New Study Of Gita Nov 14 Dr Shriniwas J. Kashalikar
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New Study Of Gita Nov 14 Dr Shriniwas J. Kashalikar Document Transcript

  • 1. 1 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 2. 2 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA STUDY OF GITA Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 3. 3 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Nov 14, 2009, 10:10 am Gita is the nucleus of conceptual and actual world unity and harmony. When I was more immature than what I am today, I could not appreciate the benevolence of Gita for the universe. Those days, I preferred to read Maxim Gorky’s “Mother” in preference to Gita for the blind children. The “Mother” and leftist literature in general; analyze the global problems in a rational way and take you a step forward in breaking the shackles of individualistic pettiness. Hence they are not counterproductive or retrogressive, but they should be transcended by studying Gita. Gita imparts the vision of universal unity and harmony. Gita frees or liberates everyone with various characteristics, attitudes, beliefs and endeavors! Far more important is the enlightenment in respect of death and immortality in one’s life that demystified n Gita. Gita gives this freeing knowledge everyone and guides, to actually realize it and merge with cosmic consciousness. But this holistic perspective makes Gita somewhat ambiguous (for most people) and vulnerable to attacks from fascists, fundamentalists, and extremists and overall those people; who are trapped in bigotry of one kind or another. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 4. 4 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But the spirit of Gita is bound to be triumphant in her role for ages to come; as she has been in the past! Lord Krishna reiterates; that every thing in universe including the GUNAS; such as SATVA, RAJA and TAMA result from the cosmic consciousness. This may be considered to be a kind transduction or transformation of the consciousness into energy that mobilizes the matter according to the characteristics of the matter (which also develop from consciousness). From the interplay of consciousness, time, space, energy and matter the world appears as it does; which in turn is due to our consciousness veiled by our physiological and subjective perceptions! Making it simplified; SATVA, RAJA and TAMA indicate different characteristics of every thing such as being nearer, in between and away from absolute consciousness! SATVA therefore is a quality that blossoms knowledge and activities conducive to freedom i.e. reach the cosmic consciousness, RAJA multiplies intensity of feelings and the activities born out of subjective concepts and pursuits; and TAMA enhances decomposition, degeneration and downfall in the abyss of darkness of ignorance. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 5. 5 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita is global, because you can see people with varying preponderance of; SATVA, RAJA and TAMA all over the world; contributing to; blossoming, day to day working and mutilation of the world respectively. Following account can make this point clearer. Thus: TAMA constitutes ignorance, indolence, slumber, irrationality, irresponsibility, fanaticism, viciousness and so on; RAJA constitutes restless study and collection of information, dynamism (usually out of petty pursuits), rational and analytical thinking without synthetic or holistic perspective, being vigilant and/or anxious, discipline, readiness to study the point of view of others and analyze according to one’s own conceptual framework and attitude conducive to liberal individualistic progress (which generally come to loggerheads in the course of time) and SATAV constitutes buoyant serenity of mind, agility and swiftness in over all behavior, focused attentiveness, rationality complemented with holistic approach, natural awareness of SWADHARMA; the culmination of universally benevolent “discipline”; generosity and loving attitude towards all variety of perspectives as originating from one; and perspective conducive to holistic progress that ensures progressive complementarity and sublime harmony. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 6. 6 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA However, GUNAS generally bind people in some kind of subjectivity and hence the natural blossoming invariably leads to freedom from the influence (not absence of) and/ or veils of every GUNA. This is highly idealistic state, but resides in every heart though one may be oblivious to it! Thus in one sense spirit of Gita resides in every heart; (though some may be unaware of it); and governs the dynamics of human behavior! As majority becomes aware of this invaluable treasure of enlightenment and empowerment in their hearts (through practices such as NAMSMARAN), the spiritual renaissance would manifest in every nook and corner of the world. The hallmark of such spiritual revolution would simply be; the awareness of this treasure in their hearts; rest all would follow! What is the significance of the symbolic description of ASHVATTHA tree? In 15th chapter, there is an analogy of ASHVATTHA tree to describe the universe and universal consciousness on the one hand; and the individual and individual consciousness on the other, thereby highlighting the unity between the two. One is tempted to assume this as identical with anatomy of the central nervous system, which is vital in individual DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 7. 