Mobile operated robot


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Digital project of Robot working on DTMF signals

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Mobile operated robot

  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT ON “Mobile Operated Robot” Submitted By VISHRAM ANANT (24), JOEL MENDONCA (33),GLEVITA MENDONSA (34), JAESON NAZARETH (36) Under The Guidance Of Prof: ManaliTayade Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Xavier Institute Of Engineering, Mahim. MUMBAI UNIVERSITY, MUMBAI 2012-2013
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this Project Report entitled “MOBILE OPERATED ROBOT” Is satisfactorily completed by VISHRAM ANANT (24), JOEL MENDONCA (33), GLEVITA MENDONSA (34), JAESON NAZARETH (36) Of T.E(E.X.T.C) class as specified in syllabus. This report represents their bonafide work in year 2012-2013.Prof. ManaliTayade Prof. SupravaPatnik(Project Guide) (H.O.D. – EXTCDepartment)Prof. Y.D. Venkatesh (External Examiner) (Principal)
  3. 3. Mobile Operated Robot Joel Mendonca, GlevitaMendonsa, VishramAnant, Jaeson Nazareth. Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Xavier Institute of Engineering, Mahim.Abstract--In this project the robot, is controlled by a made by adding 1336Hz and 770Hz to the other end ofmobile phone that makes call to the mobile phone the mobile.attached to the robot in the course of the call, if anybutton is pressed control corresponding to the II. BLOCK DIAGRAMbutton pressed is heard at the other end of the call. The Block Diagram for the circuit is shown alongsideThis tone is called dual tone multi frequency tome(DTMF) robot receives this DTMF tone with the where the input IC is MT 8870, the microcontrollerhelp of phone stacked in the robot . used is Atmega16 and the motor driver IC is L293D.Keywords--GSM (Global System for Mobile). I. INTRODUCTIONThe received tone is processed by the atmega16microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoderMT8870 the decoder decodes the DTMF tone in to itsequivalent binary digit and this binary number is sendto the microcontroller, the microcontroller is pre-programmed to take a decision for any given input andoutputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drivethe motors in forward or backward motion. The mobile Fig 1. Block Diagramthat makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in therobot acts as a remote. So this simple robotic projectdoes not require the construction of receiver and III.CIRCUIT DIAGRAMtransmitter units. DTMF signaling is used for telephonesignaling over the line in the voice frequency band tothe call switching center. The version of DTMF usedfor telephone dialing is known as touch tone. DTMFassigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separatetones) to each key that it can easily be identified by theelectroniccircuit. The signal generated by the DTMFencoder is the direct algebraic submission, in real time Fig 2. Circuit of GSM Robotof the amplitudes of two sine(or cosine) waves of A. COMPONENTLISTdifferent frequencies, i.e. pressing will send a tone R1,R2 100k resistances
  4. 4. R3 330kR4, R5,R6,R7,R8 10kC1 0.47 micro faradC2,C3,C5,C6 22pfaradc4 0.1micro faradXtal1 3.57 MHzXtal2 12 MHzS1 Push to ON Switch B. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION A DTMFTelephoneKeypad1.)Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF)---- It is used Table 1.DTMFKeypadFrequencies.for telecommunication signalling over analog telephone 1209 1336Hz 1477 1633lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone Hz Hz Hzhandsets and other communications devices and the 697 1 2 3 Aswitching centre. The version of DTMF used for Hztelephone tone dialling is known by the 770 4 5 6 Btrademarkedterm Touch-Tone (cancelled March Hz13,1984), and is standardized by ITU-T 852 7 8 9 CRecommendation Q.23. It is HzalsoknownintheUKasMF4.Othermulti-frequency 941 * 0 # D Hzsystemsare used for signalling internal to the telephonenetwork. As a method of in-band signalling, DTMFtones were also used by cable television broadcasters Table 2. DTMFEventFrequenciesto indicate the start and stop times of localcommercialinsertion points during station breaks for the benefit of Event Low frequency High frequencycable companies. Until better out-of-band signallingequipment was developed in the1990s, Bsy Signal 480 620fast,unacknowledged, and loud DTMF tone sequences Dial Tone 350 440could be heard during the commercial breaks of cablechannels in the United States and elsewhere. Ring Back 440 480 Tone(U.S) 2.) TelephoneKeypad— Thecontemporarykeypad is l a i d out ina3 x4 grid,although the originalDTMF keypad