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Hanok City Masterplan


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The Hanok City Masterplan is the culmination of the work done by students in the 2012 Physical Planning and Urban Design Capstone as part of their master's requirements at the University of Michigan.

The Hanok City Masterplan is the culmination of the work done by students in the 2012 Physical Planning and Urban Design Capstone as part of their master's requirements at the University of Michigan.

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  • 1. hanok citya multigenerational home
  • 2. contentsh an ok c ity. . . a home for all generations unique identity: the new multigenerational home A5 accessible A11 interconnected transit A14 flexible streets A16 the intermodal hub A18 services network A24 healthy A29 water A32 energy A38 waste management A40 landscape A42 urban ecology A44 social A47 network of social spaces A50 the parc A52 the boardwalk A58 the street marketplace A60 the village square A62 the parc promenade A64 tour of the home A67 building the home A83 connecting to the region A84 policy framework A86 site level implementation A90 block level implementation A92 vertical proximity requirement A96 vertical community space ratio A98 appendix A103A2 A3
  • 3. a home has a unique ide ntity the new multi generational home Hanok City combines the core qualities of Seoul’s culture with urban density, transit accessibility, ecological vitality, and livability. The people living and visiting Hanok City are in the heart of an international business network, a diverse ecosystem, and a historical city with cultural traditions that date back to 17 BC. This plan revisits the traditional understanding of family, the home, and agglomeration. Beyond the advantages of Hanok City’s geographical location on the Han River and only 25 minutes from downtown Seoul, the site’s infrastructure and density present another set of advantages. The plan’s systems will not only accommodate a highly dense and rapidly aging population, but also support it, nurture it, and let it grow and change over time. Age-friendly design considerations are woven into the urban fabric to ensure that all of the opportunities in Hanok City can be utilized by every person, young and old. Hanok City will serve as a model for vertical cities and aging populations around the world, showcasing a deep rooted culture and celebrating an exciting future.A4 A5
  • 4. h a n o k c it y u n iq u e id e n t it yt he n ew m ult ige n e r a ti o n al h o mel e a r n i n g f ro m s o u th k o re a n tra d it ional f amily st ruct ureTra d i t i o n a l S o uth K o re a n fa mi l y Hanok City br ings the best aspects s t ru c t u r e i s c h a n g i n g : of m ultigener ational fam ily life to the ur ban r ealm : Today, three and four-generation families living in one household is increasingly rare. According to the National Because the traditional structure of the Korean home Statistical Office in South Korea, the number of households is changing, where a more globalized people prefer increased 11.1% from 2001 to 2006 due to an increase independence from their family, then the city will need to in the number of single households. About 55 percent of take on the role of the traditional home and facilitate a the 15.8 million households in South Korea in 2006 were supportive and vibrant environment for multigenerational nuclear families, with only parents and children living interaction. Hanok City is envisioned as this new together. Only 6.9 percent were three-generation families multigenerational home, where people of all ages and and only 0.1 percent of households were four-generation backgrounds are constantly interacting, supporting, and families. learning from each other. Wha t d o e s t h i s me a n fo r l i fe i n S outh Hanok City represents a new design paradigm: leveraging Traditional South Korean family structure: multiple The f ut ure of Yongs a n: m ul ti pl e ge ne r a ti onsKore a ? the advantages of an extremely dense urban environment generations living and interacting in the same household. l i vi ng and i nt e r a c ti ng i n the c i ty i n a v a r i e ty (an agglomeration of economies, peoples, and services) of publ i c and c om m uni ty s pa c e s !The change in family structure in South Korea is not to create a vibrant, livable, and adaptive home for allnecessarily a negative thing; a 1996 research report by The generations.Institute for Gerontological Studies of Korea stated that often the main reasons for multi generational co-residence was “practicality” rather than it being “natural”. Both young and old Koreans more often prefer independence from extended family when it comes to living arrangements. Even so, as more Koreans live in single apartments and separate from relatives, many of the positive aspects of multi generational living is lost. When young and old reside together, family members often provide care, emotional support, and a diverse social environment for each other. The elderly can interact and be entertained by younger generations. Children can learn from the experience and vast knowledge of their parents and grandparents. Relatives can help parents with household duties and childcare, and parents and other relatives can provide care and support for their elderly family members. Typical ur ban cit ies: diff icult or uncom f or t able The f ut ure of Yongs a n: a ge -fr i e ndl y a m e ni ti e s living envir onm ent s, especially f or t he elder ly and desi gn t o m a k e a v i br a nt a nd a ttr a c ti v e and t hose wit h lesser m obilit y. envi ronment f or a l l !A6 A7
  • 5. h a n o k c it y u n iq u e id e n t it yt he n ew m ult ige n e r a ti o n al h o mea c c e s s i b l e , h ea lth y, a n d s o c ia lk e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs o f amu lt i g e n e r a t i o n a l h o me : a home is...• Part of a larger regional community; one that connects to the culture and resources around it. accessible g o al: a c entr al and components: interconnected transit c onnec ted netw or k complete and flexible streets • Accessible to all ages, incomes of people; one that intermodal hub enables mobility and the potential for interaction. services network• Promotes the health of people and nature, while protecting them from threats to their wellbeing healthy g o al: env i r onm ental components: water• Facilitates social interaction through a variety of open spaces, community spaces, recreational and s us tai nabi l i ty that energy entertainment venues. l as ts waste management landscape urban ecology• Adaptable to the changing needs of its residents social g o al: fl ex i bl e and v i br ant components: network of spaces nearest open spaces s oc i al s pac es the parc 10th floor the boardwalk 76th floor the parc, 5m the street marketplace plaza, 10m the village square the parc promenadeA8 A9
  • 6. a home is acc e s s ible interconnected transit complete streets the intermodal hub services network An accessible home is one that is easy to get to, no matter your age, handicap or even what language you speak. Positioning the elderly at the center of its design, Hanok City is accessible to any one and everyone. The transportation plan reinvents the streets, manages congestion, expands open space, and makes more room for pedestrians and bicycles. The design encourages public transit use by incorporating bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail, and local buses frequently on local streets. These transit modes are affordable and easy to use with transportation technology and wayfinding strategies. Furthermore, the design incorporates access ramps and stairs together, creating a cohesive sense of movement. The Intermodal Hub is the heart of Hanok City’s transportation network. It is a place where people are moving through all day, but it is also a reference point, where people can stay for awhile and shop, grab a bite to eat, sit and people-watch, and wait for a friend. The Hub brings together commuter, metropolitan, regional, and local lines into an integrated, transit-oriented development at the center of the an international business district. A1 0 A 11
