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  • 1. Unit 54 Assignment 1-Digital Graphics for PrintIn this article I will be writing about what vector and raster are as well as theseveral different range of vector and raster based application. I’ll be telling youwhich ones are used for editing purposes as well creating images and what thechoices are whenit comes to exporting them as there are a whole range of fileextensions. These examples of file extensions aren’t all good and impressive asthey have both advantages and disadvantages as they have all been createdfor specific software so it works best for that software.Below I have listed things under the 3 headings of Print Media Products,Moving image media products and Print file format. When it comes to PrintMedia Products and they are to do with things such as posters, leaflets,magazines, DVD and CD covers. The aim of Print Media Products is to catchpeople’s eyes which are done by colour, graphics and illustrations presentedon these particular objects. This is done for the product to sell well. A fileformat which is used for printing is a .TIFF. The reason why .TIFF is one of themost commonly used is because of the lossless compression and doesn’t affectthe quality of the detailed image; this kind of format is a raster file format.When using interactive media for things like the internet, computer games andCDroms there are certain file formats that work best for digital graphics. Onwebsites the file format PNG is used for interaction as this file format areNetwork graphics which is a raster file format as well.Moving Image media products can be used for things like adverts whichfeature on the TV. Movement is a great way to attract and catch people’sattention. Adverts would use a type of digital graphic also. Digital graphicswould be used inopening sequences which is specifically used for movingimages is a type of Pixar file format. PIXARs are used when creating somethingwhich is a high-end graphic and is used for animation and three dimensionalimages so in animated movies. Print Media Products Moving image media Print file format products Posters TIFF Magazine PNG Animation Newspapers JPEG Leaflets Websites PDF CD/ DVD covers. Dimensional images GIF
  • 2. Raster images This is a print screen displaying all the different file formats which can be uploaded on Raster images. The most popular file formats I would say are file formats such as .EPS which is a file format which is specially created for images which have been edited using the editing software Photoshop. I wouldn’t say this file format is most popular when it comes to uploading to the web but is popular when editing in Photoshop. JPEG is seemed to be the overall popular file format as it has a low file size but saves as much quality as possible compared to other file formats.Raster images are used on print media products industry; these are things likeposters and magazines. Raster images assign each pixel one colour; this isviewable on either a computer screen or on a piece of paper.When it comes to comes to compression there are 2 different ways tocompress a file.There are two ways of compressing files; they both squeeze large images downso that they can be fitted into smaller spaces. However one way doesn’t loseany of the picture quality, this islossless compression, the other way ofcompressing can lose some of the picture quality, and this is lossycompression. Lossy gives a bigger space when saving but this does mean loss inthe image detail, lossless squeezes the large image into a smaller space butdoesn’t lose detail in the image. Some common file formats are BMP and JPEG.Raster images are created in Photoshop; this means that there are several fileformats that the file can be saved as. Different file formats allow have pros andcons, for example some are lossy and others are lossless. Some save with alarge file and others compress the image into a very small file size.
  • 3. Raster Based ApplicationsThere are a range of applications which are used specifically for raster graphicsbut there are four main ones. Coral Painter, Photoshop would be seen as thetop 2 most used application which making digital graphics used rasterapplications. But also are 2 well heard applications which are GIMP, MS Paintbut due to updates and new tools these 2 applications are not asrecommended to use anymore.Coral PainterCoral Painter is a type of software which is used for digital art which is doneunder raster-based application. Coral Painter isn’t a type of software forbeginners as it’s used for the purpose of art being as accurate as can be. This isdue to the facilities offered from this software as it’s designed especially fortraditional media associated with drawing, painting, and printmaking. Sopeople who have a profession within this subject matter it’s seen as commonsoftware for them to use. The current up to date version of Coral Painteriscalled Painter 12 which was updated in 2011.PhotoshopPhotoshop is editing software which was produced by the well-knowncompany, Adobe Systems Incorporated. Photoshop is graphic imaging softwarewhich is used to create raster images. Photoshop is one out of only of a coupleapplications which can read both raster files and vector files. Photoshop readslots of file formats for example.EPS, .PNG, .GIF, and .JPEG. These are raster fileformats only. Photoshop’s main strength is that it is a pixel based image editor.GIMPGIMP is free software which is specifically for editing raster graphics. It’smainly used as an image retouching and editing tool and is available in versionsmade for most popular operating systems including Microsoft Windows, AppleMac OS X, and Linux. GIMP has the tools to edit the image in different editingtasks such as resizing, editing, and cropping photos, photomontages.
