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  • 1. Remote Method Invocation(RMI)Concept A java object runs within a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), Likewise J2EE applications runs within a JVM; however objects used by a j2ee application do not need to run on the same JVM as the J2EE application. This is because a J2ee application and its components can invoke objects located on a different JVM by using the Java Remote Invocation system. RMI is used for remote communication between Java application and components, both of which must be written in the Java programming language.
  • 2. RMI • RMI is used to connect together a client and a server. • A client is an application or component that requires the services of an object to fulfill a request. • A server creates an object and makes the object available to clients. • A client contacts the server to reference and invoke the object by using RMI. • A client locates a remote object by either using the RMI naming registry or by passing a string that reference the remote object . •In either case, RMI returns a reference to the remote object, which is then invoked by the client as if the object was on the local JVM.
  • 3. RMI Process  There are three steps necessary to make an object available to remote clients. 1. to design an object, 2. to compile the object, 3. to make the object accessible to remote clients over the network.  Besides defining the business logic of an object, the developer must define a remote interface for the object, which identifies the methods that are available to remote clients. Likewise those methods must be defined in the object. In addition to methods that can be invoked by client , the developer must also define other methods that supports the processing of the client-invoked methods. These are referred to as server methods, while methods invoked by a client are called client methods.
  • 4.  Compilation of the object is a two-step process that begins by compiling the object using the javac compiler. The object must contain implementation of the remote interface, and server and client methods.  Once the object is compiled, you must create a stub for the object. This is done by calling the RMI compiler called rmic.  The compiled object is then made accessible over the network by loading the object to a server. Make sure that RMI remote object registry is running; otherwise, a remote client will be unable to access the object. To start the RMI registry on windows NT, type the following at the command line: c:>start rmiregistry
  • 5. Server Side The sever side of a remote object invocation consists of a remote interface and methods. The remote interface is at the center of every remote object because the remote interface defines how the client views the object. Methods provide the business logic that fulfills a client’s request whenever the client remotely invokes the method. Import java.rmi.Remote; Import java.rmi.RemoteException; Public interface myApplication extends Remote { String myMethod() throws RemoteException; } It illustrates the remote interface definition and makes one method called myMethod() available to clients. This method doesn’t requires an argument and returns a String object, There would be many additional methods appearing in a remote interface in a real-world J2EE application.
  • 6. Implementing the remote Interface import java.rmi.*; import java.rmi.server.*; public class myApplicationServer extends UnicasteRemoteObject implements myApplication { public myApplicationserver() throws RemoteException { super(); } public String myMethod() { returns “I’m here to server.n”; } public static void main(String [] args) {
  • 7. if(System.getSecurityManager()==null) { system.setSecurityManager(new RMISecurityManager()); } String app=“//localhost/myApplication”; Try { myApplicationserver=new myApplicationServer(); Naming.rebind(app,server); } Catch(Exception error) { system.err.println(“myApplicationServer exception”+error.getMessage()); } } }
  • 8. The program begins by importing the necessary packages that are required to implement RMI and implements the myApplication remote interface defined in the above. Next the program defines the constructor and myMethod, which is the only method contained in the object. This method simply returns the String “I’m here to serve.n”. You can modify the method as necessary based on the business rules that are implemented by the object. The program proceeds to create and install a security manager. A security manager serves as a firewall and grants or rejects downloaded code access to the local file system and similar privileged operations. RMI requires that server-side applications install a security manager. In this example the getSecurityManager() method associates the server-side program with the securityManager object.
  • 9. Then the server-side program creates an instance of myApplication and makes the remote object myMethod available to remote clients by calling the rebind() method. The rebind() method registers the remote object with the RMI remote object registry or with another naming service. The object’s name is “//host/myApplication” where host is the name or IP address of the server.
  • 10. Client-Side The Client-Side program calls the remote object defined in last program which returns a String object that the client-side program displays. A real-world application requires the remote object to perform complicated operations that simply return a String object.
  • 11. import java.rmi.*; public class myApplicationClient { public static void main(String[ ] args) { if(System.getsecurityManager()==null) { System.setSecurityManager(new RMISecurityManager()); } try { String app=“//localhost/myApplication”; myApplication mApp=(myApplication) Naming. lookup(app); System.out.println(mApp.myMethod()); } catch(Exception error) { System.err.println(“myApplicationClient exception:”+error.getMessage()); } } }
  • 12. This example begins by creating a security manager using the same method as described previously in the server-side program. Next, the lookup() method is used to locate the remote object, which is called myApplication. The lookup() method returns a reference to the object called myApp. And the program calls the myMethod() method to invoke the myMethod of the remote object. The myMethod method returns a String object that is passed to the println() method, which displays the contents of the String object on the screen. Any exceptions that are thrown while the client-side program runs are trapped by the catch() block. The catch() block calls the getMessage() method to retrieve the error message that is associated with the exception. The error message is then displayed on the Screen.
  • 13. Before running the client, you need to  Compile the source code.  Compile the server class using the rmic compiler, which produces the skeleton and the stub classes.  Start the rmiregistry.  Start the server.  Run the client. You’ll need to define the security properties as command-line arguments when running the client program. java – myApplicationServer Here is the command-line necessary to run the server program: java –Djava.rmi.server.codebase=file://c:/javacode/classes/-Djava. security.Policy=c:/javacode/src/policy myApplicationServer
  • 14. The Djava.rmi.server.codebase argument identifies the location of the class Files. One or three forward slashes must precede the path depending on the operating environment. The argument identifies the location of the policy file. grant { Permission; };