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India

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Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya) …

Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya)
India's basic information, etymology, geography, biodiversity, government, economy, brief history and culture

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  • 1. (Bharat Ganrajya)
  • 2.  Basic Information  Etymology  Geography  Biodiversity  Government  Economy  History  Culture
  • 3. Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit) "Truth Alone Triumphs" Anthem: Jana Gana Mana "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People" National song: Vande Mataram "I Bow to Thee, Mother" Capital: New Delhi Largest city: Mumbai (population/area)
  • 4. Official languages: Hindi, English Recognized regional languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, G ujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Man ipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punja bi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
  • 5. Legislature: Parliament of India - Upper house: Rajya Sabha - Lower house: Lok Sabha Independence from the United Kingdom - Dominion: 15 August 1947 - Republic: 26 January 1950
  • 6. Flag of India
  • 7. Official Emblem
  • 8. Area controlled by India shown in dark green. The claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
  • 9. Indus, originates from the Old Persian word Hinduš Sindhu (Sanskrit word), historical local appellation for the Indus River Indoi, term ancient Greeks used to refer to the Indians; translates as "the people of the Indus"
  • 10. Bharat (geographical term), recognized by the Constitution of India as official name for the country; is used by many Indian languages in its variations Hindustan, originally a Persian word; means "Land of the Hindus"
  • 11.  North ◦ China ◦ Nepal ◦ Bhutan  East ◦ Bangladesh ◦ Myanmar ◦ Bay of Bengal  South ◦ Palk Strait ◦ Gulf of Mannār ◦ Indian Ocean  West ◦ Arabian Sea ◦ Pakistan
  • 12.  comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent  lies atop the minor Indian tectonic plate  India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometers (4,700 mi) in length
  • 13.  the Ganges  the Brahmaputra ◦the Yamuna ◦the Kosi
  • 14. The Ganges in Varanasi
  • 15. A view across the Brahmaputra near Sukleswar Ghat, Guwahati, Assam, India
  • 16.  the Godavari  the Mahandi  the Kaveri  the Krishna  the Narmada  the Tapti
  • 17. The Mouth of the Godavari river emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
  • 18. The Mahandi
  • 19. The river Kaveri in Kodagu, Karnataka
  • 20. Krishna River Gorge
  • 21. The Narmada river bank near Jabalpur
  • 22. Tapti river at Haripura in Surat district
  • 23.  marshy Rann of Kutch of Western India  the alluvial Sundarbans delta of Eastern India
  • 24. Rann of Kutch
  • 25. Sundarbans
  • 26.  the Lakshadweep  the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • 27. Aerial view of the Agatti Airport in Lakshadweep
  • 28. Aerial view of Andaman Islands
  • 29. strongly influenced by: ◦Himalayas ◦Thar Desert
  • 30. Karakoram Range in the Himalayas It lies within the Himalayan mountain system, which forms part of India’s northern border.
  • 31. Thar Desert As seen in Rajasthan, India
  • 32.  tropical wet  tropical dry  subtropical humid  montane
  • 33.  contains three biodiversity hotspots  one of 17 megadiverse countries  hosts 8.6% of all mammalian, 13.7% of all avian, 7.9% of all reptilian, 6% of all amphibian, 12.2% of all piscine, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species
  • 34.  habitat ranges from the tropical rainforest to coniferous forest  also include moist deciduous sal forests, dry deciduous teak forests and babul-dominated thorn forest  contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened species
  • 35. Asiatic Lion The Gīr National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarāt, India, is the only remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion, a species that was nearly extinct in the early 1900s.
  • 36. Bengal tiger A Bengal tiger at Bandhavgarh National Park
  • 37. Indian white-rumped vulture Nearly went extinct by ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-laced cattle
  • 38.  human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered wildlife  1972-India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness  1980-Forest Conservation Act was enacted  1988-amendments added in Forest Conservation Act
  • 39.  federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India  a constitutional republic and representative democracy  federalism defines power distribution
  • 40.  federal government comprises three branches: ◦ Executive  President-head of state  Prime Minister-head of government  consists of the president, the vice-president, and the Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister
  • 41. Pranab Mukherjee Current President of India
  • 42. Manmohan Singh Current Prime Minister of India
  • 43. The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the president of India.
  • 44. ◦ Legislative  bicameral parliament  operates under a Westminsterstyle parliamentary system  comprises of:  the upper house called the Rajya Sabha ("Council of States") with 245 members  the lower called the Lok Sabha ("House of the People")with 545 members
  • 45. ◦ Judicial  has a unitary three-tier independent judiciary  comprises of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, 24 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts
  • 46.  2500 B.C.  The Indus Valley civilization developed around the valley of the Indus River (now in Pakistan).  2000 B.C.  The Indus collapsed. Valley civilization
  • 47.  Around 1500 B.C.  The Aryan people invaded India from the north.  326 B.C.  Alexander the Great of Macedon (northeastern Greece) crossed the Indus River into India.