  • 7. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib legoa l : c e nt r a l a nd c on n ected n etw o rkm u l t i mo d a l t ran s p o rta tio n s y s te m and major t ransit orient ed developm en tpr o v i d e s a c c e s s to a ll c ity a me nit ies and services.k e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs• Streets have large right of ways, with over 80% Mobility for all! Residents and visitors, including the elderly, young, active, and handicapped, can easily go anywhere of space given to pedestrian, bike, and/or public on the site and beyond. transportation. large sidewalks to provide ample room walkers, active storefronts and temporary uses like markets • All buildings that contain residential units are within and pop-up galleries. a 5 minute walk from both a public transportation and an active transportation route (bike path or park pedestrian refuge areas and pedestrian bridges to provide safe and comfortable crossings on path). Age-friendly and inclusive features are integrated metropolitan roads. into all public transportation stops• All needed services are provided and dispersed over 4,000 street trees provide a natural amenity on throughout the site, especially those serving the every street. elderly and families. bus rapid transportation provides efficient access to • All site areas and services are easily accessible by and from the site and the intermodal hub. public transportation, with good connections and a regional highway is recessed in the ground, well-marked routes and vehicles. has a thick natural tree buffer, and has two major pedestrian bridges to connect users to the • Public transportation is reliable and frequent, even at waterfront. night, weekends, and holidays. a connected system of bike-only paths are provided • The intermodal hub is central to the site and easily on every street. accessibly by all public transportation routes, a local bus system and light rail connect users allowing visitors and residents travel to and from touch throughout the site, to Yongsan Park, the intermodal Youngsan easily. screen protected prominent hub, Downtown Seoul, and across the Han River. stops covered electronic and wayfinding• Transport stops and stations are conveniently clearly bike information accessible and map 3 main bridges for pedestrians, bikers, and lightrail located, accessible, safe, clean, and have adequate parking booths to connect users over the train tracks and provide marked seating display lighting, seating and shelter. viewing platforms to watch high-speed trains. underground tunnels provide access for service • Parking and drop-off areas are safe and conveniently vehicle and give through traffic an efficient means located close to other transportation options, and to move through site. there are priority parking and drop-off areas for people with special needs. visitor parking in key areas lets nonresidents leave their car and access the rest of the site on foot or by • Complete and accessible information is provided public transportation. to users about public transportation stops and all parking providing electric car charging schedules. A1 2 A13
  • 8. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib lei nt e rc o n ne c t e d t r a n si tm u l t i mo d a l a t re g io n a l, me tro p o lit an, and local levelHanok City transit infrastructure Hanok City public transportation networkA1 4 A15
  • 9. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib lef l exi b l e s t r e e t ss tr ee t s c a n c ha n g e o v e r time to include more act ive and public t ranspo r t at io n initial boulevard type less motorized boulevardA1 6 A17
  • 10. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib let he i n t e rm o d a l h u ba l a rg e - s c a l e tra n s it o rie n te d d e velopmentThe intermodal hub is vital to the accessibility of Hanok City. As an augmentation of the existing Yongsan Station, its minimalist and expansive design seeks to better guide residents, businessmen, visiting relatives, tourists, shoppers, night life enthusiasts, and other users of all ages to their destinations. It offers direct connections to the Boardwalk, the Parc, Yongsan Park, museums, libraries, international businesses, and shopping, as well as facilitates easy connections between modes of transportation. Taking advantage of its central location and access to destination amenities in and around Hanok City, the intermodal hub will be an economic engine that drives development in Hanok City, in addition to being a prominent access point to Seoul and the rest of Korea. Night view of the intermodal plazaA1 8 A19
  • 11. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib let he i n t e rm o d a l h u ba m u l t i - l a y e re d s ta tio n YON GSAN IN T ER M O D A L H U B RIDERSHIP 2010 2050 (estimate) Yongsan Pop 227,400 440,000 (94% increase) National Rail 33,000 ppl/day 63,850 Honam Jungang Jeolla Gyeongbu Local Rail/ 67,000 ppl/day 129,639 Subway Line 1 K1 sky Parc retail mall walkable canopy park direct access to IBD connection covered to civic immediate walk to district access to Parc station 4 high speed platforms local bus underground access to yongsan park bus rapid transit stop ride share pickup point 4 metro platforms transit centre parking from elevated walkwayeast/west section, looking northA2 0 A21
  • 12. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib let he i n t e rm o d a l h u ba m u l t i - l a y e re d s ta tio n sky Parc access to canopy park access to yongsan park from elevated walkway walkable canopy access to park Sky Parc pedestrian public plaza overpass immediate access to Parc underground underground underground metropolitan road local road local roadnorth/south section, looking eastA2 2 A23
  • 13. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib leserv i ces ne t wo r kpr o mo t e s i n t era c tio nIn Hanok City all the services a community needs mixed retailare at its fingertips. Unlike more traditional forms of development that support consolidation and segregation daycaresof land uses, Hanok City supports multiple programs neighborhoodsimultaneously. K - 12 schoolsThe result of this effort is a place of crossing paths and shared spaces. Regardless of their social status, residents of Hanok City are constantly exposed to a fitness centersvariety of lifestyles and perspectives. As the development matures, this constant process of discovery and police stationinteraction will provide powerful support for the evolution of Hanok City’s unique culture of collaboration. neighborhood clincsThe services found within Hanok City fall into three categories: Neighborhood services are services with a small hypermarketsservice population and small average area. Able to districtseamlessly integrate into a neighborhood, strong librariesneighborhood services are a cornerstone in the development of any area’s quality of life fire stations ParcDistrict services are services whose assets attract right of wayusers beyond their surrounding blocks. Capable of district hospital Meterscreating nodes of resident activity, district services often act as an anchor for their neighbors. 50 150 500 Urban Services Distribution StrategyRegional services are services that are designedto serve metropolitan Seoul. As a result of this wide big box retail regionalreach, regional services present substantial benefits health education retail emergency civic(i.e. real estate development) and significant challenges metropolitan hospital(i.e. traffic modeling). Hanok City addresses these metropolitan hospital continuing education big box stores fire department stations librariesdevelopment issues but using regional services district hospital high schools hypermarketsas a focal point for pedestrian circulation models, continuing educationdevelopment phasing, and general urban design. neighborhood clinic primary schools police stations fitness centersA2 4 A25
  • 14. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib leserv i ces ne t wo r ka l l a g e s a n d a b ilitie s c a n e a s ily access needed services facility type service population avg sqm # of facilities libraries 25,000 2,300 9 civic fitness centers 8,700 7,300 24 maximum walking distance to nearest service facility fire stations 27,800 1,100 8 emergency police stations 10,200 460 21 metropolitan hospital metro Seoul 26,125 2 health district hopsitals 29,500 3,000 7 neighborhood clinics 17,200 750 13 big box retail 44,000 9,300 5 retail hypermarkets 22,000 6,000 10 mixed retail 450 280 510 continuing education metro Seoul 180,000 2 education K - 12 schools 6,700 6,200 33 daycares 730 160 303A2 6 A27
  • 15. a home is healthy water energy waste management landscape urban ecology A good home supports the health and wellbeing of its residents and protects against threats to its citizens. To support the health of its residents and combate global climate change, Hanok City protects its natural features and incorporates many sustainable technologies like biogas reactors and pneumatic waste collection that minimize the City’s impact on the environment. In its sustainability endeavor, Hanok City also recognizes the necessity of an informed, engaged, and impassioned public. To champion this cause, Hanok City assures that every sustainable development initiative includes programs that operate at the scale of the individual. Creating a forum for residents of social classes to interact, these programs reinforce the mission of Hanok City to bring all age and social groups together under one roof. A2 8 A29
