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Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
  • What are Themes?
    • General principles or ideas that occur over and over.
    • “ Themes” are not a test item, but they are a framework to organize the study of Biology.
  • Biology Themes
    • 1. Science as a process
    • 2. Evolution
    • 3. Energy Transfer
    • 4. Continuity and Change
  • Biology Themes
    • 5. Relationship of Structure & Function
    • 6. Regulation
  • Biology Themes
    • 7. Interdependence in Nature
    • 8. Science, Technology and Society
  • Themes in the Study of Life
    • 1. The living world is a hierarchy.
    • 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function.
    • 3. The continuity of life is based on DNA.
  • Themes in the Study of Life
    • 4. Structure and function are correlated.
    • 5. Organisms are “open” systems.
    • 6. Regulatory mechanisms maintain balance.
  • Question
    • How do we know what is alive and what is not?
    • What are the properties of Life?
  • 1. Order
    • Living things are highly organized in structure and function.
    • Analyzing a biological structure gives us clues about what it does and how it works
    • Structure and Function are related at all levels
  • 2. Reproduction
    • Organisms reproduce their own kind.
    • Life on Earth uses the nucleic acid and code for Heritable Information.
  • 3. Growth & Development
    • Organisms increase in size and complexity.
    • Growth - increase in size. Development - increase in complexity.
    • Life - grows by internal changes.
  • 4. Energy Utilization
    • Organisms take in energy and transform it to do work.
    • Organisms are “open” systems, they must continually take in energy.
  • 5. Response To Environment
    • Organisms respond to changes or stimuli in their environment.
    • The speed of the response may be “fast” or “slow”.
  • 6. Homeostasis
    • Organisms maintain their internal environment within tolerable limits.
    • “ homeo” = same “stasis” = state
  • 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
    • Organisms change over time as they adapt to their environment.
    • Organisms must adapt, move, or die!
  • 8. The Cell Is the “basic unit” of Life
  • 9. Organisms Die
  • Science is:
    • A process.
    • A way of “knowing”.
  • Beginnings
    • Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) ancient Greek philosopher
    • He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that through the centuries became the support and vehicle for both medieval Christian and Islamic scholastic thought .
    • Aristotle believed that all problems could be solved by thinking about them.
    • For example, Aristotle thought that heavy objects would fall faster than lighter ones.
    • What did Aristotle do wrong??
  • That will not happen until almost 2,000 years later!!! He NEVER tested his ideas!!
  • Galileo Galilei
    • 1564-1642 AD
    • Lived in Italy
    • Considered to be the first true scientist because he ACTUALLY DID experiment!!
  • Let's Try It!!!
  • The “Experiment”
    • Purpose:
    • Hypothesis:
    • Materials:
    • Procedure:
    • Results:
    • Conclusion:
  • This is the SCIENTIFIC METHOD!! Let’s look at it a little more closely…
  • Science is based on:
    • Observations
    • Experiments
    • Deductive Reasoning
  • Observations:
    • Are the “keystone” to Science.
    • If it can’t be “observed”, it can’t be studied by the Scientific Method.
    • Can be made through your senses or through the use of tools.
  • Scientific Method:
    • Outlines a series of steps for answering questions.
    • Obtains “evidence” through the use of experiments.
  •  
  • Scientific Method Steps
    • 1. Identify the problem.
    • 2. What is already known?
    • 3. Formulate a hypothesis.
    • 4. Conduct an experiment.
  • Scientific Method Steps
    • 5. Collect data.
    • 6.Compare data to hypothesis.
    • 7. Conclusions and new hypothesis.
  • Some elements of the procedure:
    • Variable – a factor in the experiment that is being tested
      • Independent variable – factor that is manipulated by the experimenter
      • Dependent variable – factor that is measure/observed
    • Control – elements of the procedure that are NOT being tested, but used for comparison
  • IMPORTANT!!
    • All surrounding factors are controlled variables. The attempt to complete each test under the same conditions so that no other factors have a chance to manipulate the outcome.
    • To make the experiment more valid, run the test SEVERAL times!!
  • Example of Controls & Variables
    • For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.
    • You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.
    • Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself .
  • What are the Variables in the Experiment?
    • Varying the route is the independent variable
    • The time it takes is the dependent variable
    • Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
  • So, let’s try some!
  • Homework!
    • Design and write an experiment to determine which brand of light bulb lasts longest (GV or Phillips).
    • Determine your IV, DV, and Control.