Sustainability Aspects of
Urban Public Transportation


           Dr. J.N.Jha
  Department of Civil Engineering
Guru Nana...
Index
   Introduction
   Sustainability
   Changing Urban Pattern
   Worldwide Motorization & Urbanization Trends
   ...
Cont…….
 Can Transit Ensure Sustainability
 Role of Technology Innovation
 Conclusion
 References
Introduction
 Sea Change in Surface Transportation:
  Horse drawn street railway to Underground heavy rail
  line
 What ...
Cont….
 Predominance of Automobile is the result of this
  motivation
 Advantages
  i) Unprecedented mobility level
  ii...
Cont…..

 National Academy of Engineering (NAE 2000)
  Automobile Ranked as 2nd greatest engineering
  achievement after ...
Cont….
 Rapid motorisation raises serious concern about the
  sustainability of transportation system (Developing
  world...
Sustainability
 U.N. World Commission on Environment and
  Development (UNWCED 1987):

  A sustainable condition for this...
Cont….
 Themes sustainable development (2004)


  Sustainable development is the achievement of
  continued economic deve...
Cont….
 MOST (1999)


  The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure
  that environment, social and economic consi...
Cont….
 Transportation and Research Board (1997)


  Sustainability is not about threat analysis,
  sustainability is abo...
Range of issues covered
(Sustainability)
 Main issue of sustainable transportation (World Bank,
  1996)
 Economic and Fi...
Changing Urban Pattern
 Changing urban pattern provides important lesson
  e.g. India
 Cities in India grew around urban...
Cont….
 Result of leapfrogging phenomenon
  Urban sprawls uncoordinated ribbon developments
  along major highway corrido...
Cont….
 Large infrastructure cost
 High commuting time and cost
 Congestion
 High dependency on automobiles
 Air poll...
World wide Motorization and
urbanization Trends
 Motorization and urbanization-A world wide
  phenomenon

 Urban populat...
Developing Countries
 Vehicle growth
  Increasing at a higher rate than the gross
  national product (GNP)
  Increasing a...
Cont…
 Lagos (Nigeria) and Dhaka (Bangladesh)
  Urban population expected to increase by
  50% by 2010
  Ranked 3rd and 6...
Cont….
 Motorization goes hand in hand with
  urbanization

 Rapid motorization and urbanization many
  environmental ri...
Cont….
 Risk and problems much greater in
  developing countries

 Overwhelming scale and speed of
  urbanization compar...
Automobile Dependency and
Urban Transit
 Automobile dependency increasing at a rapid
  pace in developing countries

 In...
Cont….
 Urban dwellers were dissatisfied with the
  public transport system

 Reason- Unresponsive and obsolete


 In 1...
Cont….
 Public transport relegated to secondary
  means conveyance left for people who do not
  have the access to automo...
Cont….
 To improve travel speed public opted for
  motorized vehicles if they can afford
 In Seoul automobile ownership ...
Cont….
 Rising personal income

 A general willingness of the public to have travel
  choices

 Decrease in transit lev...
Cont….


 Some deliberate measures to curb the growth
  of automobiles through pricing and other
  measures (Taken by som...
Cont….
 Ownership and use of automobile in
  Singapore continue to grow despite
  centralized planning and strong governm...
Sustainable Transportation Indicators
 Evaluation of Sustainability : By a set of
  measurable indicators

 Selection of...
Cont….
 Goals: What society ultimately wants


 Objective : Things that help in achieving goals
  but are not end in the...
Cont….
 Conventional Transport Indicators


 Simple Sustainability Indicators


 Comprehensive Sustainability Transport...
Conventional Transport Indicators
 Roadway level of service: A higher rating is
  considered better
 Average traffic spe...
Simple sustainability Indicators
 Transportation fossil fuel consumption and
  CO2 emission: Less is better
 Vehicle pol...
Cont….
 Traffic crash injury and deaths: Less is better
 Transport land consumption: Less is better
 Roadway aesthetic ...
Comprehensive Sustainability
Transportation Indicators

 Economic


 Social


 Environment
Economic
 Accessibility-commuting:-Av. Commute travel
  time :Less is better
 Accessibility-land use mix : within 30 min...
Cont….