7 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA life. But this symbolic description is simultaneously applicable to individual (anatomy and physiological observations) and the universe. (It appears that is also applicable to every particle and species of life in universe). From human anatomical and physiological point of view; human brain is the seat of consciousness. It is at the top, forming the root or seed of consciousness; the branches in the form nerve fibers spread up and down into plexuses and peripheral nerves and billions of receptors; (the nature of which corresponds according to Gita, to the causative deeds of the individual in the past, and the individual enjoys or suffers more or less exactly according to the inputs (determined by the past deeds) from these nerve fibers and their receptors! In fact the whole body results from the past deeds! Indeed the consciousness gets trapped in these sense organs and the person becomes bonded and suffers to a greater or lesser extent!! The human being becomes free after returning of his consciousness from the periphery to the center or the root! This is analogous to cosmic consciousness; that also gets in some way “trapped” in the universe; and returns towards his origin at the time when the universe gets dissolved back into its roots!! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 8. 8 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In other words Gita beautifully shows the commonality between the individual blossoming with universal blossoming. In other words this may be called reorienting and reestablishing oneself in one’s own position! This may also be called returning to one’s own self! This consciousness reachable by an individual is the same as universal consciousness that illumines the entire universe. One can always say that this is a poetic imagination, which it is; but in the sense that it transcends the subjective reasoning! Gita is beyond human (whether poetic or scientific) imagination. Anyone however, can verify the spirit of Gita for himself or herself (and inevitably with the world, because the light of Gita cannot remain restricted to one’s subjective or petty self!)! Is it not unnatural or unphysiological to consider the physiological qualities; as 6 (SHAD) enemies (RIPUS)? In 16th chapter there is description of qualities conducive to downfall of a person (getting increasingly distanced from and oblivious of one’s true self i.e. cosmic consciousness) and essentially correspond to the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 9. 9 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA preponderance of RAJA and TAMA described in the 14th chapter. The way to overcome these influences of negative forces called ASURI forces; is SWADHARMA and step by step victory over the KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA. The rejection of scriptures by an individual is usually out of impulsiveness arising from the slavery of KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA, (desire, agitation on not getting the desired and addiction) which are three enemies of an individual; because they trap one’s consciousness and drag away from the true self of an individual. Many times I used to feel that KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA are all natural, physiological and normal. Gita teachings are antinatural. But now I realize that my standards of “natural, physiological and normal” were mediocre and born out of intellectual lethargy and slowness. I now understand that physiological is not a static term. Hence what is physiological in immature state would be pathological in mature state. What is physiological in primitive state would be pathological in evolved state. But having considered the differences in many environmental conditions the scriptures written thousands of years ago, in one part of the world; may not DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 10. 10 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA be exactly applicable in another part of the world and in present situation. Hence the emphasis is given by Gita on focusing on devout love (SHRADDHA) for cosmic consciousness! This essence is reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions and in terms of remembering the cosmic consciousness through repetition of a name of God NAMASMARAN, or OMKAR according to that tradition or religion What role is played by food (AHAR), yoga techniques and penance (YAJNA, TAPA and DANA), committed conviction (SHRADDHA) etc.; described in 17th chapter (apart from 4th and 6th also)? In 17th chapter there is explanation about three types of, (salient aspects of behavior) for the benefit of an individual in search of truth! The sketchy description gives broad guidance about principles of behavior useful in individual and global blossoming and global policy making! In essence, the SHRADHA and consequent endeavors are differentiated according to the GUNAS. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 11. 