  • 16. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ygoa l : e n v ir o n m e n t a l su stai n ab i l i ty th at l astss us t a i n a b l e s ys te msk e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs action items by stakeholder group institutionConstructed infrastructure Fixture Flow Meters• Retain and recycle all stormwater generated on site Household Stormwater Recycling Water conservation is maximized by capturing Organic Waste Pre-processing stormwater, creating flood tolerant landscapes, and Solid Waste Sorting empowering citizens to reduce potable water use. Community Forestry Urban Agriculture• Reduce per capita consumption of fossil fuels within the site by 50% Low carbon energy is generated on site through the anaerobic digestion of organic waste and the installation of vertical axis wind turbines. business• Become Seoul’s first zero-landfill district Waste recycling is supported through a rapid, In-building Stormwater Cisterns pneumatic waste collection and sorting system Pervious Roofing Materials Stormwater Irrigation Systems In-building Waste Chutes Landscape infrastructure Electric Vehicle Facilities Native Species Landscaping• Eliminate all automobile emissions Garden Roofs Air Quality is improved through generous tree planting and electric vehicle incentives• Create a 100% native species landscape Biodiversity is protected by exclusively using a native- species planting palette and constructing remediative community Layout of Major Sustainable Systems Components throughout the Site wetlands Constructed Wetlands• Provide 10 square meters of garden space per Stormwater Vaults resident. Biogas Reactor Food Security is strengthened by establishing a local Pneumatic Waste Pipeline Parc Corridor Solid Waste Facilities food crisis safety net. Waste Sorting Centers Bioswales Proposed Wind Turbine Sites Meters Native Species Landscaping Constructed Wetlands and Streams Public Right of Way Urban Forestry Bioreactor Facility 50 150 500 Stormwater VaultsA3 0 A31
  • 17. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ywat err eco n n e c t i n g p e o p le , p la c e , a n d hydrologyHanok City is a place where water ceases to be a action items by stakeholder groupcommodity and evolves into an active, omnipresent member of the community. Through a series of public institutionand private devices, residents of Hanok City are encouraged and invited to enrich their interactions with water, exposing opportunities for exploration, utilization, and conservation. Overtime, the accumulation of these opportunities will generate the intellectual and cultural Support a Culture of Waterresources needed to empower future development. Conservation and ActivismFlowing through buildings rather than over them, water in Hanok City also serves as a critical component of large scale urban patterns. Where water falls, the built environment offers porosity. Where water flows, the ground becomes green and playful. Where water pools, Hanok City responds with generous water-tolerant landscapes. Together these design responses forward businessa vision of urban environments serving as engines for restoration rather than degradation. To reflect the multifaceted nature of water use, Hanok City examines sustainable water use through three Construct Buildings whichthemes: Monitor their Potable and Wastewater MetabolismDrinking Water is the Han’s most precious service. Hanok City conserves this resource by using rainwater cisterns to supplement the regional water supply Stormwater is one of the Han’s largest sources of pollution. Hanok City ameliorates this threat by using bioswales and pervious roofing to capture runoff. community Layout of Major Water System Components Floodwater can threaten life and property. In many cases the waters of the Han are the primary source of Construct Infrastructure with thethis risk. To reduce this threat, Hanok City maintains Capacity to Recycle Stormwater Parc Corridora flood-tolerant river side landscape. Flooding can Stormwater Vaults Meters Develop Incentives to Motivate Bioswalesalso occur as the result of poor drainage. Hanok City Major Drainage Pipes Innovations in the Market Place Constructed Wetlands and Streams Public Right of Way 50 150 500addresses this concern by using constructed wetlands and underground vaults to sequester heavy precipitationA3 2 A33
  • 18. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ywat ers pe c i a l i z e d i n te rv e n tio n sconstructed wetlands building systemsWetlands are ecosystems specially adapted to the Water resource conservation begins in buildings. As the physical conditions associated with regular flooding. In largest source of impervious surface, buildings represent the hydrologic cycle, their ability to hold and filter water the largest generator of stormwater. To compensate, all plays a key role in maintaining the quality of water bodies buildings in Hanok City contain cisterns large enough to and recharging the local water table. The constructed store 10 cm of precipitation. wetlands in Hanok City play a similar role. Buildings also support the vast majority of potable water Located along the waterfront, constructed wetland are consumption. To offset this consumption, the plumbing used to create a landscape where flooding can occur in Hanok City buildings contain stormwater plumbing safely. Along the rail yard, wetlands protect sensitive for non-potable water uses. To inform consumption infrastructure and convert wasted space into valuable flow meters are installed on every household fixture. habitat. Within the Parc, wetlands similarly provide an Connected to both a household log and the utility environment where stormwater can gather, be processed metering system, these fixture meters allow greater by natural systems, and help re-establish the area’s understanding of how and when potable water use can native hydrology. be reduced. stormwater vaults surface flowsIn high density sites, even moderate amounts of runoff One of the keys to any successful conservation program can overwhelm surface storage systems. In areas where is public awareness. With regard to surface water quality, seasonal monsoons often generate large volumes this program component is satisfied by showcasing the of stormwater, like Seoul, it is therefore necessary to movement of water through the site. develop redundant storage systems. In Hanok City, underground vaults provide this overflow protection. The movement of water across the surface of Hanok City occurs as three different scales. Within the block, Linked to block drainage systems, Hanok City’s a planted bioswale between the sidewalk and the curb stormwater vaults provide enough storage capacity to brings water management into the neighborhood. In hold 10 cm of precipitation (220 cu m). The distribution the district, the construction of channel along the bed of the vault system mirrors the wetland system, and of historic stream makes water a central focus for the Restored in 2005, the Cheongyecheon is a historic stream channel that cuts through the heart of downtown Seoul. As a visitor therefore allows renovation without disturbing roadways. entire site. At the scale of metro Seoul, restoration of the moves from the stream’s headwater plaza down to its terminus at the banks of the Han, they encounter a series of landscapes which celebrate different aspects of the city’s relationship with water. This gradient serves as a primary inspiration for Hanok City’s Through site-level utilities, the vault systems’s reserves waterfront facilitates the reintroduction of the public with interpretation of infrastructure development. Photo credit: Jean Chung for The New York Times can be used for irrigation purposes their city’s greatest natural asset. A3 4 A35
  • 19. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yene rg yr ei n v e n t i n g t he g rid action items by stakeholder group institutionHanok City challenges the traditional logic of the Help Build Hanok City’selectrical grid. Rather than conceptualizing districts Electric Vehicle Fleetas simply consumers, Hanok City situates the urban environment as a tool to generate, store, and recycle Incorporate Organic Wasteenergy. The heart of this initiative is a biogas production processing into Household Choressystem that is capable of not only increasing gross energy supply, but also reduce the total amount of Provide Vocal Support forenergy consumed for the transport and processing of Structural Wind Turbinesorganic waste and municipal sewage. Biogas is the market term given to methane gas thathas been produced from the decomposition of organic businessmaterials in environments devoid of oxygen (anaerobic). In the past biogas technology focused on industries Provide Electric Vehicle Chargingsuch as agriculture, food processing, and other sectors Facilities in all Parking Garageswhere large amounts of organic waste was produced and energy demand was high. More recently, however, Include Organic Waste Processingwaste management utilities have begun adapting biogas Facilities in all Buildingsfacilities to convert sewage and municipal solid waste into methane. Inspired by this advance, Hanok City takes Provide Loans for Wind Turbinebiogas out of the remote sewage treatment plant into Constructionthe city. The key to this transition is unifying the organic waste stream. Waste disposals elements are a common feature in community Layout of Major Energy Facilities Throughout Hanok Citymany homes. Most commonly they are used to grind food waste so as to prevent. Hanok City, however, asks them to do more. Mimicking a project run Siemens Construct and Manage Biogas Parc Corridorin the City of Milwaukee, WI, USA, Hanok City uses Reactors and Facilities Bioreactor Facilityhigh strength garbage disposals to turn virtually any Proposed Wind Turbine Sites Metershousehold organic wastes, including cardboard, into a Create Incentives to Install Wind Sewage Mains Turbines 50 150 500homogeneous product ideal for anaerobic digestion. Public Right of WayA3 6 A37