had an 3.) Tones-- additional column forfournow-defunctmenu selector Theengineershadenvisionedphonesbeingusedtoaccessco mputers,andsurveyedanumber of keys.Whenused companiestoseewhattheywouldneedforthisrole.Thisle todialatelephonenumber,pressingasinglekeywillpro d tote addition h of the numbersign duce apitchconsistingoftwosimultaneous (#,sometimescalledoctothorpeinthiscontext) puretonesinusoidal frequencies. andasteriskor‟star‟(*)keysaswellasagroupofkeysform Therowinwhichthekeyappearsdeterminesthe enuselection:A,B,CandD.Inthe lowfrequency,andthecolumndeterminesthehighfreq end,theletteredkeysweredroppedfrommostphones,an uency. Forexample,pressingthe keywesultinasound l i r dit was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67intheUnited composed ofboth a 697 and States and CanadatosuppresscallerID.TheU.S.military a1209Hztone.Theoriginal keypads had levers alsousedtheletters,relabelled, intheirnowdefunct Auto i n s i d e ,soeach buttonactivated onphone system.Heretheywere used before diallingthe twocontacts.Themultipletonesarethereason phone in order to give some calls priority,cutting forcallingthe systemmultifrequency.These inoverexistingcallsifneedbe.Theideawas tonesarethendecoded bythe switchingcentre toallowimportanttraffictogetthrough todeterminewhichkeywaspressed everytime.Thelevels ofpriorityavailablewereFlashOverride(A),
  5. 5. Flash (B),Immediate(C),andPriority What do youll do? You lend it to your friend Time for(D),withFlashOverridebeingthe highestpriority. some time, then you let John listen to music on it, then you let Linda check her e-mails on it, and finally you C. COMPONENT WORKING let Nancy search on Google. So what did you do? You allowed each of your friends to share you IPhone forFigure shows the block diagram and circuit diagram ofthe microcontroller- based robot. The important some time. That is, you allowed you IPhone to becomponents of this robot are DTMF decoder, shared in time. On the same lines, in GSM, the radioMicrocontroller and motor driver. frequency say 890 MHz is shared by different users inAn MT8870 series DTMF decoder is used here. All time. This means if user A, B, C and D all talk at thetypes of the mt8870 series use digital counting same time. You assign the 890 MHz frequency to A fortechniques to detect and decodeall the sixteen DTMF some time and allow him to talk, then you assign 890tone pairs in to a four bit code output. The built-in- band to B for some time to speak, then to C , anddialtone rejection circuit eliminated the need for pre-filtering. When the input signal given at pin2 (IN-) finally to D, beforecoming back to A. So the processsingle ended input configuration is recognized to be continues in a round robin fashion, as long as A, B, C,effective, the correct four bit decode signal of the and D want to talk. This way many users talk at sameDTMF tone is transferred to Q1 (pin11) through time on the same frequency. This has to be done,Q4(pin14)outputs. The Atmega16 is a low power, 8 because as we now frequency or Bandwidth is a scarcebit, CMos microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced resource and is not available in plentiful, so it must beRISC architecture. It provides the following feature: shared. Now the second principle that GSM uses is16kb of in system programmable flash memory with Frequency Division Multiplex. In Frequency Divisionread write capabilities, 512bytes of EEPROM, 1KBSRAM, 32 general purpose input/output lines. 32 Multiplex, users A, B, C and D, all use differentgeneral purpose working registers. All the 32 registers frequency say 890, 900, 910, 920 for their respectiveare directly connected to the arithmetic logic unit, communications. A very good example of this is Radioallowing two independent registers to be accessed in broadcasting. Because all the radio operators like Radone signal instruction executed in one clock cycle. The FM, Go FM, and Radio Mirchi want to operate in theresulting architecture is more code efficient. Outputs same area, they use different frequencies forfrom port pins PD0 through PD3 and PD7 of the communication 91.0FM, 93.5FM, 94.6 FM, 108FM. Somicrocontroller are fed to inputs IN1 through IN4 and to listen to different communications, you have to tuneenable pins (EN1 and EN2) of motor driver L293drespectively, to drive geared motors. Switch S1 is used in the receiver set to different frequencies. Now, GSMfor manual reset. uses a combination of TDMA and FDMA. This means that users A and B are not only sharing the channel in IV. TECHNOLOGY USED time but also frequency. This means that user A is on A. SOFTWARE USED the channel 890Mhz for 2 seconds, then jumps to 900Mhz channel for the next two seconds, then jumps 1. Schematic designed on Eagle. 