Unit 65- Task 3Persistence of VisionPersistence of vision works by our eyes which are able to create an illusion. Forexample when we observe an image for a long period of time and look awaywithin a matter of seconds, our cells from the back of our eyes are able to re-create image we just saw.In 340 B.C. approximately, Aristotle wrote about the after effects of light andmotion and when it got to 130A.D and Greek astronomer called Ptolemy developed a theory calledpersistence of vision.Persistence of vision is used in cinema and film systems. Long time ago filmproductions worked out if frames were less than 16 frames per second themind would only see flashing images but films in the 20th century run ataround 24 frames per second and this is used in digital cinema systems as wellas physical film. For example classic example the moving horse: Here’s a sample of persistence of vision. I know this because when you stare at the 4 dots in the centre of the image for quite awhile and blink and look at a blank wall you are able to seethe women. This is to do with the brain which can stillcapture the image after looking away from the imageas you’ve been looking at the image for a while.
Stop FrameStop frame is a cinematic process and wayto use still objects in order to make them tolook as though they’re moving. There aremany materials used to create this effect,such as clay for the fact of it being easy torepositioning and as well when it’s movedit’s less noticeable. Clay motion is the onethat is the most frequently used despite theamount of effect taken to make it but thereare other materials such as puppets andfigure’s. On the stop frame the still objectsappear to look human and look like they’re moving by breaking up the figure’smotion into increments and filming one frame of film per increment. Whichbasically means each picture is linked together in a chain to look as though thestatic object is moving.Computer imagery was used as a special effect tool as well as being costefficient. We still use stop motion today as it’s good for many numerous ofthings. Stop motion is good for children’s cartoons for being a simple andattractive and a fun way for the kids. We also use it on purpose to add an oldfashion vibe and as well advertisements to stand out and attracting in order tomake sells.In film stop motion is used in Movie’s for example Tim Burton (a movie maker)uses this process in his work for example one of his films called Coralline is astop motion animation as it’s been created from clay motion which is an 3Dfantasy/horror children’s film which was released in 2009. It involved effortsfrom 450 people and for the film they used nearly 150 sets as well as thecharacters having at average 208,000 facial expressions.
This shows in today’s world stop motion animation has been updateddramatically if you compare the quality from now to a film produced in 1989you can see it’s changed quite an awful lot.Stop Motion AnimationIn this short animation called Gumby first animation in 1989. You can thedifference from how it was and how it was today from the quality of theproduction and the image on the right was only created in 1953! A huge leapwithin 14 years! You can tell by the up to date software does make adifference!The Magic Roundabout was createdin the 1960’s. It was created bySerge Danot and still to this day isplayed on the BBC Channel. The firstpicture display’s the 1960’scharacter look which was created from materials and used stop motion frameand on the left it shows the new up to date version and shows how the qualityhas improved and has been created by using CGI. CGI is used mostly in mostanimation for example Disney uses it an awful lot. South Park is a TV animationseries which was created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone in the 1990’s and it iscreated from construction paper.
South Park has been updated from when it first developed but it’s not asnoticeable. The quality of it has improved because technology has beenupdated and has better high resolution. This technique is rare as not manyanimations are created in this method. Mixed mediaproduction is another type of animation which is currentlyused for example this picture is from the film Space Jamand has the mix of animation included in a film with reallife Actors and Actresses. They’re not many animationswhich are created in this method but they’re someanimators which have done mix media and are very wellknown films for example avatar is created by both mix media and the classicalWho Framed Mr Rabbit. The pioneer of mixed media animation is GeorgeMelees in 1990s. Each frame was treated digitally to blend the lighting ofanimation tonally with the live material and was a lot of hard work to do. Drawing animation is a type of animation that is done by producing images that show a motion object and for that is created by drawing everything from hand. An example of drawing animation is Snow White. Most Disney films like Snow White were drawn but in today’s world they have been adapted to CGI. CGI stands for Computer-generated imagery and is done to make a 3D effect inorder for it to look real and is done using software on the computer.Programmes such as Flash can be used to do this type of animation because itis a much more understandable way and cheaper to do it this way than to do awhole animation hand drawn as that would be time wasting.