  • 20. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yene rg ycl o s i n g t h e l oo pSupporting innovation in energy management requires the utilization of multiple complimentary programs and an integrated network of tools. Hanok City embraces this call for diversity by using wind energy and fuel cell technology to supplement its premier biomass program. Sanitary sewers are the next key piece of the biogas system. Hanok City’s sanitary sewers transport the organic waste slurry to an array of biogas digesters located beneath the IBD. Within this series of tanks, the waste slurry is inoculated with a culture of methane popular consumptionproducing bacteria that expedite decomposition. Capable of being completed in 24 hours, effective digestion will energy recaptureconvert a substantial amount of the slurry into gas, thus reducing the overall volume of waste that must be treated and transported. The methane itself can be burned on site to generate heat, be used to power a steam turbine, or pumped through a fuel cell to directly produce electricity. organizing the waste streamVertical axis wind turbines are known for their compact size, low vibrations, and ability to generate electricity even at low wind velocities. For all of these reasons, vertical axis wind turbines are being targeted as a attractive design for highrise wind power generation. Hanok City embraces the opportunity to further wind energy design and provides a builder incentive structure for installing rooftop turbines on high rise structures. Electric Vehicles are most often conceptualized as private assets and not pieces of regional energy biogas productioninfrastructure. Hanok City challenges this conception by arguing that electric vehicle fleets stored within the Creating innovative energy systems cannot be accomplished alone. Their success requires investments on the parts of multiple district can, during low consumption periods, act as stakeholders. With the regard to the development of biogas facilities, perhaps the most central of these investments is made by reservoirs for excess energy. Electric vehicles attached to the public. As the generators of waste, the public is uniquely situated to deconstruct the waste stream into separate, more uniform the grid during periods of excess energy production can components. Just like a refined ore, the inventiveness of the private sector can then begin to experiment with ways to create value store unused electricity in their batteries. During periods from these components. Rather than priming the market, institutions can then work to make the infrastructural polices and invest-of high energy demand, the grid can then draw energy ments needed to formalize emerging technologies. In the case of biogas production, investments of this kind might include estab-back out of the electric vehicles, and thereby reduce the lishing pricing schemes for biogas-sourced energy or loan programs for emerging utility providers. A3 8 A39
  • 21. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ywast e ma n a g e m e n tm akin g a mo u n ta in in to a mo le hill action items by stakeholder groupSeoul and South Korea as a nation already maintains a highly advanced solid waste management program. Unlike the United States, where household garbage is institutiongenerally unsorted, all solid waste from households and Sort the Waste Stream into itssmall businesses must be disposed in content specific Individual Componentsbags. The bags can be purchased from a variety of vendors, and their price reflects the cost of managing Generate a Demand for Products Disposal Hatchesthat particular part of the waste stream. In most places with Minimal Packaging and Non-this program has lead to a segregation of recyclable from Recyclable Componentsnon-recyclable items. In some, more progressive areas, however, the South Korean bag system has lead to the consolidation of household kitchen scraps into a distinct, composting waste stream. Based on this success, the challenge of Hanok City is not to organize a muddled waste stream, but instead to facilitate its collection and reprocessing businessThe basis of the Hanok City solid waste collection Pneumatic Pipelinesystem is pressured pipeline that quite literally sucks sorted garbage out of structures and into two centralized Integrate Disposal Conduits intosorting facilities. The are three major components of this Building Design and Constructionpneumatic system Test the Feasibility of On-siteDisposal hatches are the first major component. They Recycling Facilitiescan be inside units or along sidewalks. They can be locked private facilities or they can operate much like trash cans in a public park. The pipeline network is the second major system Processing Facilitycomponent. Consisting of pressured pipes both within structures and within the public right of way, this network community Layout of Major Energy Facilities Throughout the Siterequires strong public-private cooperation to construct Construct and Manage Pneumatic SystemCentralized sorting facilities are the final system Infrastructure Parc Corridorelement. Located beneath the IBD and at the southeast corner of the site, the structures sort, store, and prepare Continue Developing Pricing Solid Waste Processing Facilitieshousehold for being shipped to processing centers Signals to Incentivise Reduced Pneumatic Pipeline Meters Public Right of Way Waste Production 50 150 500A4 0 A41
  • 22. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yl an d scap ec ul ti v a t i n g e co s y s te m s e rv ic e sParc serves as Hanok City’s premier piece of landscape action items by stakeholder groupinfrastructure. At its northeastern tip, it functions as a transitional buffer between the more forested condition institution bioswales throughout the parcproposed for Yongsan Park and the heavy residential areas to the south. Along its western edge, a historic Create community forestry pro-stream channel is uncovered and a series of constructed grams to care for neighborhood creek/storm water basinwetlands and channels reintroduce native floodplain tree canopyspecies into the site. Along the site’s riverfront, the Parc reach its full potential, providing abundant tree cover and Develop gardening programs step pool and fountainextensive wetlands amidst a premier social space and clubs to expose the youth to traditional Korean gardeningIn Hanok City, the natural world is a key partner in the techniquescollaborative development process. As contributor to the management of physical infrastructure, native landscapes freshen the air, reduce the urban heat island effect, and guard against flooding. As a component of Yongsan bufferHanok City’s cultural systems, elements of the region’s natural history create a shared identity through which business greenwaysyoung and old can build rapport. The three main Develop nurseries to provide na-components of this system are: tive species planting stockRooftop gardens, although domesticated, provide a wetland buffer Integrate landscape systems intovery tactile way for youth to reconnect with the rural building design and real estatetraditions of earlier generations. As a component of development projectsdistrict wide food security plan, they can also help a community relieve periods of food scarcity. Tree Canopy help reduce the severity of urban heat islands, freshen the air, and absorb significant amounts of stormwater. In Hanok City tree canopy are present along every right of way, and in concentrated stands communityalong the waterfront, the Parc, and the rail corridor. Regulate landscaping to ensureConstructed wetlands are a central part of Hanok the use of native speciesCity’s water management system. By providing a place for water to accumulate and be metabolized, they Train parks personnel to care stormwater flowsubstantially reduce the district’s ecological footprint. As for naturalized park Metersa collection of native species, however, these pocket- environmentshabitats also act as reservoirs of native biodiversity. Stormwater Flow Accumulation and Supporting Landscape Infrastructure 50 150 500A4 2 A43
  • 23. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yurb a n e c o log ya n e n v i ro n me n t th a t s u p p o rts itself t hrough biodiversit y bioswales throughout the parc 492 species of birds greenways creek/storm water basin step pool and fountain 216 species of freshwater fish found in Korea’s rivers and lakes (carp are the most common) earth ramp shade intolerant plants flood tolerant plants shade tolerant plants earth ramp earth ramp quercus aliena lindera erythrocarpa (tree) acer pseudosieboldianum (a.k.a. the oriental white oak) (a.k.a. the Korean maple tree) zoysia japonica (grass) miscanthus spp. (shrub) euonymus japonica (shrub)Landscape Various landscape interventions throughout the site, The Parc promotes the site’s natural green and water including greenways and local art, help guide people to Metersfeatures. It provides fresh air, sunlight, and water amidst the Parc. The Parc’s pathway connects Yongsan Park all a highly dense and built urban fabric. the way to the riverfront. Layout of Major Landscape Infrastructure 50 150 500A4 4 A45