  • 4. Photomontage is a tool which involves combining ranges images andconverting between different image formats.What is a file format?A file format is used for computers which help hold information in a basic way.The knowledge of what each file formats know is the exact amount of bitswhich have been used to encode information in digital storage. File Formatsdon’t usually cost anything but can be proprietary. Once file formats arecreated they can be unpublished or open.What are some examples of file formats?Not all file formats are the same, usually different file formats have beencreated for a specific job. For example one file format is a PNG file. Thepurpose of PNG files is to store bitmapped images which are using lossless datacompression. But most of the time file formats can hold up a lot more storagetypes.The file format called The Ogg which has the classic icon of an orange cone isused as a format which has been created to hold different types of multimedia.This means it can store data of different combinations of audio and video, withor without text and metadata.Interactive extensionsPNGPNG which stands for Portable Network Graphics is a bitmapped image formatthat employs lossless compression. PNG was created to improve upon andreplace GIF as an image file format. PNG supports palette-based images,grayscale images and RGB images. PNG was designed for transferring imageson the Internet, not for professional-quality print graphics, and therefore doesnot support non RGB color spaces such as CMYK.BMPBitmap is a uncompressed raster image comprised of a rectangular grid ofpixels which contains a file header e.g. bitmap identifier, file size, width,height, colour options, and bitmap data starting point. As well as bitmap pixels,
  • 5. this is each with different colours. BMP is able to store 2D colour of imageswhich have random width, height and resolution. BMP is most commonlyfound on Windows. . BMP format supports RGB, Indexed Colour, Grayscale,and Bitmap colour modes.Moving Image File ExtensionsPIXARThe PIXAR format has been created for the purpose of editing and swappingwith PIXAR image computers. This file format is featured in the editingsoftware Photoshop. This file format isn’t commonly used as it’s only usedreally for high-ended graphics. This file format is great when creating things forrendering three-dimensional images and animation. Pixar format supports RGBand grayscale images with a single alpha channel and has no format optionsassociated with the PIXAR file formatTarga- TGAThe TGA format file is a well know file format file which is used in costly paintprograms and ray tracing packages. It can have images which feature with upto sixteen million unique colours. This format file isn’t widely supported fromPCX or TIFF formats. The TGA format was designed for colour use on systemsfor example MS-DOS colour applications.TGA files can be saved either being compressed or not compressed. Windowsdon’t recognize 16 & 32 bits per pixel so for some applications it would changeby treating them if they were 24 bits per pixel. 16 bits per pixel image will beup-graded to 24 bits per pixel, and 32 bits per pixel image will be down-gradedto 24 bits per pixel image. This doesn’t affect the quality or procedure of theimage as its only 8 extra bits of a TGA 32 bits per pixel file which are used tostore Alpha or transparency information.
