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The Skeletal System - Chapter 6
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The Skeletal System - Chapter 6

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  • 1. The Skeletal System Chapters 6-8
  • 2. Skeletal Cartilage
    • Skeleton made mostly of cartilage at birth and begins to form bone as person ages.
    • Few cartilages found in adults and only found in areas where flexible tissue is needed.
  • 3. Skeletal Cartilage (con’t)
    • Made of variety of cartilages
    • Consists mostly of water, allowing it to spring back to original shape.
    • No nerves or vessels
    • Surrounded by perichondrium
      • Girdle, resisting expansion
      • Has blood vessels
      • Delivers nutrients to cartilage
      • 3 types: hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
  • 4.  
  • 5. Growth of Cartilage
    • Two ways cartilage grows:
    • 1. Appositional growth – cartilage- forming cells secrete new matrix on outside of old cartilage
    • 2. Interstitial growth – cartilage-forming cells secrete new matrix on inside of old cartilage.
  • 6. Growth of Cartilage (con’t)
    • Cartilage growth ends during adolescence when skeleton stops growing
    • Cartilage is different from bone.
  • 7. Classification of Bones
  • 8. There are 206 named bones of the skeleton.
  • 9. Axial Skeleton
    • Forms long axis of body
    • Bones of skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
    • Protect, support, or carry other body parts
  • 10. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Upper and lower limbs and girdles (shoulders and hips)
    • Locomotion and manipulation
  • 11. Shape and Sizes
    • Many different
    • Each shape fulfills a special need
    • Classified by shape
  • 12. Different shape classification:
    • Long bones
    • Longer than wide
    • Names for shape, not size
    • Short bones
    • Cube-shaped
    • Can be rounded (sesame seed)
  • 13.
    • Flat bones
    • Thick, flattened, and curved
    • Sternum, shoulder blades, ribs, and skull
    • Irregular bones
    • Complicated shapes
    • Vertebrae and hip
  • 14.  
  • 15. Bone Function
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Mineral Storage
    • Blood Cell Formation
  • 16. Bone Structure and Gross Anatomy
    • Bones are organs
    • Contain osseous tissue, nerve tissue, cartilage, muscle and epithelial tissue
    • Every bone has dense outer layer that appears smooth and solid called the compact bone.
    • Honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces (trabeculae) are inside of compact bone; holds red/yellow bone marrow called spongy bone.
  • 17. Structure of a Long Bone
    • Diaphysis (shaft) forms long part and is thick, compact bone.
      • Surrounds central medullary cavity (marrow cavity)
      • In adults, medullary cavity houses yellow marrow.
  • 18. Long bone (con’t)
    • Epiphyses are bone ends.
      • At surface covered in articular (hyaline) cartilage.
      • Between diaphysis and epiphysis is a epiphyseal line, which is what is left from the epiphyseal (growth) plate from childhood.
      • Bone lengthened from growth plate.
  • 19.  
  • 20. Long bone (con’t)
    • Membranes
    • White, double-layered membrane, periosteum, covers the whole bone.
    • Periosteum is supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.
  • 21. Structure of short, irregular, and flat bones:
    • In flat bones, the internal layer of spongy bone is called the diploe.
    • Short, irregular and flat bones share design:
      • Thin plate of periosteum – covered compact bone on outside
      • Endosteum – covers spongy bone on inside
      • Contain marrow  no marrow cavity
  • 22.  
  • 23. Location of hematopoietic tissue in bones:
    • Spongy bone of long bones
    • Diplo ë of flat bones
    • Red marrow is the sole marrow for newborns
    • As child ages, yellow marrow takes its place, pushing red marrow to heads of femur and humerus.
    • Red marrow is found in some flat and irregular bones.
    • Red marrow conducts hematopoiesis, or red blood cell formation.
  • 24. Compact Bone
  • 25. Osteon
    • Osteon: structural unit of compact bone
    • Cylinder found running down bone
    • Weight-bearing pillars
    • Similar to growth rings in a tree
      • Each “ring” is called lamella
      • Compact bone sometimes called lamellar bone
  • 26. Haversian (central) Canal
    • Canal that runs through the core of each osteon.
    • Contain blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the osteon.
  • 27. Volksmann’s (perforating) Canal:
    • Lie at right angles to the bone axis.
    • Connect blood and nerve supply.
  • 28.  
  • 29. Spongy Bone
  • 30. Spongy bone (con’t)
    • Consists of trabeculae
    • Looks like Swiss cheese
    • Align around lines of stress to support bone
  • 31. Chemical Composition of Bones
    • Contain organic and inorganic components
    • Organic Components:
      • Cells
        • Osteoblasts
        • Osteocytes
        • Osteoclasts
      • Osteoid – organic part of matrix
  • 32. Chemical composition (con’t)
    • Inorganic hydroxypatites (mineral salts)  mostly calcium salts
    • Proper combination allows bones to be very durable and strong
    • Because bone salts last long after death, skeletal remains can last form centuries
  • 33. Bone Markings
    • Bulges, depressions, holes, etc. found on bone surfaces
    • Table 6.1
  • 34. Bone Development
    • Osteogenesis (ossification): process of bone tissue formation
    • Bones can grow in thickness throughout life
    • Ossification for adults is mainly for repair
    • At week 8, human embryo’s skeleton is entirely fibrous membranes or cartilage.
    • At week 8, bones begin to form replacing fibrous and cartilage structures.
    • During infancy and youth, long bones lengthen by interstitial growth at the growth plate.
  • 35. Bone Homeostasis
    • Recycle 5-7% of bone mass.
    • Spongy bone – replaced every 3-4 years.
    • Compact bone – replaced every 10 years.
    • In healthy adults, total bone mass remains constant (deposit and resorption are equal).
    • Bone deposit: occurs when bone is injured or needs added strength.
    • Body has 1200-1400g of Ca, mostly bone minerals.
  • 36. Repair Fractures (breaks)
    • Classification of fractures:
    • Nondisplaced: bone ends stay in position
    • Displaced: bone ends out of alignment
    • Complete: bone broken through
    • Incomplete: bone isn’t broken through
    • Transverse: perpendicular to bone axis
    • Linear: parallel to axis
    • Open (compound): bone breaks through skin
    • Closed (simple): bone doesn’t break skin
    • Common types of fractures (Table 6.2)
  • 37.  
  • 38. Repair (con’t)
    • Treatment:
    • Reduction: realignment of broken ends
      • Closed: doctor’s hands externally
      • Open: surgery with pins and wires
    • Immobilization: cast or brace
    • 6-8 weeks of healing
  • 39. Repair (4 phases):
    • Hematoma formation
      • - vessels, periosteum, and tissues torn and hemorrhage
      • - hematoma, mass or clotted blood, forms at fracture
      • swollen, painful, and inflamed
    • Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
      • Fibroblast produce collagen fibers that connect the break
      • Chondroblast secretes cartilage matrix
  • 40. Repair phases (con’t):
    • Bony callus formation
    • - new trabeculae appears in fibrocartilage
    • - convert to bony callus of spongy bone
    • - starts 3-4 weeks after injury and continues until 2-3 months later
    • 4. Bone remodeling
  • 41. Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Osteomalacia (soft bones)
    • Lack adequate minerals
    • Painful
    • Rickets in children
  • 42.
    • Osteoporosis
    • Bone resorption outpaces bone deposit
    • Bones are porous and lighter
    • Usually older women (postmenopausal)
  • 43.
    • Paget’s Disease
    • Excessive bone formation
    • Causes spotty weakening