31 liquid-liquid extraction

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31 liquid-liquid extraction

  1. 1. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTIONMODELS/APPLICATIONS
  2. 2. EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONSHIPS• PHASE RULE FOR LLE C P 2 FOR 3 COMPONENTS / 2 PHASES 3 2 2 3• VARIABLES INCLUDED – PRESSURE – TEMPERATURE – 4 COMPOSITIONS (2 IN EACH PHASE)
  3. 3. LLE DIAGRAMS - FORMS• LLE CAN BE PRESENTED IN VARIOUS FORMATS – TRIANGULAR, CARTESIAN, McCABE-THIELECehreli, S.; Bilgin, M,.Quaternary Liquid-LiquidEquilibrium of Water + AceticAcid + Propionic Acid + Solvent(Amyl Alcohol, CyclohexylAcetate, or Toluene) Systems,J. Chem. Eng. Data; (Article);2004; 49(5); 1456-1459.
  4. 4. OTHER LLE PLOTSKim, J.-K.; Park, D.-W., Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for theQuaternary System Toluene + Water + Propionic Acid + EthylAcetate at 25 C and Atmospheric Pressure ,J. Chem. Eng. Data; (Article); 2005; 50(2); 625-629
  5. 5. LLE PLOTSKim, J.-K.; Park, D.-W., Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the Quaternary System Toluene + Water + Propionic Acid + Ethyl Acetate at 25 C and Atmospheric Pressure , J. Chem. Eng. Data; (Article); 2005; 50(2); 625-629
  6. 6. LLE PLOTS• CARTESIAN SOLVENT-FREE PLOT PERRY’S Ed. 7, PAGE 15-7
  7. 7. SINGLE STAGE LLX MODELS• MASS BALANCES INCLUDE OVERALL AND COMPONENT• NEED EQUILIBRIUM DATA TO CALCULATE EQUILIBRIUM CHANGES• STAGE EFFICIENCY LESS THAN 100% RESULTS IN A CHANGE IN RELATIVE LOCATION OF xa VS xa* EMPLOYS LEVER RULE
  8. 8. SINGLE STAGE LLX MODELS• TYPICAL MODEL FOR PROCESS:Pandit, P.; Basu, S., Dyeand Solvent Recovery inSolvent Extraction UsingReverse Micelles for theRemoval of Ionic Dyes, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.;(Article); 2004; 43(24);7861-7864.
  9. 9. MULTIPLE STAGE LLX MODELS• MODEL USES OVERALL AND COMPONENT MASS BALANCES• EQUILIBRIUM DATA USED INITIALLY TO DETERMINE MINIMUM SOLVENT (L/V) RATIO (PONCHON-SAVARITT) – LOCATES ya,min ON EXTENDED EQUILIBRIUM TIE LINE PASSING THROUGH xa – USE LEVER RULE TO DETERMINE Vb,min• LOCALIZED EQUILIBRIUM VALUES CAN RESULT IN ACTUAL Vb,min VALUES BEING HIGHER AND THIS WILL BE NOTICED IN ACTUAL DESIGN IF Ncalc = ∞
  10. 10. MULTIPLE STAGE LLX MODELS• SEQUENTIAL FEED – NORMALLY COUNTERCURRENTNishihama, S.; Hirai, T.;Komasawa, I., Separation andRecovery of Gallium andIndium from Simulated ZincRefinery Residue by Liquid-Liquid Extraction ,Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.;(Article); 1999; 38(3); 1032-1039.
  11. 11. MULTIPLE STAGE LLX MODELS• DESIGN IS BASED ON RATIO OF Vb,act TO Vb,min• USED TO LOCATE ya,act• DESIGN POINT BASED IN INTERSECTION OF xa-ya LINE WITH xb-yb LINE.• STAGES ARE STEPPED OFF BY ALTERNATING BETWEEN INTERSECTIONS ON EQUILIBRIUM ENVELOPE DEFINED BY EQUILIBRIUM TIE LINES AND LINES FROM DESIGN POINT.
  12. 12. MULTIPLE STAGE LLX MODELS• McCABE THEILE DIAGRAM CAN BE CONSTRUCTED FROM DATA FROM PONCHON-SAVARITT• ALTERNATELY, IF B & S ARE RELATIVELY IMMISCIBLE AND FLOWS ARE SPECIFIED, THEN INERT FLOW MODEL CAN BE USED FOR THE OPERATING LINE. USING COMPONENT BALANCES FOR SOLUTE, A:
  13. 13. MULTIPLE STAGE LLX MODELS• INERT FLOWS MODEL OVERALL xa yb xb ya L` V` L` V` 1 xa 1 yb 1 xb 1 ya FOR INTERIM STAGE xa yn 1 xn ya L` V` L` V` 1 xa 1 yn 1 1 xn 1 ya• L = NON-TRANSFERRING B IN RAFFINATE AND V = NON- TRANSFERRING S IN EXTRACT.• CAN BE PLOTTED WITH EQUILIBRIUM LINE ON McCABE-THIELE FOR CALCULATIONS