 Affordability: Portion of household expenditures
  devoted to transport by 20% lowest-income
  households :Less ...
Cont….
 Planning: Degree to which transport
  institutions reflect least cost planning
  (More is better)
Social
   Safety
   Health and fitness
   Community livability
   Equity-fairness
   Equity-non-drivers
   Equity-di...
Environment
 Climate change emissions
 Other air pollution
 Noise pollution
 Water pollution
 Land use impacts
 Habi...
Implications of Sustainable
Transportation

   Transportation decision making
    Automobile dependency
    Transportat...
Transportation Decision Making

 Decisions that more accurately reflect community
  values by giving people more opportun...
Automobile Dependency


 Dedicated funding for highway facilities that
  encourages roadway construction
 Generous parki...
Cont….
 Unpriced roads and parking


 Inexpensive automobile use since most
  vehicles costs are fixed

 A lack of trav...
Transportation Equity


• Horizontal equity implies that externalities of
  transportation should be reduced except
  wher...
Cont….
 Horizontal equity also implies that user’s
  should get what they pay for and pay for what
  they get.
 That cou...
Cont….
• Vertical equity implies that access options
  should improve for people who are
  economically,     socially   an...
Community Livability
 Local environmental quality

 Quality of community interactions

 Community cohesion

 Ability o...
Land Use

 low density development,
 Hierarchical street pattern,
 Generous road and parking supply
 Automobile orient...
Cont….


 Higher density land use patterns that
  accommodate alternative modes

 Cities with higher density neighborhoo...
Can Transit Ensure Sustainability?

 Increased transit use is associated with
  overall sustainability.

 Key to increas...
Cont….

 Increased density is associated with:
 Less ownership and use of automobiles
 Less road and parking facilities...
Cont….

 Issue is then how can we arrest the
  progression of low urban sprawl?
 General response to congestion is to in...
Transit oriented developments (TOD),
 Key to reversing the current trend of bondless
  sprawl and dying cities

 urban g...
Cont….
    Transit’s viability depends on urban density

    Essential to pursue a combination of efforts to
     achiev...
Role of Technology Innovation
 Emerging information and communication
  technologies can play an important role in
  impr...
Cont….

 Particularly relevant for the cities in most
  developing countries where cost becomes the
  determining factor ...
Thank you
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Sustainability in Transport Sector