11 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA SATVA type worship divinity, RAJA type worship affluence, magic and even devilish forces and TAMA type worship evil spirits and dead bodies. SATVA type eat the food conducive to inner blossoming and enlightenment (usually fresh, sweet and empowering fortitude), RAJA type eat food conducive to multiply the vigor and indiscriminate desires (usually spicy and hot, including some types of non-vegetarian food) followed by ill effects, and TAMA type like stale, fermented, rotten, stinking (e.g. some types of cheese and fish) leading to further ignorance, or dullness. SATVA perform YAJNA a procedure to invoke cosmic consciousness for satisfaction, RAJA type for petty pursuits and socio-political gains for prestige and acclaim and TAMA type do it (for even worse purposes) and without adhering to the procedure, and without any interest, concern and expenditure! The purity, decency, humility of body and conduct, with respect to deity, teachers and enlightened individuals is called SHAREER TAPA. The appropriate and benevolent dialogue and study of the nature is called VANGMAYA (related to intelligence and speech) TAPA. The observance of abstinence from speech (unnecessary talk, gossip or any kind of impulsive expressions), on the one hand and experience of noble feeling and the expression of this noble feeling and selfless love; is called MANAS TAPA. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 12. 12 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Out of these; TAPA without any petty expectations is called SATVIKA, with expectations of socio-political or some other gains is called RAJAS and with fanatic endeavors with malafied intentions of harming the others is called TAMAS TAPA. DANA i.e. donations (cash, or kind) are also categorized. Thus when given selflessly as a part of SWADHARMA it is SATVIK, given with discomfort due to excessive love for money, with intentions to extract excessive benefits is RAJAS and when given at wrong place, to wrong person (obviously with ill intentions) it is called TAMAS. At the end it is summarized (endorsed and reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions) that every activity should begin and end in thankful remembrance of the name of God (called NAMASMARAN or OMKAR) symbolizing cosmic consciousness (from Whom everything is born)! It is also clarified that; if intelligence, emotions, instincts and body are not integrated and not focused in totality (SHRADDHA) on cosmic consciousness, then the process of blossoming and enlightenment is jeopardized. It is essential to appreciate that Gita cares for and nurtures the universes! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 13. 13 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Therefore there is a consideration about why people behave in away they may not like! The physiological impulses when uncontrollable (KAMA) blur the consciousness and antinatural behavior results as explained in 3rd chapter! Hence we find chaos and indiscriminate violence towards self and others. These people involved in these antinatural and antihuman activities; may not heed and follow Gita as they are not in a position to listen and understand. But it is for the leaders to understand and follow. They should create an environment conducive to better control of the unabated physiological urges, which can be destructive to individuals and the societies. The guidance about food (AHAR) and various techniques (VIHAR) described in 4th,, 6th and also in 17th chapter may also not be accessible to all in the present situation. But this guidance is also meant for those who understand and lead the societies; world over. They have to design plans and policies to make such food available which would blossom individual and social consciousness. The guidance about confusion (SAMMOHA), doubt (SAMSHAYA) or lack of committed conviction (ASHRADDHA) in 3rd 4th, 7th, 9th, 16th, 17th and 18th chapters may appear harsh, as there is warning that if we get trapped and carried away by these qualities, then we would cause our own as well as others’ downfall. But this disease of confusion, doubt and committed DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 14. 14 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA conviction creates a chasm between our lower consciusness and us and gets reflected in individual and social life, all over the world, and hence must be diagnosed and warned about! But one must remember that Gita not only diagnoses but also provides the solution and a definite assurance that if we focus on our own highest consciousness i.e. our true self; then we all from all over the world would certainly be freed from all the miseries. In 18th chapter many points from previous chapters are repeated and emphasized again in a kind of useful summary. Thus terms such as SANYASA, TYAGA, JNANA, KARMA, KARTA, KARANAS, ADHISHTHAN, KARTA, KARAN, CHESHTA, DAIVA, JNANA, JNEYAM, PARIJNATA, KARANAM, KARMA, KARTA, BUDDHI, DHRITI, SUKHAM, BRAHMANA, KASHATRIYA, VAISHYA, and SHUDRA are explained. What I understand and deduce, from these is as follows. SANYASA is giving up all activities of personal desires. SANYASA is invariably associated with dedication to cosmic consciousness. SANYASA is associated with responsibility of the whole world, not just one’s family. SANYASI is not the same as an inert and indolent DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 15. 