• Introduction to research process
• prepare the research proposal
• Writing the research report
Beginning of scientific inquiry
• The curiosity of the human nature
leads them for investigations
• Logical thinking
• Scientific enquiry began with the
curiosity of human nature and logical
thinking towards the natural existence
of the universe and against the teaching
of religious Dogmas.
The first systematic approach to reasoning
e.g. Major premise – All men are mortal
Miner premise- I am a man
Conclusion- I am mortal
Specific premises 1 - Nimal, Wikki, John and Piyal attended class regularly
Specific premises 2 - Nimal, Wikki, John and Piyal received high score of marks
- Attending class regularly results in high score of marks
– Deductive-Inductive reasoning process involves the integration
of both above to find a solution to the problem.
• Collection, organization and analysis of data
• Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis
What is Research
• Research is all about addressing an issue or asking
and answering a question or solving a problem.
• We do problem solving in our day-to-day life
• Yet, to be a research it should follow scientific
method which is more formal, systematic and
• Research is a structured enquiry that
utilizes acceptable scientific methodology
to solve problems and create new
knowledge that is generally applicable.
Types of Research – mode of application
• Fundamental or Basic research
• Applied research
• Action Research
• Fundamental research is usually carried on in a
laboratory or other sterile environment, some times
• This type of research which has no immediate or
planned application may later result in further
research of applied nature.
• In behavioral science, Fundamental research may be
concerned with the development and testing of
theories of behavior.
• Applied research has most of the characteristics of
• The purpose is to improve the product or process testing theoretical concepts in actual problem
• Action research is focused on immediate application,
not on the development of a theory or on general
application. Its findings are to be evaluated in local
• Solution of problems in a particular setting
Types of research - objectives
Research can be
according to the nature of the research conducted.
Identification of the problem
Definition the problem
Formulation of hypothesis
Design the research
Collection, organization and analysis of data
Formulation of conclusions
Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis
by the test of its consequences in a specific situation.
Identification of the problem
Problems are all around us. Research problems can
be identified through:
– Literature reviews.
– Professional conferences.
– Contacting experts.
1. The problem
2. Selecting a topic
• Select a broad topic in your interested area
• Derive a researchable problem from the broad
topic by narrowing the scope
• Raise research questions
• Formulate objectives
• Determine its importance and feasibility
• Sleeping in class rooms
• Sleeping of undergraduate students during lectures
• Factors affecting on sleepiness of undergraduates
• Factors affecting on sleepiness of Science
undergraduates during IL lectures
• Narrow down your broad topic to form a
Problem :There are road accidents much more
than ever. There are various reasons for
increasing of road accidents. One may be the
use of alcohol by drivers during driving. It
should be researched to find out whether there
is an effect of alcohol use on accidents.
• Time - 5 minutes
3. Research Questions
Why do Science undergraduates sleep
during IL lectures?
• Formulate a research question on your topic
Time - 2 minutes
Effect of alcohol use by drivers on
Formulation of hypothesis
• Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent
guesses as to the solution of the
• A tentative explanation of the
relationship between two or more
The hypothesis should be reasonable
Be Consistent with known fact or theories
Possible to be tested. True or false
Should be stated in the simple possible terms
• Simple, specific and conceptully clear
• Hypotheses have two or more variables
• Independent variable - cause
• Dependent variable - Outcome/effect
• Extraneous variable – other factors affecting
Variables to form the Hypothesis
Sleepiness during lectures – (dependent variable)
Boring teaching method- (independent variables)
Time of the lecturing
• Science undergraduate students sleep during
IL lectures because of conventional method of
• Hypothesis 2
• Sleepiness during lectures can be avoided with a
self management of behaviour.
• Construct hypotheses on your research problem
Research design/Experimental design
• Research design is the conceptual structure in
which the investigation can be conducted.
• Research design explains how, where, when and
with whom the research is conducted.
• Non experimental
• Quasi or semi experimental
– Details of the population from which the researcher plan
to select the sample
– Research plan, What will be done. How it will be done.