  • 24. a home is social network of spaces the parc the boardwalk the street marketplace the village square the parc promenade Hanok City connects people by creating the physical space for interaction to occur. These spaces are found in traditional places like the street and parks, but also in the vertical realm as well. Public transit in Hanok City is a great option, but in designing social spaces, pedestrians must come first. Earth ramps, non-motorized pathways, and sky parks preserve safety for pedestrians and bicycles and create stimulating environments throughout Hanok City that everyone can access and enjoy. As soon as people arrive at the intermodal hub, they are greeted with colorful signage and breathable spaces along the canopied platform, which directs people to the Parc, the Boardwalk, and Parc Promenade, where they will pass many more vibrant social spaces along the way.A4 6 A47
  • 25. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lgoa l : f l ex ible a n d v ib ran t so ci al sp acesopti o n s f o r e ve ry o n ek e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs ting with ng ac pi• Entry points to open spaces are plentiful in somethin th r sho p inte e number, conveniently located, and accessible for g water people with special needs. g in ne learn w• Affordable public options and transit stops located street ve strategically near public open spaces ensure that nd every person has access regardless of age, ability, ors and social class. plazas• A pathway along the Parc minimizes traffic barriers and maximizes safety by passing under streets, providing pedestrians with a continuous, safe place nearest open spaces to walk and enjoy fresh air. 10th floor• Variety in types of spaces provides the elderly with 76th floor ian mall lling flow numerous options for leisure activities where they pedestr se er can choose to be alone or with others. the parc, 5m s plaza, 10m• Skyparks and vertical space requirements ensure that no person is more than 5 minutes from public space in either a building or at street level. transit nd stop• ou Community space requirements ensure that spaces reflect the preferences of their users. r playg rooftop e share d• Wayfinding and signage provide users with bik ini information about routes, access, and a sense of ng whereabouts.• Open spaces are clean, well-maintained, not overcrowded, and have plentiful sitting areas.A4 8 A49
  • 26. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lnet w o rk of s o c ia l s pacespa r k s , p l a z a s , a n d c o mmu n ity -o wned spacesA variety of social spaces at multiple levels gives people the option to be with other people, watch other people, or to enjoy time alone. At ground level, the Parc encourages all types of passive and active recreation. The streets are a place for the community to be creative, where pedestrians come first and sidewalks become vibrant markets. Tree-lined sidewalks create greenways Yongsan Parkbetween parks, provide shelter from sun and rain, and assist in stormwater management. To meet demands for social space, especially for those with more leisure time, the plan proposes untraditional social spaces within buildings themselves. Because Han Riverbeing able to reach street level may actually be a five minute trip down an elevator, vertical social spaces offer an innovative alternative. In community- and publicly-owned spaces, described in detail in “building the home”, people connect above Metersstreet level - on rooftops, on the skypark, and in studios 50 150 500that they have made their own. The social initiative introduces light, air, and spontaneous interaction to towers. social spaces, vertical realm public open space parks and greenways parks and greenways hard-scaped plazas hard-scaped plazas streets community-owned spaces courtyards institutional courtyards publicly-owned spaces station marketplace commercial courtyardsA5 0 A51
  • 27. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lt he p arca r eg i o n a l a n d lo c a l n a tu ra l a s s et Ansan Mountain Nam Mountain Yongsan Park Yeouido Park Nodeil Island bioswales creek/wetlandEnvironmental Benefits • The creek is a year-round amenity where activities change with the season. • The wetland is vegetated and graded to assist Connecting Regional Parks SystemsThe creek runs through a large portion of the Parc, starting near the Station in the north and bringing people in storm water management, especially during monsoon season and flood events. The Parc is the backbone of the social space network; the Han riverfront. The Parc is the so-called “living room” to the river. It serves social and environmental purposes activities surround it in every direction. It gets its name of the home where there are a variety of spaces, both by providing an attractive water amenity and a practical • Bioswales, located throughout the Parc and on streets, are used to convey surface water in order to from its arc shape, which completes a continuous, shared and private. storm water mitigator. regional parks system by connecting Yongsan Park to reduce surface runoff.A5 2 A53
  • 28. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lt he p a rca ttr a c t i o n s , a c tiv itie s , a n d a c c e ssibilit y PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION stops Designated Bike Lanes stops Designated Bike Lanes High Speed Train PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE Pedestrain Overpass stops PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC Designated BikePedestrain Overpass AND BIKEPUBLIC TRANSPORTATION LanesPEDESTRIAN High Speed Train PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE BIKE PEDESTRIAN AND Park Path PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION stops High Speed Train stopsPUBLIC TRANSPORTATIOCommuter Train PEDESTRIAN AND BIKEPedestrain OverpassPEDESTRIAN AND BIKEPUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Designated Bike Lanes Designated Bike Lanes Park Path stops PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Commuter Train stops PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Designated Bike Lanes Lanes PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION High Speed Train Designated Bike Pedestrain Overpass sidewalk Park Path Street Designated Bike Lanes High Speed Train Train Subway Commuter stops stops Subway High Speed Train PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE Lanes Street sidewalk stops Pedestrain Overpass High Speed Train Pedestrain Overpass PEDESTRIAN AND BIKEBike Lanes Designated Bike Pedestrain Overpass sidewalk Designated Designated Bike Lanes Subway Commuter stops TRANSPORTATION Speed T PUBLICTrain Light Rail High 5 Street Park Path Pedestrain Overpass Commuter Train High Speed Train CAR AND SERVICE Park Path stops Pedestrain Overpass High Speed Train PUBLIC Light RailHigh Speed Train Commuter Train stops TRANSPORTATION E Path Path Park ParkPedestrain Overpass PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE Lanes Designated Bike Lanes PedestrainPark Street sidewalk Designated Bike Path CAR AND SERVICE Overpass Commuter Train Light Rail Subway Bus Rapid Trasit Commuter Tra ing water INE URgre T M at Street sidewalk AND BIKE Commuter Train Park Path PEDESTRIAN HighSubwayTrain Speed Subway Commuter Train Bus Rapid PUBLIC TRANSPORT Trasit L Street StreetAND SERVICE Pedestrain sidewalk PEDESTRIAN GradePath Street sidewalk Subway Park Path CAR Overpass Commuter Train SH w N sidewalk At AND BIKE Park Underpass PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Train stops Bus Rapid TrasitLocal Local Bus Stops High Speed Subway RE 4 flo SU CU AR v KE ie EDU 7 Pedestrain Overpass At Grade Underpass Lanes Designated Bike Light Rail SubwayRail Bus StopsLight TU 7 T w s C Park Path CAR AND SERVICE Undergroundsidewalk(Local Traffic)Lanes Street sidewalk Street Commuter Train Subway Light Rail Rail Light stops stops Stops Trasit SubwayTrain Rail sh 6 S c ATIO Street Overpass sidewalkTunnel Designated Bike High Speed Train Water taxi Commuter Light NA CAR ANDsidewalk Grade UnderpassPedestrain SERVICE Traffic) Street SERVICE At CAR AND Park Path Underground Bike Lanes Designated Tunnel (Local Local Bus Rapid Bus o on n N Bus Rapid Trasit CAR AND SERVICE SubwayRail Light Trasit Water taxi Light Rail High Spee Underground Tunnel (Through Traffic) Bus Rapid Trasit pp e CAR AND SERVICE Overpass SP f Underground TunnelPark PathTunnel (Through Traffic) Underpass Traffic) (Local sidewalk Street SERVICE Pedestrain Bus Rapid CommuterRail Light Subway Train High Speed Train Bus Rapid Tra OR At Grade UndergroundOverpass Underpass CAR ANDAt Grade Water taxi Bus Stops Local ou in ing CAR AND SERVICE PedestrainSERVICE cting to nt a Local Bus Stops Bus Rapid Trasit TS 2 CARUndergroundAND At Grade Grade Underpass TunnelStreet sidewalkTunnel (Through &Local Bus Stops Stops At Underpass Park Path LightLocal Bus Rail Service Rapid Trasit Bus Vehicals) Commute 3 Light Rapid Trasit Bus &R Traffic) Grade Underpass Underground Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals)At (Through Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) Park Path At Grade Underpass CAR ANDAtUnderground Tunnel (Local Traffic) SERVICE Water taxi Subway Train Local Bus Sto Commuter Rail ri v ri v ECRE 8 Water taxi Local Bus Stops Yon Grade Underpass Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) ANDAt Grade Underpass sidewalk Bus Water Trasit Water Rapid taxi Local Bus Stops Subway