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Orientation Of Human Body
 

Orientation Of Human Body

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    Orientation Of Human Body Orientation Of Human Body Presentation Transcript

    • The Human Body: An Orientation Chapter 1
    • Three essential concepts that unify and Anatomy and Physiology: Complementarity of structure and function Hierarchy of structural organization Homeostasis
    • What is Anatomy?
      • Structure of body parts
      • Relationship of body parts
      • Concrete subject
    • What is Physiology?
      • Function of the machinery
      • Processes of the body
    • MUST know anatomy to understand physiology!!!
    • Topics of Anatomy
      • Macroscopic Anatomy
        • AKA “gross anatomy”
        • Study of large body parts visible to the naked eye
        • Dissection of animals
        • Subdivisions include:
          • Regional anatomy
          • Systemic anatomy
          • Surface anatomy
      • Microscopic Anatomy
        • Study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
        • Subdivisions include:
          • Cytology – cells
          • Histology – tissues
    • Topics of Anatomy (con’t)
      • Developmental Anatomy
        • Traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
        • Subdivisions include:
          • Embryology – developmental changes before birth
      • Pathological Anatomy
      • Radiographic Anatomy
      • Molecular Biology
      • Anatomical Terminology
    • Some Topics of Physiology
      • Renal physiology – kidney function and urine production
      • Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system
      • Cardiovascular physiology – operation of heart and blood
    • Complementarity of Structures and Functions Levels of Structural Organization Chemical Level Cellular Level Tissue Level Organ Level Organ System Level Organism Level
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    • Maintaining Life
    • Necessary Life Functions
      • Maintaining Boundaries
        • Inside must be distinct from outside
      • Movement
      • Responsiveness
        • AKA “irritability”
        • Ability to sense changes in environment and respond
      • Digestion
      • Metabolism
        • Chemical reactions within body cells
      • Excretion
        • Removes wastes from body and requires many organs
      • Reproduction
      • Growth
    • Survival Needs
      • Nutrients
        • Taken in via diet
        • Give energy and maintain cells
      • Oxygen
      • Water
        • Obtained through diet
        • Lose by evaporation from lungs, skin, and excretion
        • 60 – 80% of body weight
      • Normal body temperature
      • Atmospheric pressure
    • Homeostasis Describes the ability to maintain relatively stable internal condition even though the outside world changes continuously. Indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance.
    • Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
      • Communication in the body is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems.
      • Variable – factor or event being regulated
      • Receptor – sensor that monitors the environment and respond to changes
      • Control center – analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response
      • Effector – provides the response
    •  
    • Negative Feedback Mechanism
      • The output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
      • This mechanism causes the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to its “ideal” value.
      • All negative feedback systems have the same goal: to prevent sudden severe changes .
    •  
    • Positive Feedback Mechanism
      • The result of response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated.
      • “ Positive” because the change occurs in the same direction as the initial disturbance, causing the variable to deviate further and further from the original value.
      • Control infrequent events that don’t require continuous adjustments!!
    •  
    • The Language of Anatomy
    • Anatomical Position
      • Anatomical reference point
      • Body is erect with feet slightly apart
      • “ Standing at attention” pose
      • Palms face forward and thumbs point away from body
    • Directional Terms Allow us to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another.
    •  
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    • Regional Terms
      • Used to designate specific areas within the major body divisions.
      • Two divisions:
        • Axial part – head, neck, and trunk
        • Appendicular part – limbs
    •  
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    • Body Planes
      • Plane – flat surface
      • Most frequent body planes:
        • Sagittal Plane
          • Vertical plane that divides body into right and left
          • Midsagittal – exactly on midline
          • Parasagittal – offset from midline
        • Frontal Plane
          • Divides body into anterior and posterior
          • AKA “coronal” plane
        • Transverse Plane
          • Horizontal plane
          • Divides into superior and inferior parts
    • A section is a cut along a plane.
    •  
    • Body Cavities
    • Axial portion of the body: Dorsal Body Cavity Ventral Body Cavity
    •  
    • Dorsal Body Cavity
      • Protects nervous system
      • 2 Subdivisions:
        • Cranial cavity – encases brain
        • Vertebral cavity – encases spinal cord
    • Ventral Body Cavity
      • 2 Subdivisions:
        • Thoracic cavity
          • Surrounds ribs and muscles
          • Pleural cavity – houses lungs
          • Pericardial cavity – houses hearts, esophagus and trachea
        • Abdominopelvic cavity
          • Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm
          • Abdominal cavity – contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver
          • Pelvic cavity – contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
    • Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity
      • Serosa (serous membrane)
        • Thin, double-layered membrane
        • Parietal serosa – membrane lining cavity walls
        • Visceral serosa – covers organs
      • Serous fluid
        • Separates serous membranes
        • Allows sliding without friction
    •  
    • Other Body Cavities
      • Oral and digestive
      • Nasal
      • Orbital
      • Middle ear
      • Synovial
    • Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
      • Umbilical
      • Epigastric
      • Hypogastric (pubic)
      • Right & Left iliac (inguinal)
      • Right & Left lumbar
      • Right & Left hypochondriac
      • Quadrants are named according to subject’s pt. of view
    •  
    • Chemistry of the Human Body
    • Terms to know:
      • Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass
      • Kinetic energy – energy in action
      • Potential energy – stored energy
      • Chemical energy – energy stored in the bonds of a chemical substance
      • Atom – building blocks of matter
      • Element – unique substance that can’t be broken down
    • Terms (con’t):
      • Molecule – combination of two or more atoms that are held together by a bond
      • Compound – two or more kinds of atoms bind together
      • Mixture - substance composed of two or more components
      • Chemical reaction – occurs whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
    • Biochemistry The study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter.
    • Compounds…
      • Organic
      • Contain carbon
      • Covalently bonded (share electrons)
      • Typically large
      • Inorganic
      • Include water, salts, and compounds needed for life
      Both are EQUALLY important!!!
    • Major Organic Compounds found in the body:
      • Carbohydrates
        • Sugars and starches
        • Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
        • Monosaccharide – simple sugars made of single chains/rings
        • Disaccharide – double sugars made from two monosaccharides joined together
        • Polysaccharides – long chains of simple sugars linked together; sometimes called polymers
      • Lipids
        • Fats
        • Insoluble in water
        • Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
        • Triglycerides are an example of a lipid.
        • Steroids are also fats!
          • Cholesterol – an important steroid
          • Essential for life!
      • Proteins
        • Basic structural material of the body
        • Also, aid in cell function
        • Amino acids – building blocks of proteins
        • Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for chemical reactions (kick-start or speed up the reaction).
        • Proteins can be denatured (broken down), when they are exposed to high temperatures or high/low pH!! They won’t work!!
      • Nucleic Acids
        • Made of structural units called nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
        • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is contains the sugar deoxyribose and is a double stranded molecule.
        • RNA (ribonucleic acid) is contains the sugar ribose and is a single stranded molecule.