What data will be needed. Data gathering devices
• Data analysis:
– Details of how to analyze data
• Test theories
• Known variables
• Large sample
• Build theories
• Unknown variables
• Small sample
• Observations, interviews
Collection of data
• Population – Undergraduates of science faculties
• Subjects – selected Science undergraduates form IL
• Sampling – Randomly select
A sample is a small portion of a population selected for
observation and analyses.
Tools of data collection
Change the variable and measure
Record the number of sleeping and frequency
Organization and analysis of data
• grouping and tabulating
• analyzing process
• qualitative methods
• quantitative methods.
Identify the main themes
Assign codes to main themes
Integrate themes and responses
• Quantitative method is mostly used to analyze data
in large well designed surveys
• Interpretation involves the explaining of findings
to arrive at a conclusion.
• Here, the researcher explains whether the
hypothesis is proved or not.
• Researcher can verify the hypothesis, reject it or
modify it and do the research again if necessary.
Attributes of Research
• Research is directed towards a solution of a
• Research emphasizes the development of
• Research is based upon observable experiences or
• Research demands accurate observation and
• Research involves gathering new data from primary
or firsthand sources or using existing data for a new
• It is often characterized by carefully designed
• Research requires expertise
• Research strives to be objective and logical
• Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved
• Research is characterized by patient and unhurried
Research is carefully recorded and reported
Research sometimes requires courage
Originates with a question or problem.
Requires clear articulation of a goal.
Follows a specific plan or procedure.
Often divides main problem into sub problems.
Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis.
Accepts certain critical assumptions.
Requires collection and interpretation of data.
Cyclical (helical) in nature.
• Preparation of a research proposal is an important
step in the research process.
• It Is a basis for evaluation of the project
• Systematic plan or procedure to follow
• Structure of the proposal depends on the nature of
• Seven parts proposal is typical not compulsory
Writing a research proposal
• Statement of the problem
• Significance of the problem
• Definitions, Assumptions, Limitations, and
• Review of related literature
• Hypotheses/objectives/research questions
• Time schedule
• The statement of the problem may be derivative
statement but may be in a question form
• Gives direction to the research
• Problems can be derived from a theory
• Can be a prior research results
• Personal observations
Eg.Effect of ‘Kuppi Classes’ for the improvement of
performance level of engineering undergraduates .
Significance of the problem
• Researcher points out how the solution to the
problem can influence the society.
• Justify the worthiness of the study
• Background information may be useful here
• The findings of the study will be beneficial to
undergraduates, librarians, and administration of
If the Kuppi is effective, librarians can facilitate the
students with study places and essential resources.
If it is not effective academics and librarians can
launch programmes to convince and encourage
students to follow effective methods of learning.
Limitations, and Delimitations
• Define the terms that could be misinterpreted
• Assumption are statements what the believes to be
fact but cannot verify.
• Limitations are those conditions beyond control of
• Delimitations are the boundaries of the study.
Kuppi is a type of studying techniques used by
college students. Similar term used for cramming
• Performance level
the term Performance level here refers to the score
of marks in semester examinations.
• Some group discussions among students were
similar to Kuppi. Sometimes it is difficult to
distinguish kuppi from group studies.
• Group discussions among students were not
considered as Kuppi in this study because group
discussion is one of accepted effective study
• This study involves the Kuppi activities of
engineering students of UR only.
• Only first year and final students were selected.
Review of related literature
• Summary of previous research
• What is already known and what is still unknown and
• Provides a background for the study
• Make the reader aware of status of the issue
Literature review is a valuable guide to defining the
problem, recognizing its significance, suggesting
data gathering devices, appropriate study
design, and formulating hypothesis.
Kuppi classes among undergraduate students can make a
significant effect on MCQ papers than essay type papers.
Systematic learning is more significant in earning higher GPA than
Kuppi learning among engineering undergraduates.
• The main purpose of this study is to investigate
whether ‘Kuppi’ classes can make a significant
effect on the achievement of higher score in
• Supportive objectives:
• Explore who engage in Kuppi classes
• Explore the contents of Kuppi classes
• Calculate the score of marks in exams who engage
in Kuppi classes
• Compare and contrast the score of Kuppi- engaged
students and non Kuppi- engaged students.