CAR Above, bridging over Underground Tunnel Tunnel (Through Traffic) Street sidewalk & over Street SERVICEUnderground Tunnel (Local Traffic) Underground (Through Underground Tunnel (Throughtaxi Service Vehicals) SubwayLocal Bus Stops taxi Light Rail Bus Rapid Trasit Water gs 1 Above, bridging ATION Pa Underground Tunnel (Local LocalTraffic) Traffic) Water taxi Light Rail an rk Underground TunnelTunnel CARTraffic) Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) Bus Stops At Underground Tunnel (Local ANDTraffic) Underground (Through Traffic) SERVICE Grade Underpass (Through Underground Tunnel Water taxi bridging over Street Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals) iv i R T EI N Above,Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals)(Through Traffic) Street At Grade Underpass Water taxi Bus Rapid Trasit Light Local Bus Stops Rail EN A N T Underground TunnelCAR AND Traffic) Underground Tunnel (Through Traffic) Underground (Through & Service Vehicals) AND SERVICE (Through SERVICE CAR Underground TunnelTunnel (Through & Service Vehicals) (Local Traffic) Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) Underground Tunnel (Through Water taxi & Service Vehicals) Bus Rapid T E M 9 Street Above, bridging UndergroundUnderground TunnelTraffic) At over Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals) Grade Underpass Tunnel Above, bridging over (Through Local Bus Stops Bus Rapid Trasit Water taxi Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals)At Grade Underpass Above, bridging Tunnel over Above, bridging Underground over (Through Traffic) Underground Tunnel (Through &line being discontinued) Street UndergroundAbove, bridging line being Service Vehicals) over Local Bus r Above, bridging (Through Traffic) street) StreetTunnel over(train (train Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) discontinued) (above street) At Grade Underpass Local Bustaxi Water Stops e e Above, bridging over Street Street Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals)being discontinued) Underground UndergroundStreet(Through Traffic) (Local Traffic) Above, (train line Underground Tunnel Underground Tunnel over bridging (Through Water taxi f ro (above Underground Tunnel (Local Traffic) & Service Vehicals) Street Tunnel(above street) Water taxi Street Above, bridging over Underground Tunnel (Through & Tunnel (Through Traffic) Street Undergroundbridging (Through Traffic) Underground Service Vehicals) Above, Tunnel over being discontinued) (train line n Street (train line being discontinued) (train line being discontinued) Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals) (above street) Street street)(above (Through & Service Vehicals) (train line being discontinued) Above, bridging over (train line being discontinued) Underground Tunnel street) (above street) t (above Above, bridging over line being discontinued) street) (above street) (train line being discontinued) (train line being discontinued) Street Above, bridging over (above street) (train (above (above street) (train line being discontinued) Street Street PEDESTRIAN AND BIKE (above street) PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION (train line being discontinued) civic attractions transit modes (above street) stops 1 marina Designated Bike Lanes (train line being discontinued)The Parc Main Points of Access (above street)high speed train High Speed Train 2 conference center Pedestrain Overpass (train line being discontinued) 3 international business district Park Path (train line being discontinued) commuter train (above street) Commuter TrainThe Parc connects people to a large network of the Public transit systems and handicap-accessible entries street)(above 4 pedestrian mall Street sidewalk subwaySubwaycivic attractions and activities. Most spaces are passive provide multiple modes of accessing the Parc. Signage 5 health & wellness cluster light rail Light Railrecreation and are intended to allow residents to reinvent 6 Yongsan Station and wayfinding strategies orient people within the park the space as preferences and users change over time. CAR AND SERVICE bus rapid transit Trasit Bus Rapid 7 education clusters wherever they are, especially at entry/exit points. MetersGreenways and nonmotorized pathways facilitate 8 Yongsan Park At Grade Underpass local bus stops Stops Local Busmovement from one major attraction to another. primary access Tunnel (Localsecondary access 50 150 500 9 sports & entertainment arena Underground Traffic) water taxi Water taxi Underground Tunnel (Through Traffic)A5 4 A55 Underground Tunnel (Through & Service Vehicals)
  • 29. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lthe p arch i gh l y t ra f f i c ke d a n d in v e n tiv e spaces f or t he communit y 6 m sidewalk light rail four car tree bike walk Park river walk public space, commercial activity higher education cluster Parc and Street Section & pedestrian path (plus residential/mixed use) &tree line lane line lane & treeA5 6 line A57
  • 30. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lthe b o ard wa lksi t f o r a w h i l e , wa tc h th e tra in s come in, t hen head t o t he parc! Surrounding program parc library continuing education center youngsan train station two auditorium/ theaters station boardwalk viewing platform to watch trains enter and exit station Entering, exiting, passing through ramp/sitting steps leading to parc and libraryThe boardwalk welcomes people to Hanok City,providing an atmosphere that speaks to the exciting escalatordichotomies of the place. escalator exit escalatorHanok City celebrates a lively transportation hub filled through with trains, subways, and buses, with pedestrian-oriented station/IBD buildingsdesign. It presents towers and technology at a human scale. exits through exit to boardwalk auditorium from station plaza buildingsThe boardwalk is the first place that people go after arriving at the intermodal hub, and it is immediately that they are presented with a refreshing mix of people, Aerial of the boardwalk, the welcoming point in Hanok City.interacting in small ways around every corner and curve.A5 8 A59
  • 31. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lt he s t re e t m a r k e t p la c ew i de s t re e t s a re fo r p e o p le (a n d some cars) Pedestrian bridge on metropolitan road with BRT stopThe plan’s conceived street life represents the objectiveto provide for the pedestrian first. Large right of ways area flexible and sustainable model for urban development,allowing public transit to flow while providing safepedestrian bridges with visually stimulating qualities.These pedestrian connections are another way toconnect people above ground - over transit-heavy streetsand between buildings - while still maintaining a closerelationship with the street.A6 0 A61
  • 32. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lt he v i l l ag e s qu a r ea c ti v a t i n g t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d The village square is a safe and active place. establish footprint consolidate setbacks activate the squareBlock making process To resolve both of these issues, many of Hanok City’s more residential blocks were designed around the At the densities proposed by Hanok City, occupation replication of the village square. Using either a two or of the street can become highly problematic. In highly four block configuration, the design of the village square desirable areas, formal and informal commercial occurred in three stages: 1) establishing the maximum Hanok City’s courtyards provide space for neighborhood services activity will both begin to protrude into the way of busy building footprint, 2) consolidating setbacks to create like schools, clinics, small theaters, and local grocery stores, They also allow informal, temporary uses like markets, street vendors, pedestrians. In less desirable areas, such as small roads interior space, and 3) activate the interior space with key and pop-up retail. Midrise interior buildings and barriers between the passing between high-rise structures, the height and bulk neighborhood services, such as daycares, clinics, and street and the square help create more intimate, protected space for of the built environment will stifle community use. space for street vendors. sensitive uses, like childcare and geriatric medical service. A6 2 A63
  • 33. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lparc p ro m e n a d eh a no k c i t y ’s ma in s h o p p in g d e s tinat ion live residents: 5600 community open space: 20,000 sqm surfaced public space: 56,000 sqm park: 12,000 sqm work & play commercial/office: 245,000 sqm retail/restaurant: 205,000 sqm cineplex mall: 130,000 sqm hospitality: 30,500 sqm institution: 10,000 sqm residential public institutionThe Parc Promenade reinterprets the existing Yongsan By establishing a relationship directly adjacent to the community open space cineplex mallelectronics market in a way that increases visibility and Parc, this lively commercial area draws people onto a park hotelconnectivity with the different systems on the area. decorated live-work-play pedestrian boulevard anchored retail/restaurant public space by a cineplex entertainment mall. commercial/officeA6 4 A65