2. Circuit board layout prepared on Eagle. to 910Mhz for the next 2 seconds and so on... Thus, 3. C programming. each user is uses a different frequency at different time slots. This is called Frequency Hopping. B. GSM TECHNOLOGYGSM stands for Global System for Mobile V. PCB LAYOUTCommunications. Just like computers, mobile phones Making a PCB is very simple; it does not consume a lothave evolved over time. There were first generation of time and the results look professional. After readingmobile phones in the 70s, there are 2nd generation this How-To and watching the step by step video, youmobile phones in the 80s and 90s, and now there are will be able to make your own PCB in your workshop3rd generation mobile phones which we call as 3G using just a few inexpensive materials.phones. So this GSM is called a 2nd generation, or 2G Many people use protoboard and point-to-point wirecommunications technology. Now, GSM makes use of everything, but needing multiple copies of the sametwo principles. The first called Time division circuit is the reason that forces many away from usingMultiplexing is very simple. Lets say that one of your protoboard. After making your first circuit board, youfriends possesses the new and sleek Apples IPhone. might not point-to-point wire anything again! For yourEveryone wants to try a hand at your new accessory. first circuit board, one goal is to keep the circuit single
  6. 6. sided so you can etch using single sided copper clad. will embed steel into the copper. Clean off the residualThis will allow you to gain some experience before dust with a slightly damp paper towel.moving on to double-sided. If you need topside traces,simply run a few jumper wires on the top. There aremany complete circuit layouts you could try like theHack a Day design challenge winner.Here is a list ofmaterials you will need to produce a single-sided board.With the exception of the copper clad and PCB drills,everything on this list is easily obtained at your localstore. Materials: Muratic acid, common householdhydrogen peroxide, safety goggles, good qualitymagazine pages (cut to 8×11), laser printer, single sided1 ounce copper clad, a plastic container the board willfit in, soft plastic brush, clothes iron, lacquer thinner,rubber gloves, paper towel, tin snips, drill or rotarytool, PCB drill bits, Scotch Brite scrubbing pad, goodventilation, 5-gallon plastic pail full of water. Find a hard, very flat, sturdy, heat resistant surface. Empty the water out of the clothes iron and set the ironNow, here is how you do it: on the hottest setting. Allow the iron to get hot.Print the bottom side layer on a piece of paper from ahigh quality magazine. Use one actual page from themagazine, the thicker and shinier the magazine paper This is both side of a piece of copper clad. Place thethe better, but do not use the cover. You must use a blank side facing down and copper side facing up.laser printer, not an inkjet. If your printer uses ink Align printing/paper onto copper clad board with thecartridges and not toner cartridges, it will not work. If printing facing the copper. Do not allow it to do not have a laser printer, you can work aroundthis by printing to white paper and using a photocopierset to the darkest setting to copy the layout to themagazine paper. If the paper jams in the printer, youare not using a thick-enough magazine page. Again, donot use the magazine covers, as they do not work.Magazine pages are used because they work well, andthey are cheap! The reason they work is because thepaper is very glossy and the toner does not adhere wellto the glossy pages. The printing used on the magazinepage is ink and it does not come off, but toner does.Toner is actually a plastic polymer, and different tonersmay yield varied results. In our experience, a genuineHP toner cartridge was used with great success; anOffice Max brand yielded poor results. The sole Firmly press the iron onto the back of the magazinepurpose of the toner is the protect the copper below it paper, sandwiching it between the copper clad and thefrom etching away, you only want the uncovered areas iron. Pressing hard without moving the iron, hold theto etch. Next, wash your hands to remove any oils. iron perfectly still for one full minute. Do not move theKeep handling to a minimum once the pages are printed iron at all during this minute, and push hard, reallyand do not touch the laser printing with your fingers; hard!this could get oils on the printing. Keep pages as flat aspossible. Then, for four more minutes, slowly move the ironVery carefully, remove