  • 48.  A.D. 50  Trade flourished between India and the Roman Empire.  320-550  India was ruled by the Gupta Empire.
  • 49.  1526  The rule of the Mogul Empire began.  1600s  Holland, Great Britain and France established key trading posts in India.
  • 50.  1638  Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan began the construction of the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaz.  1858  The British had overthrown the Moguls and took control of India.
  • 51.  1915  Mohandas Gandhi launched a campaign of nonviolent resistance against the British rule in India.  1947  India gained its independence from the British and was divided into two countries, India and Muslim-controlled Pakistan.
  • 52.  1948  Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated.  1966  Indira Gandhi (not related to Mahatma) became the Prime Minister and one of the first women elected to lead a nation.
  • 53.  1983  India won the cricket world cup.  1998  India tested its first nuclear weapon, one of only seven nations to have done so.
  • 54.  2000  India's billion. population exceeded one  2004–2005 A series of natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes and tsunamis, brought destruction to southern coastal communities.
  • 55.  2007  Pratibha Patil became the first female President of India.
  • 56.  Art and Architecture  Literature  Performing Arts  Motion Pictures  Society  Religion  Clothing  Cuisine
  • 57.  Much of Indian architecture blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.
  • 58. Akshardham Temple in Delhi It was completed in 2005 and one of the largest Hindu temples in the world.
  • 59. Chowmahalla Palace in Hyderabad
  • 60. The famous jaali from the 16th-century Sidi Saiyyed mosque built by Ahmed Shah of Gujarat, in Ahmedabad
  • 61. The Jagannath Temple One of the four holiest places (Char Dhams) of Hinduism, in Puri, Odisha.
  • 62. The North Block in New Delhi This houses key government offices, built along with Lutyens' Delhi.
  • 63. The Taj Mahal in Agra One of the world's most famous structures which Shah Jahan built as a memorial to his wife.
  • 64. The earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1400 BCE and 1200 CE, were in the Sanskrit language.  Prominent works of this Sanskrit literature include epics as the Mahābhārata and the Ramayana, the dramas of Kālidāsa such as the Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā) 
  • 65. Mahabharata A 16th-century manuscript of the Mahabharata portrays a chariot fight between two related noble families, the Kauravas and the Pandavas.
  • 66. Radha and Krishna in the Grove In this painting, Radha and Krishna have met in a grove. The painting, (1780), is in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England.
  • 67. Ramayana Rama seated with Sita, fanned by Lakshmana, while Hanuman pays his respects.
  • 68. Rama and Sita Rama is shown here with his wife, Sita, in a bas-relief sculpture from a 9th-century Hindu temple in Java, Indonesia.
  • 69. The Recognition of Śakuntalā Shakuntala writes to Dushyanta
  • 70.  Kamasutra, the famous book about sexual intercourse also originated in India.
  • 71.  19th century-Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions.  20th century-Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore
  • 72. Rabindranath Tagore with Albert Einstein
  • 73.  Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles  Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: ◦ northern Hindustani ◦ southern Carnatic schools  Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms
  • 74.  Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue  Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms  Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue
  • 75. A Kuchipudi dance performance is accompanied by Carnatic vocalizations.
  • 76.  The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema.
  • 77. My Name is Khan
  • 78. 3 Idiots
  • 79.  Traditional Indian society is defined by social hierarchy.  Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent.
  • 80.  pervasive in India  encompasses non-Hindus as well  A caste (jati in Sanskrit) is a social class to which a person belongs at birth and which is ranked against other castes, typically on a continuum of perceived purity and pollution.
  • 81.  In order of hierarchy ◦ Brahmins (priests and scholars) ◦ Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers) ◦ Vaisyas (merchants, farmers, and traders) ◦ Sudras (laborers, including artisans, servants, and serfs). ◦ Untouchables or Harijans (“People of God,” a term first used by Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi).
  • 82. Indian Caste System
  • 83. Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas  many women in India wed before reaching 18  Almost all Hindu marriages in India are arranged  almost all arranged marriages occur between people of the same caste  only a handful of young people make “love marriages” across caste lines, and many suffer socially when they do so 
  • 84.  Diwali  Holi  Ganesh  Durga Chathurti  Thai Pongal  Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan Puja  Christmas  Vaisakhi
  • 85.  popularly known as the "festival of lights"  a five-day Hindu festival  involves the lighting of small clay lamps filled with oil to signify the triumph of good over evil  In the Gregorian calendar, Diwali falls between mid-October and mid-November
  • 86. Arrangement of diyas on Diwali night.