  1. 1. Sustainability Aspects of Urban Public Transportation Dr. J.N.Jha Department of Civil Engineering Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College Ludhiana
  2. 2. Index  Introduction  Sustainability  Changing Urban Pattern  Worldwide Motorization & Urbanization Trends  Automobile Dependency and Urban Transit  Sustainable Transportation Indicators  Implication of Sustainable Transportation  Criticism of Sustainability and Sustainable Transportation
  3. 3. Cont…….  Can Transit Ensure Sustainability  Role of Technology Innovation  Conclusion  References
  4. 4. Introduction  Sea Change in Surface Transportation: Horse drawn street railway to Underground heavy rail line  What is the motivation of this Sea Change?  Answer: Desire of user to find faster and more reliable form of transportation (Which was available at that time)
  5. 5. Cont….  Predominance of Automobile is the result of this motivation  Advantages i) Unprecedented mobility level ii) Personal Freedom  Disadvantage i) Paid little attention to Social and Environmental sustainability
  6. 6. Cont…..  National Academy of Engineering (NAE 2000) Automobile Ranked as 2nd greatest engineering achievement after electricity  How ranking is decided? Impact on quality of life
  7. 7. Cont….  Rapid motorisation raises serious concern about the sustainability of transportation system (Developing world).  Developing world : Poorly maintained vehicle Slow moving traffic Expanding urban boundaries making work trips excessively long and expensive (Poor)
  8. 8. Sustainability  U.N. World Commission on Environment and Development (UNWCED 1987): A sustainable condition for this planet is one in which there is stability for both social and physical systems, achieved through meeting the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generation
  9. 9. Cont….  Themes sustainable development (2004) Sustainable development is the achievement of continued economic development without detriment to environmental and natural resources
  10. 10. Cont….  MOST (1999) The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that environment, social and economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation activity
  11. 11. Cont….  Transportation and Research Board (1997) Sustainability is not about threat analysis, sustainability is about system analysis, specially it is about how environmental, economic and social systems interact to their mutual advantage or disadvantage at various spaced-based scales of operation
  12. 12. Range of issues covered (Sustainability)  Main issue of sustainable transportation (World Bank, 1996)  Economic and Financial (cost effectiveness of the system)  Environmental (pollution, land use, energy consumption, wild life)  Social (safe and adequate service to all segment of society)
  13. 13. Changing Urban Pattern  Changing urban pattern provides important lesson e.g. India  Cities in India grew around urban core(1980) in successive layers of high density concentric rings  Leapfrogging pattern (1990) due to all weather roads and single family dwelling unit [Leap frog: Game in which players vault (arched roof) with parted legs over others bending down]
  14. 14. Cont….  Result of leapfrogging phenomenon Urban sprawls uncoordinated ribbon developments along major highway corridors deep into rural agricultural areas.  Automobile oriented metropolitan expansion: Attractive way of life who wanted space and less crowded environment
  15. 15. Cont….  Large infrastructure cost  High commuting time and cost  Congestion  High dependency on automobiles  Air pollution and other environmental problems  If not addressed properly can threaten the economic productivity, environmental sustainability and social well being of nation.
  16. 16. World wide Motorization and urbanization Trends  Motorization and urbanization-A world wide phenomenon  Urban population –Increasing much faster rate than total population  Growth in automobile-Soaring compared to automobile fleet growth
  17. 17. Developing Countries  Vehicle growth Increasing at a higher rate than the gross national product (GNP) Increasing at a much higher pace than the annual growth in GNP per capita  Explosion of urban population growth Creating an increasing number of mega cities (>10 million inhabitants)
  18. 18. Cont…  Lagos (Nigeria) and Dhaka (Bangladesh) Urban population expected to increase by 50% by 2010 Ranked 3rd and 6 th most populated cities in world Now half of the population is urban By 2030 60% world population will be living in cities (UNCHS 2001)
  19. 19. Cont….  Motorization goes hand in hand with urbanization  Rapid motorization and urbanization many environmental risks  Can seriously jeopardize the sustainability of cities
  20. 20. Cont….  Risk and problems much greater in developing countries  Overwhelming scale and speed of urbanization compared to available resources
  21. 21. Automobile Dependency and Urban Transit  Automobile dependency increasing at a rapid pace in developing countries  In 1980 in India automobile transformed from a recreational vehicle into most popular mode of transportation  Middle class welcomed enthusiastically Maruti 800 and other affordable models
  22. 22. Cont….  Urban dwellers were dissatisfied with the public transport system  Reason- Unresponsive and obsolete  In 1990’s automobile became the mode of transportation
  23. 23. Cont….  Public transport relegated to secondary means conveyance left for people who do not have the access to automobiles  Lack of rapid transit option in many cities  Transit fleet consists of buses often stuck in traffic
  24. 24. Cont….  To improve travel speed public opted for motorized vehicles if they can afford  In Seoul automobile ownership increased 33 fold in 30 years  In 21st centuries cities in India is seeing: Rapid urban population growth
  25. 25. Cont….  Rising personal income  A general willingness of the public to have travel choices  Decrease in transit level of service  Urban Sprawl (Spread out in straggling fashion)
  26. 26. Cont….  Some deliberate measures to curb the growth of automobiles through pricing and other measures (Taken by some countries)  Singapore best example for this effort
  27. 27. Cont….  Ownership and use of automobile in Singapore continue to grow despite centralized planning and strong government control  Attraction of private vehicles over public transportation is overwhelming  Level of urban transit service needs dramatic improvement to attract travelers
  28. 28. Sustainable Transportation Indicators  Evaluation of Sustainability : By a set of measurable indicators  Selection of indicators influences result analysis  Important to avoid confusing goals and objectives
  29. 29. Cont….  Goals: What society ultimately wants  Objective : Things that help in achieving goals but are not end in themselves  Decision makers: Focuses on easy to measure impacts and objectives while overlooking more difficult to measure impacts and goals