  14. 14. LLX EQUIPMENT• MIXER-SETTLERSA+B S EXTRACT EXTRACT LAYER FAFFINATE RAFFINATE LAYER MIXER SETTLER
  15. 15. LLX EQUIPMENT• SPRAY TYPE EXTRACTION TOWER Chen, Liang-Huei (Chia-Nan Coll of Pharmacy and Science); Lee, Yuh- Lang, Effects of a surfactant on the mass transfer in spray-tower extraction column, Chemical Engineering Journal, v 73, n 1, 1999, p 77- 81
  16. 16. SPRAY TYPE EXTRACTION TOWER• USES A SPARGER FOR LIGHT LIQUID AND DISPERSER FOR HEAVY LIQUID• OVERFLOW IS LIGHT/UNDERFLOW IS HEAVY
  17. 17. SIEVE TRAY EXTRACTION TOWER • SIMILAR TO DISTILLATION UNITJ. Antonio Rocha, J. CarlosCardenas, Cesar Sosa, and JorgeRosales, Preliminary design ofsieve tray extraction columns. 1.Determination of the columndiameter. Flooding velocities insieve tray extractors , Ind. Eng.Chem. Res.; 1989; 28(12) pp1873 - 1878
  18. 18. SIEVE TRAY EXTRACTION TOWER• LIGHT LIQUID INVENTORIED UNDER EACH TRAY• BUBBLES OF LIGHT LIQUID PASS THROUGH COUNTERFLOW OF HEAVY LIQUID• DOWNCOMERS ARE USED TO TRANSFER HEAVY LIQUID DOWN THE COLUMN
  19. 19. SIEVE TRAY EXTRACTION TOWER• DOWNCOMER DESIGN J. Antonio Rocha, J. Carlos Cardenas, Cesar Sosa, and Jorge Rosales, Preliminary design of sieve tray extractioncolumns. 1. Determination of the column diameter. Floodingvelocities in sieve tray extractors , Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; 1989; 28(12) pp 1873 - 1878
  20. 20. YORK-SHEIBEL COLUMN• YORK-SHEIBEL COLUMNUSES AGITATION TO MIX MATERIAL FOR EACH STAGE WITH SETTLING OCCURING OUTSIDE THE AGITATION ZONE
  21. 21. PODBEILNIAK CENTRIFUGAL• PROVIDES A SINGLE STAGE HIGH g CONTACTING CONTACTING REGIME LIGHT OUT HEAVY IN LIGHT IN HEAVY OUT
  22. 22. PROCESSES THAT UTILIZE LLX• TYPICALLY ARE THOSE IN WHICH DISTILLATION IS NOT ECONOMICALLY ATTRACTIVE• SULFOLANE PROCESS (UOP) -RECOVERY OF AROMATICS, COMBINES DISTILLATION WITH LLEhttp://www.uop.com/objects/55%20Sulfolane .pdf
  23. 23. PROCESSES THAT UTILIZE LLX• BIOTECH AND BIOPHARM – SEPARATION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FATTY ACIDS FROM VEGETABLE OILS Alfred Thomas, Fats and Fatty Oils, Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Copyright © 2002 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA – PENICILLIN
  24. 24. PENICILLINPRODUCTION PROCESS Joseph A. Shaeiwitz, Joseph D. Henry, Jr.,Biochemical Separations ,Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Copyright © 2002 byWiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
  25. 25. SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION• SOLVENT IS AT SUPERCRITICAL CONDITIONS• SUPERCRITICAL SOLVENT HAS THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES THAT ARE SIMILAR TO A LOOSE LIQUID OR A DENSE GAS. – SOLUTE EXTRACTION BASED ON SOLUBILITY IN SUPERCRITICAL PHASE – PRODUCT IS OBTAINED BY LETTING PRESSURE DOWN TO SUBCRITICAL CONDITIONS• PROCESS DESCRIBED IN TEXT DECAFFINATION IS MORE LIKE SUPERCRITICAL LEACHING
  26. 26. TYPICAL SC PROCESS• Eldridge, R. B., Oil Contaminant Removal from Drill Cuttings by Supercritical Extraction, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; (Article); 1996; 35(6); 1901- 1905.

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