15 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA creature incapable of earning. He is not a popper or a beggar. So besides renunciation, union with cosmic consciousness (YOGA) is inseparable from SANYASA. TYAGA is giving up all results or fruits of actions. According to Gita, the activities prescribed in scriptures for common welfare should be performed without ulterior motives or expectations. This is especially true today, when petty selfishness is dividing the world, individualism is isolating the individuals and fanaticism in one form or the other is perpetuating viciousness and destruction. It may be clear that SANYASA, TYAGA and YOGA are not separate from; but actually the most essential aspects of mainstream life. NIYATA KARMA means all activities included in daily and seasonal or calendar routine for universal welfare. If an individual abandons them because of petty distractions or because of indolence, then it is called TAMAS TYAGA. Abandoning the activities out of fear of bodily discomfort (loss of money) is called RAJAS TYAGA and does not lead to individual and global blossoming. Thus forsaking the fruits and performing actions (SWADHARMA) is called SATVIKA TYAGA. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 16. 16 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Thus a person following SWADHARMA does not give value or importance to the nature of the work and hence is free of confusion and doubts. Every activity has some components viz. ADHISHTHANA the space or area or field of activity, KARTA the individual consciousness operating, KARAN the means, CHESHTA the actual dynamics and DAIVA, which means the unseen environmental forces influencing the outcome. JNANA, JNEYAM and PARIJNATA (knowledge, object of knowledge and knower respectively) are the control mechanisms bringing about actions e.g. neurophysiological controls and KARAN, KARMA KARTA (means or tools, action proper and doer) constitute the actual components of actions. JNANA is classified as TAMASIK (fanatic and blind), RAJASIK (rational and analytical but sectarian) and SATVIK (unifying and holistic). KARMA also is SATVIK (selfless SWADHARMA), RAJAS (actions performed vehemently with individualistic pursuits) and TAMAS (work begun without thought or conscience and sense of proportion; and usually to harm oneself or the others). KARTA (doer) is also SATVIK (selfless, humble, buoyant, enthusiastic and steadfast and courageous DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 17. 17 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA irrespective of success or failures because of strength of conviction), RAJAS (motivated by vested interests and hence harboring ulterior motives and violent and vacillating in excitement and depression) and TAMAS (ignorant, unskilled, dull, crooked, vicious, cynical, melancholic and lethargic). BUDDHI (wisdom) also is SATVIK (discerns desirable and undesirable and freedom and bondage), RAJAS (cannot discern and hence misinterprets desirable and undesirable) and TAMAS (blunderous and disastrous in every respect). DHRITI (fortitude) also is SATVIK (composed and integrated in every respect and focused completely on cosmic consciousness), RAJAS (involved in various activities for petty gains) and TAMAS (full of slumber, nightmares, and bouts of sadness and arrogance and shackling the individual in everyway). SUKHAM (happiness) also is SATVIK (initially unpleasant but subsequently benevolent), RAJAS (initially pleasant due to indulgence in objects of pleasure but latter precipitating misery due to loss of those objects or due to their ill effects) and TAMAS (one which creates slumber, perversion, bondage and destruction). BRAHMANA, KSHATRIYA, VAISHYA and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 18. 18 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA SHUDRA constitute different aptitudes and constitutions, suitable for intellectual and enlightening activities, leadership and brave military activity, trading, rearing cattle and farming; and patient and sustained provision of services; requiring different skills respectively. SWADHARMA i.e. act with complete dedication and selfless involvement for individual and global blossoming (through guidance from scriptures or from inner voice through NAMSMARAN) helps us return towards our root i.e. cosmic consciousness, even if our aptitude and skills may appear to be inferior to those of others!! Lord Krishna explains that following SWADHARMA is itself the ultimate reward in life and everything else is born out of ignorance and/or pettiness and hence counterproductive i.e. taking us away from our root! In the last few verses He asks Arjuna repeatedly to focus on the true self i.e. cosmic consciousness and not get distracted by any other subjective ideological, methodological or superstitious considerations (SARVA DHARMAN PARITYAJYA) and assures; in fact pledges that He would liberate Arjuna of all bondages (PAPA)! Arjuna understands and agrees to follow Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness in the struggle of life! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 19. 19 NEW STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Sanjay, the narrator, in the ecstasy of having heard this dialogue and remembered the stunningly glorious persona of Lord Krishna; declares his opinion that union of individual consciousness (Arjuna) and cosmic consciousness (Krishna) is itself the ultimate victory in every possible way. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR