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Chapter 1






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    Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
    • What are Themes?
      • General principles or ideas that occur over and over.
      • “ Themes” are not a test item, but they are a framework to organize the study of Biology.
    • Biology Themes
      • 1. Science as a process
      • 2. Evolution
      • 3. Energy Transfer
      • 4. Continuity and Change
    • Biology Themes
      • 5. Relationship of Structure & Function
      • 6. Regulation
    • Biology Themes
      • 7. Interdependence in Nature
      • 8. Science, Technology and Society
    • Themes in the Study of Life
      • 1. The living world is a hierarchy.
      • 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function.
      • 3. The continuity of life is based on DNA.
    • Themes in the Study of Life
      • 4. Structure and function are correlated.
      • 5. Organisms are “open” systems.
      • 6. Regulatory mechanisms maintain balance.
    • Question
      • How do we know what is alive and what is not?
      • What are the properties of Life?
    • 1. Order
      • Living things are highly organized in structure and function.
      • Analyzing a biological structure gives us clues about what it does and how it works
      • Structure and Function are related at all levels
    • 2. Reproduction
      • Organisms reproduce their own kind.
      • Life on Earth uses the nucleic acid and code for Heritable Information.
    • 3. Growth & Development
      • Organisms increase in size and complexity.
      • Growth - increase in size. Development - increase in complexity.
      • Life - grows by internal changes.
    • 4. Energy Utilization
      • Organisms take in energy and transform it to do work.
      • Organisms are “open” systems, they must continually take in energy.
    • 5. Response To Environment
      • Organisms respond to changes or stimuli in their environment.
      • The speed of the response may be “fast” or “slow”.
    • 6. Homeostasis
      • Organisms maintain their internal environment within tolerable limits.
      • “ homeo” = same “stasis” = state
    • 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
      • Organisms change over time as they adapt to their environment.
      • Organisms must adapt, move, or die!
    • 8. The Cell Is the “basic unit” of Life
    • 9. Organisms Die
    • Science is:
      • A process.
      • A way of “knowing”.
    • Beginnings
      • Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) ancient Greek philosopher
      • He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that through the centuries became the support and vehicle for both medieval Christian and Islamic scholastic thought .
      • Aristotle believed that all problems could be solved by thinking about them.
      • For example, Aristotle thought that heavy objects would fall faster than lighter ones.
      • What did Aristotle do wrong??
    • That will not happen until almost 2,000 years later!!! He NEVER tested his ideas!!
    • Galileo Galilei
      • 1564-1642 AD
      • Lived in Italy
      • Considered to be the first true scientist because he ACTUALLY DID experiment!!
    • Let's Try It!!!
    • The “Experiment”
      • Purpose:
      • Hypothesis:
      • Materials:
      • Procedure:
      • Results:
      • Conclusion:
    • This is the SCIENTIFIC METHOD!! Let’s look at it a little more closely…
    • Science is based on:
      • Observations
      • Experiments
      • Deductive Reasoning
    • Observations:
      • Are the “keystone” to Science.
      • If it can’t be “observed”, it can’t be studied by the Scientific Method.
      • Can be made through your senses or through the use of tools.
    • Scientific Method:
      • Outlines a series of steps for answering questions.
      • Obtains “evidence” through the use of experiments.
    • Scientific Method Steps
      • 1. Identify the problem.
      • 2. What is already known?
      • 3. Formulate a hypothesis.
      • 4. Conduct an experiment.
    • Scientific Method Steps
      • 5. Collect data.
      • 6.Compare data to hypothesis.
      • 7. Conclusions and new hypothesis.
    • Some elements of the procedure:
      • Variable – a factor in the experiment that is being tested
        • Independent variable – factor that is manipulated by the experimenter
        • Dependent variable – factor that is measure/observed
      • Control – elements of the procedure that are NOT being tested, but used for comparison
      • All surrounding factors are controlled variables. The attempt to complete each test under the same conditions so that no other factors have a chance to manipulate the outcome.
      • To make the experiment more valid, run the test SEVERAL times!!
    • Example of Controls & Variables
      • For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.
      • You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.
      • Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself .
    • What are the Variables in the Experiment?
      • Varying the route is the independent variable
      • The time it takes is the dependent variable
      • Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
    • So, let’s try some!
    • Homework!
      • Design and write an experiment to determine which brand of light bulb lasts longest (GV or Phillips).
      • Determine your IV, DV, and Control.