Onion skinningOnion skinning is a type of computer graphic which isn’t3D, its 2D. It’s used when creating an animation isinvolved. The purpose of onion skinning is to showthe travel and direction the graphic is headed in. It’sused for animated cartoons or editing movies.Which helps the editors to see how many frames areinvolved as well allow them to make the decision tosee if it runs like a smooth animation or it has errorswhich would lead the editor to change an image whichis due to looking at the previous image in the sequence inorder for it to work smoothly for the animation.When you look back on how cartoon animation was first creation the separateframes which are in the movie. The animators and editors would physicallydraw a thin onion skin paper over the light which is used for the animation.This would be done so that the previous and next drawing over that image canbe in the exact position so they knew that they could draw the next betweenimages so it gives a full smooth animation which would look perhaps, realistic.This technique has been in computer software for a very long time and is stillused today. It achieves highly as it makes the frames translucent and the styleof layering projecting them on top of each other. The effect has been used asan effect in order to create a motion blur. The matrix is a well-known filmwhich has used it, in the movie the whole point about the matrix is time andspeed as well as the famous firing bullet scene. So in order to show that offthey use it as an effect on how quick things are going. Another example ofonion skinning is when someone is trying to capture the feeling of being drunkor dizzy. The use onion skinning to show how time speeds up or speeds downand everything around is a blur.TweeningTweeting is an editing tool which is only featured in Flash. Tweening is anoption which helps build a cleaner motion for the objects in Flash whichinvolve movement but are to a higher advanced level of movement. Whenadding a transition on flash you can do all sorts of different transitions. You can
customize the direction the object you are using on flash to where it firstcomes in on the stage as well where it leaves from. Shape Tween is a tool thatis featured on Flash which helps you create shapes which can be 2 shapesjoined together. Not only can you use Shape Tween for titles you can use themfor many things using flash for example a screen saver, on an animation etc.Shape tween allows you to specifically help change the shape transform to theother shape with ease and still by having a smooth animation.Classic TweenClassic Tween is a tool that is used in order to create the effect on howanimations use to look like. The way animation use to look like was as like theanimation had a fluid motion either out of a shape or character.Motion TweenMotion Tween is a tool used specifically for movement, hints in the name. Ithelps certain characters move by creating a path for them to follow so thecharacter would walk to whatever direction you designate them to go in andwhen you click play on the animation the object you decide for it to move inwould smoothly move the animation.Flick BooksOne of the earliest forms of animation was flick books and is one of the wayswhere it’s the most basic so most people can understand how to makeanimation using flick books.The animation is done by drawing on different pages in the book. If we wantedthe animation to move to the left we would draw series of pictures similar toeach other for it slowly moving to the left. This does take time but we aretalking years back when animation first came about. If the pages are the sameyou are flicking the pages of the same pictures so the picture isn’t moving so itcan’t be an animation.It works as an animation because when you flip a book the illusion can becreated because of the speed we flick books. If you were to look at eachpicture separately our eyes wouldn’t be able to see the pictures move becauseof the speed being too slow, so the quicker the better.
Animation ProcessWhen animation first came about it had been created for the reason of doinghand drawn animation nothing on the computers. This means each individualpage for the first 3 years of animation was just all by hand. When animationfirst came about there came more jobs available for people wanting to have acreative job for layout artists, effect animators and also inkers.Animation has been updated since our generation most of our animation isdone on computers. Software such as CorelDraw, Flash and Illusion Mage arewhat are commonly used for in animation in today’s world. These are forprofessionals of animation people who work for animation companies can’tjust be anyone they will have to be professional animators or people who haveexperience with animationThe process of animation can always change because it depends what kind ofanimation you will be using for your creation. There is too many types ofanimation for example CGI Animation, Cel shaded, cartoon or hand drawnanimation.GIFA GIF file stands for a graphic information file. It’s a file format that is used foranimation most of the time. It’s the most common file format which is used foranimation. There are such products such as banner advertisements either onelectrical banners in the city or just on the website if you see any electricalanimated signs I can almost guarantee it has been saved as a GIF file format.Animation is used for promotion in order for their advertisement to stand outand catch your eye and what can be better than something moving andflashing because you automatically want to have a look even without thinking.The GIF format is used as well because it only supports 256 colours so thepower and echo-friendliness is much great compared to other animation fileformats. It’s not the most popular for saving pictures because we want to seeas much detail and quality as possible so that’s why JPEG file format or BMPwould be better for pictures because GIF file doesn’t show the whole colourpalette.
Java AppletA Java Applet is a way to show different type of online media without thehassle of downloading and buying the software. The types of media which thisusually is are such things as animation and videos. Not all videos can be shownon different players for example windows media players don’t show all thevideo file formats which have been created by Apple so Java Applet can allowyou to watch Apple video file formats even if you don’t have QuickTimeyourself. Therefore instead of downloading the software and waiting a longtime as well as going through step by step instructions Java doesn’t make youwait long what so ever, no more than 2 minutes! Once again Java Applet hasbeen created for the purpose of making it easier for people to use the web andallows them to go on the internet to watch videos, play games and look atimages with ease.