chromosomes apart.
  • 78. Components
    Microtubules
    Microfilaments
    Intermediate Filaments
  • 79.
  • 80. Microtubules
    Structure - small hollow tubes made of repeating units of a protein dimer.
    Size - 25 nm diameter with a 15 nm lumen. Can be 200 nm to 25 mm in length.
  • 81. Tubulin
    Protein in microtubules.
  • 82. Microtubules
    Regulate cell shape.
    Coordinate direction of cellulose fibers in cell wall formation.
    Tracks for motor molecules.
  • 83. Microtubules
    Form cilia and flagella.
    Internal cellular movement.
    Make up centioles, basal bodies and spindle fibers.
  • 84. Cilia and Flagella
    Cilia - short, but numerous.
    Flagella - long, but few.
    Function - to move cells or to sweep materials past a cell.
  • 85. Movie
  • 86.
  • 87. Centrioles
    Usually one pair per cell, located close to the nucleus.
    Found in animal cells.
    9 sets of triplet microtubules.
    Help in cell division.
  • 88. Basal Bodies
    Same structure as a centriole.
    Anchor cilia and flagella.
  • 89. Microfilaments
    5 to 7 nm in diameter.
    Structure - two intertwined strands of actin protein.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92. Microfilaments are stained green.
  • 93. Functions
    Muscle contraction.
    Cytoplasmic streaming.
    Pseudopodia.
    Cleavage furrow formation.
    Maintenance and changes in cell shape.
  • 94. Intermediate Filaments
    Fibrous proteins that are super coiled into thicker cables and filaments 8 - 12 nm in diameter.
    Made from several different types of protein.
  • 95.
  • 96. Functions
    Maintenance of cell shape.
    Hold organelles in place.
  • 97. Cytoskeleton
    Very dynamic; changing in composition and shape frequently.
    Cell is not just a "bag" of cytoplasm within a cell membrane.
  • 98. Cell Wall
    Nonliving jacket that surrounds some cells.
    Found in:
    Plants
    Prokaryotes
    Fungi
    Some Protists
  • 99. Plant Cell Walls
    All plant cells have a Primary Cell Wall.
    Some cells will develop a Secondary Cell Wall.
  • 100.
  • 101. Primary Wall
    Thin and flexible.
    Cellulose fibers placed at right angles to expansion.
    Placement of fibers guided by microtubules.
  • 102. Secondary Wall
    Thick and rigid.
    Added between the cell membrane and the primary cell wall in laminated layers.
    May cover only part of the cell; giving spirals.
    Makes up "wood”.
  • 103. Middle Lamella
    Thin layer rich in pectin found between adjacent plant cells.
    Glues cells together.
  • 104. Cell Walls
    May be made of other types of polysaccharides and/or silica.
    Function as the cell's exoskeleton for support and protection.
  • 105. Extracellular Matrix - ECM
    Fuzzy coat on animal cells.
    Helps glue cells together.
    Made of glycoproteins and collagen.
    Evidence suggests ECM is involved with cell behavior and cell communication.
  • 106.
  • 107. Intercellular Juctions
    Plants-Plasmodesmata
  • 108. Plasmodesmata
    Channels between cells through adjacent cell walls.
    Allows communication between cells.
    Also allows viruses to travel rapidly between cells.
  • 109.
  • 110. Intercellular Juctions
    Animals:
    Tight junctions
    Desmosomes
    Gap junctions
  • 111.
  • 112. Tight Junctions
    Very tight fusion of the membranes of adjacent cells.
    Seals off areas between the cells.
    Prevents movement of materials around cells.
  • 113. Desmosomes
    Bundles of filaments which anchor junctions between cells.
    Does not close off the area between adjacent cells.
    Coordination of movement between groups of cells.
  • 114. Gap Junctions
    Open channels between cells, similar to plasmodesmata.
    Allows “communication” between cells.

×