  • 34. tour of the home arriving at the station watching the trains walking to the library strolling along the parkway kayaking in the parc shopping at the parc promenade biking along the han river A home is not just a collection of goods and activities, but an entire experience. The Parc is an organizing element in this home that brings together the exciting programs and opportunities in Hanok City in a setting that is sustainable and easy to navigate. It draws on indigenous species of plants and animals, local art, and adaptable materials to weave together a complex environment in one legible landscape. The harmonious setting balances resident and visitor uses. Upon arrival at the intermodal hub, fresh air and landscaping interventions lead to the Parc, which is devised to showcase transit connections, cultural institutions, and economic vibrancy. This green arc celebrates togetherness in the city and creates experiences through different “rooms” along the Parc. A6 6 A67
  • 35. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mearri vi n g a t t h e s t a t io nthe i n t e rmo d a l h u b p la zaLight and airy space that is easy to navigate welcomes visitors to Hanok City.A6 8 A69
  • 36. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mewat ch i n g t h e t r a insthe t ra i n v i e win g d e c k o n th e b o ardwalkAfter exiting the intermodal hub, relax and enjoy views of the trains entering Hanok City. A7 0 A71
  • 37. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mewal k i n g t o t h e libr a r yc ul tu re & n a t u re c o min g to g e th erWinter view of the mainlibrary opening to the Parc and Hanok City’s auditoriumsA7 2 A73
  • 38. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mest ro l l i n g a lo n g t h e parkw aya c ti v e a n d g re e n s tre e t lifeWhether using public transportation or walking, the journey is part of the experience.A7 4 A75
  • 39. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mekay a k i n g in t h e pa r cr ecr e a t i o n a re a th a t p ro mo te s s ust ainabilit yEnjoy year-round recreational activities in the Parc. Its design also enhances safety for pedestrians, incorporates stormwater management capacity, and promotes environmental education.A7 6 A77
  • 40. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mesho p p i n g a t t h e pa r c p ro men ad eha no k c i t y ’s en te rta in me n t d e s tinat ionThe Parc Promenade features an exciting international street life and a variety of shops and restaurants.A7 8 A79
  • 41. h a n o k c it y t o u r o f t h e h o mebi k i n g a lo n g t h e ha n ri vere nj o y i n g t h e h a n riv e r p a rkThe Parc connects directly to Seoul’s Han River Park System and gives bikers and pedestrians expansive views of Seoul and Hanok City.A8 0 A81
  • 42. building the home connecting to the region policy framework site phasing and implementation block phasing and implementation vertical proximity requirements & space ratio In order to build for a myriad of inhabitants in such a dense environment, our plan uses a flexible framework of policies, block typologies, social programming and builder incentives. This framework allows for collaboration between multiple levels of stakeholders and a customizable approach to urbanity. There is the potential for the government, the private sector and the community to all have roles in shaping Yongsan from the scale of the site down the roof of a building. The system’s easy adaptability to open space uses and building typologies presents new possibilities for people- based policies. Rather than developing an implementation system (“building the home”) based on current planning and development methods, this plan has a system so flexible it can embrace as many functions for spaces as possible. This philosophy respects the ever increasing and aging population, the innovative culture rooted in the city, and the need for sustainable systems.A8 2 A83
  • 43. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mecon n ect i ng t o t h e r e gi o nus i n g s e o u l ’s a s s e tsSeoul is a global megacity with culture bursting existing attractionsat the seams. The site, located at the heart of the doYongsan District, is exposed to increasing density and w tow n e l ndevelopment pressures in its surroundings. ns tia d ed e nThe plan uses urban design strategies to enhance si reYongsan’s connections to the entire Seoul metropolitan 2 blicarea in terms of cultural identity, transportation, and 1 punatural systems. Capitalizing on Seoul’s assets - cultural greensites, natural systems, and emerging business hubs - spHanok City renders a unique identity in the metropolitan acarea. e l tiona terina ss in s neWhile programmatic clusters exist, there is a sprinkling buof all uses throughout Hanok City at the block level. The plan embraces density and development pressures, integrating them throughout the site to create dev econnections with context. h ulopm 1 Yongsan Station b sent 2 Electronics Mall• Existing historical precints in the site and the integrating existing fabric while creating regional assests residential tissue at the periphery are carried over to provide a seamless transition in the urban fabric.• l The riverfront design brings back the contact of se tia eniden ds people with water, and consolidates the continuity of re ts the Han riverwalk across the site. green ric lic Seoul sp st b ac di• Urban Ecology principles guide the design of public pu e int’l more spaces to enhance the relationship between people usiness n b tio and nature. va no in• The abundant offer of cultural destinations positions the site as a metropolitan center for the arts.• The International Business District (IBD) capitalizes program clusters within mixed-use fabric on the close proximity to Yongsan Intermodal Hub. low-rise neighborhood international buisness district institutional cluster innovation buisness cluster commercial/shopping regional medical center cluster the intermodal hub neighborhood A8 4 A85
  • 44. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mepol i c y f ra m e wo r kfor b l o c k s t ruc tu re , a ffo rd a b le housing, and communit y and public space green roofsk e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs vertical open spaceBlock structure Public space • To ensure permeable blocks for pedestrians, cyclists • In the vertical city public space is not limited and other non-motorized travelers, policies should to the ground plane. Policies should preserve encourage public through-ways in the middle of south-oriented interior space within the buildings for affordable senior housing blocks longer than 100 meters. public or residential community use.• Every urban block should have a diversity of uses. • Open space should also be available above the No block should be 100 percent residential. ground. A percentage of roof space should be dedicated to the public or the residential community. flexible typologies• Lot coverage requirements of blocks with residential units limit buildable area to 60-70 percent of the lot in • By requiring a percentage of green roofing, these order to provide ground level public space and help vertical spaces could also provide ecological ensure light access into buildings and courtyards. benefits in the form of water management, improved air quality and urban farming. Affordable housing• In expectation of a high proportion of elderly residents, developments with 50 or more residential units must devote ten percent of all units to afford- diverse uses able senior housing.• Developers should be encouraged to build more family services affordable housing through incentives. For example, for every additional five percent of affordable housing provided, the developer would receive a FAR bonus for non-residential use or some tax relief on market permeable blocks rate units.• Policy should help intermingle senior housing with market rate housing and housing for families. Incentives should be offered for duplex apartments or other innovative units encouraging multi-generation families living together.A8 6 A87
  • 45. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mesi t e l e v e l im p le m e nt a ti o npha s i n g a n d ke y a c to rsimple m e n t a t i o n a cto rs phase 1 phas e 1 public sector: Seoul Metropolitan Government IBD construction starts IBD hub + around the transit hub Korea Land and Housing Corporation Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation construction Korail new road infrastructure phase 2 private sector: Samsung Group clearing rail yard LG Group the parc Hyundai Group Eugene Constructions Company saenamteo church preserved + community organizations: phase 3 church groups school organizations arena and neighborhood coalitions convention center public + private partnership phas e 2 + phase 4 yongsan park construction of the public + community partnership + Parc + parc area develops community + private partnership + phase 5 hospital and northwest urban fabric preservation continuing + zone established education campus library and performance arts center + anchor west parc ends phase 6A8 8 A89