the copper clad from the around making sure to put a lot of pressure on thepackaging. Do not touch the copper surface for the paper, but not allowing the paper to slide on the copper.same reason as above. You can cut the copper clad to When done, let the board fully cool before you move itsize using a tin snip if needed. Use the Scotch Brite at all. This will allow the toner to adhere to the copper and prevent you from being burned.scrubbing pad to gently buff the surface (Scotch Brite isa popular brand of of plastic scrubbing pad meant to Put the board in cold water and let soak for fiveemulate steel wool). Do not use steel wool because it minutes. After five minutes, try to peel the wet paper
  7. 7. from the board leaving only the toner/print from your DTMF generator with tone depending upon keylaser printer. Only the toner should be left adhering to pressed. DTMF Decoder, i.e., IC CM8870 decodes thethe copper. If the paper does not come off easily, let it received tone & gives binary equivalent of it to thesoak in the water for a while longer. If necessary, rub microcontroller. The controller is programmed suchwith your finger to remove any paper, leaving only thetoner. It‟s ok if there are a few excess paper fibers stuck that appropriate output is given to Motor Driver ICto the toner. L293D which will drive the two DC Motors connectedIf you find not every trace adhered to the copper clad or to it. The concept used for driving is „Differentialit is misaligned, use lacquer thinner and paper towel to Drive‟. So, ultimately the two motors rotate phone.clean the toner from the copper board and start over. If According to the key pressed on the keypad of the cellthe traces look good then move on. Inspect the tracescarefully, however, because what you see now will be ACKNOWLEDGMENTyour finished product. It is our privilege to acknowledge with deep sense ofIn a well-ventilated area with a fan, add 2-cupshydrogen peroxide to a plastic container. Gently pour in gratitude to our project guide, Prof. ManaliTayadefor1-cup Muriatic acid, to create the etching solution. her valuable suggestions and guidance throughout ourAlways wear goggles, gloves, and do not inhale the course of study and timely help given to us in thefumes. Do not use any metal containers, measuring completion of our project.cups, stainless steel sinks, or tools with this mixture asthis mixture will aggressively etch metal. Acid safety, We are highly obliged to the entire staff of Electronicsthink “triple A”, for Always Add the Acid, it‟s and Telecommunication Department for their kind helpwhatever is in the container that will end up splashing. and co-operation. We also take this opportunity toThis etching solution, while made with common thank all my colleagues for offering all possible help.chemicals, should command respect. It is dangerous toyou and surroundings treat it with respect. FerricChloride is another common etching solution, it is not a REFERENCESsafer solution to use, and both are equally dangerous. 1 Wikipedia-ThefreeencyclopediaPut the board copper side up in the plastic container 2 with etching solution. Use a soft plastic brush to 3 wipe the board. You will notice the copper begin 4 dissolve. It takes about 3-4 minutes to get all the 5 copper dissolved. You just have to watch to 6 sure it is gone in all areas between the traces. Do 7 cell phone operated land rover ElectronicsFornot leave the board in the etching mix for too long as You‟Magazine , Edition (July 2008)the traces will dissolve under the toner that is protecting 8 “DTMFTester” , „ElectronicsForthem. Tinning prevents the copper from oxidizing, You‟Magazine , Edition(June2003)which can make it hard to solder to in the future. If you 9, you can tin all the traces with solder and a a-single-sided-pcb/soldering iron now. This actually makes drilling mucheasier because it helps to center the drill bit. Make sureto clean off excess flux if you do this. You could useTint to chemically plate the copper. Here is a differenttutorial describing its use.Drill all the holes for thethrough-hole parts using the correct size PCB drill bitand rotary tool. Drill large mounting holes with anormal drill. PCB drill bits are carbide and made todrill through fiber glass that would quickly dullstandard bits. There are a few very common sizes ofbits and these are often sold in packs. We use .0260″for IC holes and .0310″ for resistors and caps.Print outthe top side silkscreen layer on magazine paper andiron this onto the top side, using the same processes asabove. Again, run under water and peel off the paper.Now you have the component ID‟s on the top side. VI. CONCLUSION