  • 87.  Hindu festival celebrated on the birthday (rebirth) of Lord Ganesha, the son of Shiva and Parvati  also known as Ganeshutsav (festival of Ganesh)  lasts for 10 days  the date usually falls between 19 August and 20 September
  • 88. A Ganesh Procession in Mumbai, India prior to immersion.
  • 89. Ganesh Visarjan in Mumbai
  • 90. a harvest festival celebrated in South India at the end of the harvest season  marks the beginning of the northward journey of the Sun from its southernmost-limit  coincides with the festival Makara Sankranthi  usually held from January 13–16 in the Gregorian calendar 
  • 91. Kolam decorations in front of house during Thai Pongal
  • 92. Pongal being cooked in a city home.
  • 93.  one of the most auspicious occasions for the Hindus  a harvest festival  perhaps the only Indian festival whose date always falls on the same day every year: 14 January, with some exceptions, when the festival is celebrated on 13 January or 15 January  also believed to mark the arrival of spring in India
  • 94. Colourful kites being sold in a Shop in Lucknow
  • 95. a spring festival celebrated as a festival of colors  as per the Hindu calendar, Holi is celebrated on the Phalguna Purnima (Full Moon), which comes in February or March in the Gregorian Calendar 
  • 96. Colors Holi at a market in Mysore
  • 97. Holi celebrations, Pushkar, Rajasthan
  • 98. Group pose for a photo at a Holi celebration in Vashi, Navi Mumbai, India
  • 99. marks the victory of Goddess Durga over the evil buffalo demon Mahishasura  epitomizes the victory of Good over Evil  includes the worship of Shiva, who is Durga's consort (Durga is an aspect of Goddess Parvati) 
  • 100. Durga Puja at Bagbazar Sarbajanin, North Kolkata.
  • 101. a state holiday in India, although Christianity in India is a minority  in many of the schools that are run by the Christian missionaries, children actively participate in the program  in many non-religious schools, there is tradition of Christmas celebration  also known as bada din (the big day) 
  • 102. also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi a festival celebrated across the northern Indian subcontinent  usually celebrated on 13 April, and occasionally on 14 April, in the different regions across the world as the Sikhs migrated overseas 
  • 103. Sikh Vaisakhi parade
  • 104.  three national holidays: ◦ Republic Day ◦ Independence Day ◦ Gandhi Jayanti
  • 105.  Hinduism and Buddhism both originated here.  Most people in India practice Hinduism with Islam a distant second.  Other important religions include Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, a nd Jainism.
  • 106.  Hinduism ◦three main Hindu deities:  Brahmā  Vishnu  Shiva
  • 107.  Buddhism ◦major world religion, founded in northeastern India ◦based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama
  • 108.  Traditional Indian dress varies in color and style across regions and depends on various factors.  Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men.
  • 109. Vidya Balan wearing silk sari at a wedding
  • 110. Sonakshi Sinha in salwar kameez
  • 111. A fully embriodered pink ghagra choli
  • 112. A person togged in a mundu
  • 113. A lungi clad Oriya man in Baleswar, Odisha
  • 114. Sonu Nigam wearing sherwani at his concert
  • 115.  Indian cuisine features an unsurpassed reliance on herbs and spices, with dishes often calling for the nuanced usage of a dozen or more condiments
  • 116. Spices at a grocery shop in India
  • 117. Lentils are a staple ingredient in Indian cuisine
  • 118.  India is also known for its tandoori preparations.  The tandoor, a clay oven used in India for almost 5,000 years, grills meats to an “uncommon succulence” and produces the puffy flatbread known as naan.
  • 119. Bukharian Tandoor
  • 120. naan
  • 121. Tandoori chicken is a popular grilled dish.
  • 122. Pesarattu, a popular Andhra dish, served withkobbari pachadi (chutney made using
  • 123. Hyderabadi Biryani from the city of Hyderabad
  • 124. Roasted stuffed Litti from Bihar
  • 125. Palak paneer, a dish made from spinach and paneer (cottage cheese)
  • 126. Khaman is a popular Gujarati snack.
  • 127. momo served in Tomato gravy
  • 128. A bowl of thukpa
  • 129. Saag a popular Kumauni dish from Uttarakhand is made from any of the various green vegetables like spinach and fenugreek
  • 130. Kadhi, a spicy north Indian dish
  • 131. Poha, a popular breakfast dish in Maharashtra
  • 132. Spicy fish from Kerala
  • 133. An Indian restaurant in Singapore named Komala's Little India
  • 134. Filmi 3 Idiots “Zoobi Doobi”

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