Culturally and linguistically responsive instruction presentation
FACT: Teaching and learning are rooted in and are dependent upon a common language between teacher and student.
NAEP Fourth Grade Reading Performance Texas 2008-2009100% 20 12 42 46 1480% 26 6360% 36 34 7440% 54 2920% 22 20 8 0% African White Hispanic Asian ELL/LEP American Proficient/Advanced Basic Below Basic Source: National Center for Educational Statistics
African American English (noun):a nonstandard form of AmericanEnglish characteristically spokenby some African Americans in theUnited States.
Transforming ViewsThen Now “Pupils were made to scuff African American English at the Negro dialect as has evolved to the point of some peculiar possession of the Negro which they dispelling the myth that should despise, rather than African Americans are directed to study the incapable of mastering background of this language Standard English and bound as a broken down African tongue”. to a “language of illiteracy” -Carter G. Woodson, 1933 (Christensen, 2008).
Language 101:Language in Communicative Context• PragmaticsLanguage as a Meaning System• SemanticsLanguage as a Structured Rule-Governed System• Syntax• Morphology• Phonology
The Development of AAE Dialectologists View Deficit vs. Different CreolistPerspective Theories Hypothesis Ethnolinguistic Theory
Ethnolinguist View • Bambara • Kimbundu • Ewe • Longo • Fanta • Mandinka • Fon • Mende • Fula • Twi • Hausa • Umbundu • Igbo • Wolof • Ibibio • YorubaSource: Turner, Lorenzo “Africanisms In The Gullah Dialect” 1973
Characteristic Phonological Features of AAE Phonological Standard English African American Variables EnglishConsonant Cluster desk, test, cold des, tes, col/th/ sound this or mouth dis or mouf/r/ sound sister sistaStressed Syllables police police
Historic African American Legislation Ebonics Resolution of Oakland Martin Luther California King Junior Elementary Brown v. Board School Children of Education et al., v. Ann Arbor School The 13th District Amendment of the United States Constitution
Current Sociolinguistics Educational Theory & Practice Multicultural Instructional PracticesImproved Academic Performance for African American Students
Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Environments Developing Teacher Multicultural Development Classrooms School Tailoring Environment Instruction Family Involvement
Teacher Development TeacherDevelopment Focus on providing professional development on practices that support culturally and linguistically diverse learners.
School Environment Focus on developing shared responsibility for educating students in an environment that is steeped in the additive view of culture and language. SchoolEnvironment
Family InvolvementFocus on establishing opencommunication with studentsand their families. Family Involvement
Tailoring InstructionFocus on teaching specific skills,reteaching them utilizing significantlydifferent instructional approaches,employing informal and formalmethods to assess individual students’strengths and weaknesses. Tailoring Instruction
Developing Multicultural Classrooms Developing MulticulturalFocus on implementing Classroomsinstruction that optimizesstudent achievement andpositively reinforcing culturalidentity.