• Sample will be selected from first year and final
year students from the faculty of engineering of
• Sample is divided into 2 categories : First year and final
• Each category will be divided into two groups: control and
All four groups will be given two question papers
MCQ and essay type relevant to their level of
Control groups will be exposed to systematic and
activity based learning process
Experimental groups will be exposed to Kuppi
All four groups will be tested with a MCQ paper and
essay type paper relevant to their level of subjects.
Specially funding agencies require a well planed
research proposal before granting the fund.
There are several parts in a typical research
proposal although not compulsory.
The proposal should be well planed so that the
funding agency can be convinced the importance
of the project
Submitting a research proposal for
The title page
Table of contents
Limitations of the study
Preparation of the Research
• After you conducting the research you have to
communicate your finding with the relevant
• Writing the research report is the last and (for many
people) the most difficult step in the research process.
The purpose of the research report is to inform the
world about what you have done, how you have done
it, and what you have discovered.
• Following factors are important to
consider when you write the research
– Value of the content
– Organization of the content
– Structure of presenting ideas
– Language and style
your research report is based on
• What was the research problem?
• Why is this problem important?
• How does your project relate to the context of
• How did you investigate the research problem?
• What are your findings?
• What do these findings tell you?
• What do you conclude?
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Body of the report
– Reference list/bibliography /Endnotes
• The title of your report should be concise and
• It should not be vague and general but should
encapsulate the essence of the research.
• The title is generally given on a separate page
together with your name, course and instructor
• To thank anyone whose support has been
important for your work.
• The supervisor generally receives the first
vote of thanks.
• Don’t forget your participants (Though
• This section is the least bound by convention.
• You may speak from the heart.
• The abstract is a precise summary of the whole report.
– Non technical summary
– A brief overview of the whole report
– What did you do and why (problem and why it is
– How you did (Methodology)
– What you found out (Major results)
– What was the significations
Table of Contents
• Lists all major divisions and subdivisions marked
by numbers and indicates which page they are
• The titles and subtitles of sections should appear
in a style and size consistent with their position
in the hierarchy (see style manuals for help in
selecting your system). Numbering hierarchy:
Lists of Tables / Figures / Illustrations
• Lists all of the above if available and the page
No.s on which they appear.
• A separate section is used for each of these
• It is often handy to number such items using the
chapter number first: eg, Fig 1.1, Fig. 2.1,
Fig.2.2, Table 1.2 etc.
Provide contextual information to the problem
Introduce the objectives
Identify specific research questions
Discuss the topic and illustrate the theoretical
• Outline your general arguments
• You can indicate the structure of the rest of
A discussion of findings of other researchers
Critical appraisal of other theories
You can compare and asses other’s results
Provide external context for your research
Justify your project
Should be structured thematically
May have a number of sub-sections
Highlight similarities and differences
• Details of methods and procedures
• Discuss the reasons for choosing the particular methods
• Explore the scope and limitations of the method
• Study area
• How the population was selected
• Explain how data was collected/generated
• Explain how data was analyzed
• Explain methodological problems if any
• you may indicate the data and findings which were
analyzed and ordered according to your methodology.
• Tables and figures can be used to further describe the
• it provides the reader with a factual account of your
– interpret and explain your results;
– examine whether and how the questions raised in
the introduction section have been answered
– Show how your results relate to the literature
– Qualify and explore the theoretical
importance/significance of your results
– Outline any new research questions or areas for
future research that your results have suggested.
– develop a logical argument about what your results
– compare with results of previous research
– discuss the shortcomings of the
• Restatement of the research problem/question
• Return to the objectives and describe whether
they have achieved
• Indicate what has been learnt from the study
• How findings can be applied
• Future possibilities
Reference list/bibliography /Endnotes
•The reference list should be arranged in
alphabetical order and should use a referencing
system which ensures the consistency of
• Should not include works you found of no use