  • 6. Typical Tools and features used to create Graphics.PaintThis is a print screen of thetools and features that I haveused using the editingsoftware paint. Paint is abasic graphics paintingprogram which has beenaround since 1985.Paintbrush is a MicrosoftWindows version. Paint openand saves files such as WinWindows bitmap, JPEG, GIF,PNG and TIFF. The program can be in colour mode or two-color black-and-white, but there is no grayscale mode. For its simplicity, it rapidly became oneof the most used applications in the early versions of Windows—introducingmany to painting on a computer for the first time—and still has strongassociations with the immediate usability of the old Windows workspace.The program comes with the following options in its Tool Box (from left to right in image): Free-Form Select Select Eraser/Color Eraser Fill With Color Pick Color Magnifier Pencil Brush Airbrush Text Line Curve Rectangle Polygon Ellipse Rounded Rectangle
  • 7. Photoshop When it comes to Photoshop the facilities and tools you get compared to Paint it has a ton more range of tools when using Photoshop. Paint is software which has basic tools but Photoshop have more specific tools which allowsyou to extend your skills and ability when trying to create. Some of the toolsthat Photoshop feature are things like: Rectangular Marguee Tools Move Tool Polygon Lasso Tool Magic Wand Tool Crop Tool Slice Tool Healing Brush Tool Brush Tool Clone Stamp Tool History Brush Tool Eraser Tool Gradient Tool Blur Tool Dodge Tool Path Selection Tool Horizontal Type Tool Pen Tool Rectangle Tool Notes Tool Eyedropper Tool Hand Tool Zoom Tool
  • 8. Vector Images • .EPSStands for Encapsulated PostScript and is a graphics file format. EPS files aremostly self-contained. PostScript documents that are an image or drawing andcan be used with another PostScript document. These file formats are used forgraphics, images and text. They are used so you can have an embeddedpreview can be used on Bitmap. This is the most popular file format for Vectorimages. • .FLAIs a file format which used on flash and that is used to add animation, video,and interactivity to Web pages. Flash is frequently used for advertisements andgames. They are compressed file formats which are viewable on the web withFlash. It’s a file which can be edited and converted into .SWF for professionaluse.Vector images can be created by points of connected lines, control points andby curves. Vector images are a group of individual objects rather than pictureelements. But Vector images do have some disadvantages for example Vectorimages are images which doesn’t look realistic and an advantage is that youcan resize them and they won’t lose any quality from them. Lines are a line segment comes between two anchor points. A main image ismade up of lots of smaller, individual lines. They are what make up a Vectorimage. Curves and shapes are used the image can add colour in order to fill theimage in or just simply outline the shape.Changing the size or shape of the image will not affect the way that the imagelooks like. Vector allows artists to change the properties of the image and havemore manual control over the image. Vector images are able to increase anddecrease the size of the image as much as you like and won’t make anydifference to the image whereas Raster images pixelate.Vector images will stay the same when being moved and won’t have anautomatic background like you would have on Raster images and makes
  • 9. cropping images and changing the shape on a Vector image much easier unlikeRaster images.Polygons allow any paths which are on the image which are closed allowed tocreate from three or more adjoining line segments. A curve can be calculatedand drawn by knowing the position of two end points and control points. Apoint that is shown when its at the start and end of the path including partswhich the path changes direction.Raster AnimationData compression is when techniques are basically for reducing the file size ofimages so it allows it to be stored for example onto a disk. The quality of theimage is reduced so some of the information is lost and makes the file sizesmaller.This shows a Lossy compression. The high resolution cant be scaled on Rasterimages because it leads into the disadvantage of the image losing quality in thepicture. Whereas Lossless is where it can be undone and can result in thepicture being in a high resolution and is used for Vector graphics becausewhatever size it will be there quality is still the same quality. Raster images areused in paint programmes such as photo shop, coral draw etc. A raster imageor in other words called a bitmap is a type of way to show digital images.Raster images takes a wide range of formats here are some examples: • .gifThis stands for Graphics Interchange Format. A format for a file that contains agraphic or picture and is widely used over the internet and used for things suchas advertisement banners • .jpgStands for Joint Photographic Experts Group and can store more colours than agif but usually results in loss of quality. JPEG are often used for images for theweb. • .bmp
  • 10. This stands for Best Management Practices which is an image file format whichis used to store bitmap digital images for example on Microsoft Windows andOS/2 operating systems. • .tiffThis stands for Tagged Image Format. This is a format for storing grey-scaledata. It is the standard format for scanned images and for exporting grey-scaleand colour images to other programs • psdIs a Photoshop image file and is used on Photoshop which is a graphics editingprogram. The file formats are made up from layers which are joined together.Raster images show information which turn into pixels on the screen. Thepixels make a final finish image. When raster images are viewed the images aresmooth and sharp for a photograph or a drawing. When stretched the pixels dobecome quite obvious which isnt too good. The smaller the resolution, thesmaller the digital image files.CompressionCompression is a method which is used when you want to save free data bymaking large files of pictures lower in size. Compression doesn’t change yourimage what so ever so the image will be appeared to look the exact change asthe only thing we are changing is the size of the file so we reduce itconsiderably.The quality of the image might be a tad effected but not to an extent. It hasbeen compressed so of course when the large file has been reduced too muchthere is going to be a noticeable change. The reason being is that the defaultsize of the picture which has a small compression isn’t too obvious only whenthe image has been zoomed in on and the detail in the picture has beenreduced. You know when the picture has been compressed because pixelsstart to show which shows the reduced amount of detail in the picture so lessdifferent shades of colour are being used.