  30. 30. Cont….  Conventional Transport Indicators  Simple Sustainability Indicators  Comprehensive Sustainability Transportation Indicators
  31. 31. Conventional Transport Indicators  Roadway level of service: A higher rating is considered better  Average traffic speed: Assumes higher is better  Parking convenience and price: Increased convenience and lower price is better  Crash rates per vehicle mile: lower the better
  32. 32. Simple sustainability Indicators  Transportation fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission: Less is better  Vehicle pollution emission: Less is better  Per capita motor vehicle mileage: Less is better  Mode split: Higher transit rider ship is better
  33. 33. Cont….  Traffic crash injury and deaths: Less is better  Transport land consumption: Less is better  Roadway aesthetic condition (People are more inclined to care for environments that they consider beautiful and meaningful)
  34. 34. Comprehensive Sustainability Transportation Indicators  Economic  Social  Environment
  35. 35. Economic  Accessibility-commuting:-Av. Commute travel time :Less is better  Accessibility-land use mix : within 30 minute travel distance of residents: More is better  Accessibility-smart growth: More is better  Transport diversity: Mode split: portion of travel made by walking, cycling, rideshare, public transit and telework: More better
  36. 36. Cont….  Affordability: Portion of household expenditures devoted to transport by 20% lowest-income households :Less is better  Facility costs: Per capita expenditures on roads, traffic services and parking facilities (Less better)  Freight efficiency: Speed and affordability of freight and commercial transport (More better)
  37. 37. Cont….  Planning: Degree to which transport institutions reflect least cost planning (More is better)
  38. 38. Social  Safety  Health and fitness  Community livability  Equity-fairness  Equity-non-drivers  Equity-disabilities  Non-motorized transport planning  Citizen involvement
  39. 39. Environment  Climate change emissions  Other air pollution  Noise pollution  Water pollution  Land use impacts  Habitat protection  Resource efficiency
  40. 40. Implications of Sustainable Transportation  Transportation decision making  Automobile dependency  Transportation equity  Community livability  Land use
  41. 41. Transportation Decision Making  Decisions that more accurately reflect community values by giving people more opportunities to affect decisions  Decisions that contribute to more equitable transportation decisions by giving disadvantaged groups more involvement in decisions that affect them.  Decisions to create more public support for policies that require behaviour changes or sacrifice in a community
  42. 42. Automobile Dependency  Dedicated funding for highway facilities that encourages roadway construction  Generous parking and road capacity standards  Zoning laws and development practices that favour automobile-oriented land use patterns
  43. 43. Cont….  Unpriced roads and parking  Inexpensive automobile use since most vehicles costs are fixed  A lack of travel alternatives, including poor transit service and road conditions that are unfavourable for walking and cycling
  44. 44. Transportation Equity • Horizontal equity implies that externalities of transportation should be reduced except where they are specifically justified. • This includes reducing pollution emissions and accident risk from motor vehicle use, or compensating those who bear such external costs.
  45. 45. Cont….  Horizontal equity also implies that user’s should get what they pay for and pay for what they get.  That could involve more road and parking fees, more accurate insurance pricing and other pricing reforms
  46. 46. Cont…. • Vertical equity implies that access options should improve for people who are economically, socially and physically disadvantaged. • This can include improved transit, ridesharing, cycling and walking conditions and discounted prices for disadvantaged people.
  47. 47. Community Livability  Local environmental quality  Quality of community interactions  Community cohesion  Ability of community to satisfy the basic needs of residents
  48. 48. Land Use  low density development,  Hierarchical street pattern,  Generous road and parking supply  Automobile oriented site design tends to increase automobile dependency leading to high levels of per capita motor vehicle mileage  Reduction in the quality of travel alternatives (transit, walking and cycling).
  49. 49. Cont….  Higher density land use patterns that accommodate alternative modes  Cities with higher density neighborhoods developed around passenger rail transit systems are most sustainable model for urban areas.
  50. 50. Can Transit Ensure Sustainability?  Increased transit use is associated with overall sustainability.  Key to increased transit use and transportation sustainability is urban population density (Activity density - population and jobs).
  51. 51. Cont….  Increased density is associated with:  Less ownership and use of automobiles  Less road and parking facilities  High transit use.  To induce higher walking and other nonmotorized trips (Contributing to sustainability)
  52. 52. Cont….  Issue is then how can we arrest the progression of low urban sprawl?  General response to congestion is to invest in highways.  investment policies should be redirected from highways to mass transit.
  53. 53. Transit oriented developments (TOD),  Key to reversing the current trend of bondless sprawl and dying cities  urban growth would be accommodated : Development of compact, pedestrian-scale communities centered on transit stations Linked with one another by a regional transit system  Transit systems could become the critical elements in metropolitan planning and design.  Traffic and the demand for travel can be controlled by deliberate guiding land use.
  54. 54. Cont….  Transit’s viability depends on urban density  Essential to pursue a combination of efforts to achieve sustainable transportation system.  Mere improving the level of services only will not make much difference unless these initiatives are supported by other factors: 6. Policies which encourages mixed land uses and higher population densities 7. That internalizes the societal costs of private modes of transportation and urban sprawl
  55. 55. Role of Technology Innovation  Emerging information and communication technologies can play an important role in improving transit levels of service  Debatable whether the expected benefit in terms of increased ridership would be justified for the cost of implementing these technologies
  56. 56. Cont….  Particularly relevant for the cities in most developing countries where cost becomes the determining factor in implementation of these technologies.  Innovative and cost effective approach shall be encouraged to make transit more attractive.  Rapid bus transit (busways) of Curitiba (Brazil) is one such example.
  57. 57. Thank you
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