  • 46. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mesi t e l e v e l im p le m e nt a ti o npha s i n g a n d ke y a c to rsphase 3 phas e 5 arena and convention district hospital built + center built acquires right-of-way for elevated continuing education campus link to yongsan park built development fills in around IBD development starts to reach site edge light rail systems developed residential density starts to reach 100,000 inh/km across entire sitephase 4 phas e 6 yongsan park completed continuing collaboration + at all levels carries the site into the urban future elevated park link + + connects park systems, yongsan station + pixel park system + connects residents on the east side yongsan park attracts residents to the east of the siteA9 0 A91
  • 47. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mebl o c k l e v e l ph a s ing /imp l emen tati o npubl i c - p ri v a t e p a rtn e rs h ip s c e n arioPubl i c - p r i v a t e D e ve l o p me n t S ce n ar io Pr e- developm ent phase phas e 0 phas e 1 Parcels bought by developers, collective public space Developers 1 and 2 start construction, developer 3 leases This scenario represents one possible way in which a Land cleared and parcels and mandatory dedication negotiated. their underground space for parking to help finance fur-block on the site might develop and represents flexibility divided ther development. land acquisition, phasing, programming and building typologies. Pdeveloper 1 (D1) - private developerdeveloper 2 (D2) - private developerdeveloper 3 (D3) - korea land and housing corporation+ private developerHere the private developers act quickly and start build-ing out their parcels. The public-private partnership takes longer to aquire total funding and leases the space under their parcels for underground parking to help close the gap. This time loss for the third private developer is offset by the tax savings gained from the provision of ad-ditional affordable housing and a public school. phas e 2 phas e 3 Developer 3 starts construction after receiving public All construction is complete, project enters management matching funds for the school portion. phase.Block Statistics Residential Affordable Senior Housingblock dimensions.......................................107m X 190m Commercialnumber of residents..................................................2520 High Schoolhousing units..............................................................578 Green Rooftypes................................................1br, 361 2br, 144 3br Rooftop Open Spacehigh school....... 12,300 sqm, 1000 students, 50 teachers Ground Level Public Spacecommercial/retail space................................. 24,200 sqm Developerground level open space................................12,000 sqm Mandated Dedicationrooftop open space......................................... 6,800 sqm Negotiated Public Space Under Constructiongreen roofs...................................................... 5,400 sqm Underground Parking A9 2 A93
  • 48. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mevert i cal p r ox im it y r e q u i remen tno o n e f a rt h e r th a n a “5 min u te elevat or” ride f rom communit y or pub lic sp ace Bas i c R ul e: c om m unal or publ i c s pac e no far ther than 9 0 v e rt i c a l me t e rs f ro m the s tr eet or another c om m unal /publ i c s pac e space 2 90 m space 1 90 m <90 meters 90 meters 90 - 180 meters >180 meters IBD districtPeople of any level of mobility should be no farther than a short elevator ride to a garden, a playground, an art gallery, a reading room, a library, a theater, or a cafe. In innovation districtthe vertical city, no one should feel isolated in a building or feel far away from activities or friends. commercial districtWorking with the vertical community space ratio, the vertical proximity requirement ensures that there are suf-ficient moments of community and public gathering within the dense, vertical environment. residential districtDevelopments with heights that require more than one vertical community space will be rewarded with FAR residential districtbonuses, depending on district location.A9 4 A95
  • 49. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g a h o mevert i cal p r ox im it y r e q u i remen tdi s tri c t re q u i re me n ts social space requiremen t s FAR b o n u ses o wn e r s hi p <90m 90-180m >180m <90m 90-180m >180m central BONUS private vertical FAR= community BONUS includes: international business district proximity FAR= average FAR: 18 + commercial: 1,956,000 sqm community space + residential: 1,436,000 sqm + institutional: 795,000 sqm SKY PARC x1.50 public population: 44,815 inhabitants (20.3%) x1.50 (public open space) northeast BONUS FAR= includes: residential and BONUS vertical FAR= innovation clusters proximity + average FAR: 15 commercial: 567,000 sqm + x1.25 residential: 774,000 sqm community institutional: 228,000 sqm space x1.25 population: 24,143 inhabitants (11%) southwest BONUS FAR= includes: commercial and BONUS vertical instituational clusters FAR= proximity + average FAR: 15 commercial: 1,642,000 sqm + x1.25 residential: 2,053,000 sqm community institutional: 410,000 sqm space x1.25 population: 64,029 inhabitants (29.1%) southeast BONUS includes: residential clusters vertical FAR= average FAR: 12 proximity commercial: 362,000 sqm community BONUS + residential: 1,691,000 sqm institutional: 362,000 sqm roof space FAR= community x1.00 population: 52,795 inhabitants (24%) space x1.00 northwest includes: low-rise, residential, medi- cal, and institutional clusters average FAR: 10 community BONUS commercial: 183,000 sqm roof space FAR= residential: 1,098,000 sqm institutional: 549,000 sqm community population: 34,266 inhabitants (15.5%) space x1.00A9 6 A97
  • 50. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mevert i c a l c om m u n it y s p ace rati os ha re d n e i g h b o rh o o d s p a c e in resident ial areasWe aim to create integrated infrastructure for neighborhoods by setting up a specific ratio of mandatory community space for every individual housing complex. Community spaces could be used to encourage the mingling of classes and ages and provide needed activities and social programs for building residents.Developers/architects would incorporate reserved space in parts of the vertical buildings during the planning/design stage; the spaces would then be used in the In one scenario, a community is interested in agriculture future either by the residents of the building or block. and gardening. This community has all active green roofs for gardens, urban farming, and a small orchard. The residents’ participation would be needed for They also have a community kitchen for food start-up deciding the location and the function of the open space businesses, and other amenities like a recreation center, from the beginning stage of the planning. There would coffee shop, and communal dining. be incentives for participation, which could include a reduction of the price of the residential unit or preference of housing units near the space.A ratio of open community space would be reserved in each building with over 100 residential units when the development is initiated, and would be owned and operated by a cooperation of the residents.10% open space for buildings 30 stories or less15% open space for buildings 31 stories or moreBy using a ratio of community space, each resident is guaranteed more intimate, neighborhood space in addition to the ample public space provided. With a flexible system, residents can better control their own space and program it as it best suits their vertical neighborhood. Here we present three scenarios to show how diverse one community space might turn out depending on the residents of a building. Scena rio 1 : G re e n G ro we rs Co mmu n it yA9 8 A99
  • 51. h a n o k c it y b u ild in g t h e h o mever t i cal c o m m u n it y s p ace rati osh a re d n e i g h bo rh o o d s p a c e in resident ial areasIn another scenario, the vertical community has a high proportion of families with children, so they In the last scenario, the community is interested in choose to create a child care center and a number the arts and other cultural amenities. They create a of playscapes and playgrounds. This community theater, artist studios and a printmaking shop, and has passive green roofs, a educational garden, an outdoor cinema. They have all passive green and amenities like a community coffee shop, roots, and also have a cafe with outdoor dinning sports fields, and a rock climbing wall. and a yoga center. S cenari o 2: Fami l y Matters Com m unit y Scenario 3 : Cre a t iv e Clu s t e r Co mmu n it yA1 0 0 A101
  • 52. h a n o k c it y g ra p h ic k e ygrap h i c k e y SPECIAL PLACES 1 the intermodal hub (pA18) 2 the boardwalk (pA58) 3 cultural cluster (p58) 4 the parc (p52) 5 the parc promenade (p64) 6 the han river park (p80) 7 yongsan park (p52) D4 P5 DISTRICTS (p96) S3 D3 3 D1 central 4 D2 southeast 2 D3 northeast P6 P4 P2 D4 northwest P7 D5 southwest P3 1 P8 5 IMAGES P1 the village square (pA63) D5 S2 P2 the intermodal hub entrance (pA19) P3 arriving at the station (pA68) P4 watching the trains (pA70) D1 P5 walking to the library (pA72) 7 P6 shopping at the parc promenade (pA78) 6 P7 strolling along the parkway (pA74) P8 kayaking in the parc (pA76) P9 biking along the han river (pA80) D2 S1 north/south section (pA22) S2 east/west section (pA20) S3 pedestrian mall section (p64) P9 P1 S1A1 0 2 A103