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Electron Arrangement

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  • 1. Electron Arrangement
  • 2. Rutherford Model
    While the Rutherford Model was an improvement over previous models, it still did not explain how the electrons were distributed around the nucleus.
    What prevented the electrons from being pulled into the nucleus?
  • 3. Bohr Model
    Niels Bohr proposed that electrons can circle the nucleus only in allowed paths, or orbits.
    Electrons in these orbits give the atoms a fixed energy.
    Electrons are in the lowest energy state closest to the nucleus.
    Orbits are separated by areas where electrons can’t exist.
    Electron energy is higher when the electron is in orbits farther from the nucleus.
  • 4. The Quantum Mechanical Model
    Energy is quantized. It comes in chunks.
    Quanta – the amount of energy needed to move from one energy level to another.
    Quantum leap in energy
    Schrödinger derives an equation that described the energy and position of the electrons in an atom.
  • 5. A mathematical solution
    It is not like anything you can see.
    It does have energy levels for electrons
    Orbits are not circular
    It can only tell us the probability of finding an electron a certain distance from the nucleus.
    The electron is found inside a blurry “electron cloud.”
  • 6. Atomic Orbitals
    Principal Quantum Number (n) = the energy level of the electron
    Within each energy level the complex math of Schrödinger’s equation describes several shapes.
    These are called atomic orbitals.
    Regions where there is a high probability of finding an electron.
  • 7. S Orbitals
    1 s orbital for every energy level
    Spherical shaped
    Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons
    Called the 1s, 2s, 3s, etc. orbitals
    S Orbital
  • 8. P Orbitals
    Start at the second energy level
    3 different directions
    3 different shapes (dumbell)
    Each can hold 2 electrons
    P Orbital
  • 9. D Orbitals
    Start with the third energy level
    5 different shapes
    Each can hold 2 electrons
    D Orbital
  • 10. F Orbitals
    Start at the 4th energy level
    Have seven different shapes
    2 electrons per shape
    F Orbital
  • 11. Summary
  • 12. By Energy Level
    1st Energy Level
    Only s orbital
    Only 2 electrons
    1s2
    2nd Energy Level
    s & p orbitals
    2 in s, 6 in p
    2s22p6
    8 total electrons
  • 13. Filling Order
    Lowest energy fills first
    The energy levels overlap
    The orbitals do not fill up order of energy level
    Counting system
    Each “___” is an orbital shape
    Room for 2 electrons
  • 14. 7s 7p
    __ __ __ __
    6s 6p 6d
    __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    3s 3p 3d
    __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    2s 2p
    __ __ __ __
    1s
    __
    Increasing Energy
  • 15. Electron Configurations
    The way electrons are arranged in atoms
    Aufbau principle – electrons enter the lowest energy level first
    This causes difficulties because of the overall of orbitals of different energies
    Paulie Exclusion Principle – at most 2 electrons per orbital – different spins
    Hund’s Rule – when electrons occupy orbital of equal energy, they don’t pair up until they have to
  • 16. Practice
    Phosphorus
    How many electrons??
    Account for 15
  • 17. 7f __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    7d __ __ __ __ __
    6f __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    7p __ __ __
    6d __ __ __ __ __
    5f __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    7s __
    6p __ __ __
    5d __ __ __ __ __
    4f __ __ __ __ __ __ __
    6s __
    5p __ __ __
    4d __ __ __ __ __
    5s __
    4p __ __ __
    3d __ __ __ __ __
    4s __
    3p __ __ __
    3s __
    2p __ __ __
    2s __
    1s __
    Filling Order
  • 18. Orbital Notation for Phosphorous
  • 19. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s2
    2 electrons
  • 20. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s2
    4 electrons
  • 21. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s2
    12 electrons
  • 22. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s2
    20 electrons
  • 23. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2
    38 electrons
  • 24. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s2
    56 electrons
  • 25. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f14
    5d106p67s2
    88 electrons
  • 26. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f14
    5d106p67s25f146d107p6
    118 electrons
  • 27. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f14
    5d106p67s25f146d107p66f147d10
    142 electrons
  • 28. A trick…
    7s 7p 7d 7f
    6s 6p 6d 6f
    5s 5p 5d 5f
    4s 4p 4d 4f
    3s 3p 3d
    2s 2p
    1s
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
    5s24d105p66s24f145d106p67s25f146d107p66f147d107f14
    156 electrons
    Aufbau Principle
  • 29. Rewrite when done..
    1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s2
    4f145d106p67s25f146d107p66f147d107f14
    Group the energy levels together
    1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p65d105f146s26p66d106f147s27p67d107f14
  • 30. Exceptions to Electron Configurations
  • 31. Orbitals fill in order…
    Lowest energy to higher energy
    Adding electrons can change the energy of the orbital
    Filled and half-filled orbitals have a lower energy
    Makes them more stable
    Changes the filling order of d orbitals
  • 32. Practice
    Vanadium
    1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2
    Titanium
    1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2
    Chromium
    (expected)1s22s22p63s23p63d44s2
    (correct) 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1
    Why? It more stable – gives us two half-filled orbitals!
  • 33. Exceptions
    Same principle applies to Copper!
    Remember these exceptions:
    d4s2 d5s1
    d9s2  d10s1
  • 34. Electrons on the Periodic Table
  • 35. Table 3(p. 116)
    Notice that as you move across the periodic table, the elements increase in the number of electrons.
    Notice the electron-configuration notation  Aufbau Principle
  • 36. Noble Gas Notation
    The elements all the way to the right of the periodic table make up Group 18.
    Their sublevels are completely filled, and they are said to have an octet of electrons.
    These elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon) are called Noble Gases.
    We can use their electron configurations to simplify the electron configurations we write for other elements!
  • 37. Example
    Neon
    Ne = 1s22s22p6
    Sodium
    Na = [Ne]3s1
    Tables 4 - 6 (pp. 117-120)
    Noble-Gas Configuration
    Refers to an outer main energy level occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons.

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