  • 11. CompressionCompression is a method which is used when you want to save free data bymaking large files of pictures lower in size. Compression doesn’t change yourimage what so ever so the image will be appeared to look the exact change asthe only thing we are changing is the size of the file so we reduce itconsiderably.The quality of the image might be a tad effected but not to an extent. It hasbeen compressed so of course when the large file has been reduced too muchthere is going to be a noticeable change. The reason being is that the defaultsize of the picture which has a small compression isn’t too obvious only whenthe image has been zoomed in on and the detail in the picture has beenreduced. You know when the picture has been compressed because pixelsstart to show which shows the reduced amount of detail in the picture so lessdifferent shades of colour are being used.Vector Based ApplicationsAdobe PhotoshopIn Adobe Photoshop, it’s possible to draw vector shapes and paths.Photoshops main strength is as a pixel based image editor, unlike vector basedimage editors. However Photoshop also enables the creation, incorporation,and manipulation of vector graphics through its Paths, Pen tools, Shape tools,Shape Layers, Type tools, Import command and Smart object functions. Thesetools and commands are suitable when you want to combine pixel-based andvector-based images in one Photoshop document, because you may not haveto use more than one program. However if you want to create very complexvector graphics with numerous shapes and colours, you may find it easier touse software that was created primarily for that purpose, such as AdobeIllustrator.Adobe FireworksAdobe Fireworks is software which is an editor for bitmap and vector graphics.The software was first invented for the purpose of being a better Adobe by
  • 12. using the same tool features Adobe 2009 to use and more. This software wasbuilt for the purpose of being aimed at web designers as it has suitable toolssuch as: hotspots, slices, website prototypes and application interfaces. It’sdesigned so it can be compatible with Adobe Software such as Adobe,Dreamweaver and Flash.Adobe IllustratorAdobe Illustrator is software especially for vector graphics editor which isanother type of Adobe software. When a file is saved on illustrator it is savedas an“.AI” file format which is Illustrators main format. This format can also beopened in Photoshop as they are both Adobe software so they have made sureit can mix well with one another which is very useful. Adobe Illustrator has atool for curved, straight lines. When drawing a line it automatically correctsyou by making the lines much smoother. This feature among others helpscreate high quality and attractive vector graphics for multiple media projects.Adobe Illustrator like other Adobe software has different versions and therehave been 15! They always slightly improve on the software, one example is alive trace so you have a basic outline from a picture so it’s much quicker andone tool is to create 3D objects.Adobe FlashAdobe Flash is Adobe software which has been created for the purpose ofanimation, video or interactivity. Animation can be easily. Flash features suchas frames, timeline etc are features which allow these creations to happen. Bya timeline you can trace how long or what second of the video needs changingjust by a simple drag and click. Flash is a good program for advertisements,games and flash animations for broadcast. Many worldwide for use Flash fortheir business. Flash is used for entertainment motoring for such TVprogrammes such as Disney, comedy central and nickelodeon.Flash cancopy vector graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. Itsupports bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture userinput through the mouse, the keyboard, the microphone, and through acamera. Flash contains an object-oriented language called Action Script andsupports automation via the Java script Flash language.
  • 13. MetafilesA metafile is a file which holds informationthat describes or specifies another file ofmultiple data. All the file formats which canbe described by metafiles are all graphicfiles. Metafiles can be save both raster andvector images as well as any type of datafiles. Examples of file formats which usemetafiles are .PDF and this file format ismost useful for interaction. For examplemobile devices, interactive white board etc.SVG is a metafile two-dimensional graphics that is used for interactivity andanimation.Windows Metafile (WMF)WMF is a graphic file format which has been created specifically for thecompany of Microsoft windows systems. These files are used to storespecifically vector and bitmap-format image data which areable to be used byportable applications. It also has a feature on the file and issued the WindowsGraphic file has a range of functions that have to be issued to the WindowsGraphics Device layer in order for the image to appear on the screen.In 1993,the 32-bit version of Win32/GDI introduced the enhanced metafile a newerversion with additional commands. He Windows Metafile format has become astaple format for graphical applications and is supported on all platforms