Hanok City Masterplan


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The Hanok City Masterplan is the culmination of the work done by students in the 2012 Physical Planning and Urban Design Capstone as part of their master's requirements at the University of Michigan.

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Hanok City Masterplan

  1. 1. hanok citya multigenerational home
  2. 2. contentsh an ok c ity. . . a home for all generations unique identity: the new multigenerational home A5 accessible A11 interconnected transit A14 flexible streets A16 the intermodal hub A18 services network A24 healthy A29 water A32 energy A38 waste management A40 landscape A42 urban ecology A44 social A47 network of social spaces A50 the parc A52 the boardwalk A58 the street marketplace A60 the village square A62 the parc promenade A64 tour of the home A67 building the home A83 connecting to the region A84 policy framework A86 site level implementation A90 block level implementation A92 vertical proximity requirement A96 vertical community space ratio A98 appendix A103A2 A3
  3. 3. a home has a unique ide ntity the new multi generational home Hanok City combines the core qualities of Seoul’s culture with urban density, transit accessibility, ecological vitality, and livability. The people living and visiting Hanok City are in the heart of an international business network, a diverse ecosystem, and a historical city with cultural traditions that date back to 17 BC. This plan revisits the traditional understanding of family, the home, and agglomeration. Beyond the advantages of Hanok City’s geographical location on the Han River and only 25 minutes from downtown Seoul, the site’s infrastructure and density present another set of advantages. The plan’s systems will not only accommodate a highly dense and rapidly aging population, but also support it, nurture it, and let it grow and change over time. Age-friendly design considerations are woven into the urban fabric to ensure that all of the opportunities in Hanok City can be utilized by every person, young and old. Hanok City will serve as a model for vertical cities and aging populations around the world, showcasing a deep rooted culture and celebrating an exciting future.A4 A5
  4. 4. h a n o k c it y u n iq u e id e n t it yt he n ew m ult ige n e r a ti o n al h o mel e a r n i n g f ro m s o u th k o re a n tra d it ional f amily st ruct ureTra d i t i o n a l S o uth K o re a n fa mi l y Hanok City br ings the best aspects s t ru c t u r e i s c h a n g i n g : of m ultigener ational fam ily life to the ur ban r ealm : Today, three and four-generation families living in one household is increasingly rare. According to the National Because the traditional structure of the Korean home Statistical Office in South Korea, the number of households is changing, where a more globalized people prefer increased 11.1% from 2001 to 2006 due to an increase independence from their family, then the city will need to in the number of single households. About 55 percent of take on the role of the traditional home and facilitate a the 15.8 million households in South Korea in 2006 were supportive and vibrant environment for multigenerational nuclear families, with only parents and children living interaction. Hanok City is envisioned as this new together. Only 6.9 percent were three-generation families multigenerational home, where people of all ages and and only 0.1 percent of households were four-generation backgrounds are constantly interacting, supporting, and families. learning from each other. Wha t d o e s t h i s me a n fo r l i fe i n S outh Hanok City represents a new design paradigm: leveraging Traditional South Korean family structure: multiple The f ut ure of Yongs a n: m ul ti pl e ge ne r a ti onsKore a ? the advantages of an extremely dense urban environment generations living and interacting in the same household. l i vi ng and i nt e r a c ti ng i n the c i ty i n a v a r i e ty (an agglomeration of economies, peoples, and services) of publ i c and c om m uni ty s pa c e s !The change in family structure in South Korea is not to create a vibrant, livable, and adaptive home for allnecessarily a negative thing; a 1996 research report by The generations.Institute for Gerontological Studies of Korea stated that often the main reasons for multi generational co-residence was “practicality” rather than it being “natural”. Both young and old Koreans more often prefer independence from extended family when it comes to living arrangements. Even so, as more Koreans live in single apartments and separate from relatives, many of the positive aspects of multi generational living is lost. When young and old reside together, family members often provide care, emotional support, and a diverse social environment for each other. The elderly can interact and be entertained by younger generations. Children can learn from the experience and vast knowledge of their parents and grandparents. Relatives can help parents with household duties and childcare, and parents and other relatives can provide care and support for their elderly family members. Typical ur ban cit ies: diff icult or uncom f or t able The f ut ure of Yongs a n: a ge -fr i e ndl y a m e ni ti e s living envir onm ent s, especially f or t he elder ly and desi gn t o m a k e a v i br a nt a nd a ttr a c ti v e and t hose wit h lesser m obilit y. envi ronment f or a l l !A6 A7
  5. 5. h a n o k c it y u n iq u e id e n t it yt he n ew m ult ige n e r a ti o n al h o mea c c e s s i b l e , h ea lth y, a n d s o c ia lk e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs o f amu lt i g e n e r a t i o n a l h o me : a home is...• Part of a larger regional community; one that connects to the culture and resources around it. accessible g o al: a c entr al and components: interconnected transit c onnec ted netw or k complete and flexible streets • Accessible to all ages, incomes of people; one that intermodal hub enables mobility and the potential for interaction. services network• Promotes the health of people and nature, while protecting them from threats to their wellbeing healthy g o al: env i r onm ental components: water• Facilitates social interaction through a variety of open spaces, community spaces, recreational and s us tai nabi l i ty that energy entertainment venues. l as ts waste management landscape urban ecology• Adaptable to the changing needs of its residents social g o al: fl ex i bl e and v i br ant components: network of spaces nearest open spaces s oc i al s pac es the parc 10th floor the boardwalk 76th floor the parc, 5m the street marketplace plaza, 10m the village square the parc promenadeA8 A9
  6. 6. a home is acc e s s ible interconnected transit complete streets the intermodal hub services network An accessible home is one that is easy to get to, no matter your age, handicap or even what language you speak. Positioning the elderly at the center of its design, Hanok City is accessible to any one and everyone. The transportation plan reinvents the streets, manages congestion, expands open space, and makes more room for pedestrians and bicycles. The design encourages public transit use by incorporating bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail, and local buses frequently on local streets. These transit modes are affordable and easy to use with transportation technology and wayfinding strategies. Furthermore, the design incorporates access ramps and stairs together, creating a cohesive sense of movement. The Intermodal Hub is the heart of Hanok City’s transportation network. It is a place where people are moving through all day, but it is also a reference point, where people can stay for awhile and shop, grab a bite to eat, sit and people-watch, and wait for a friend. The Hub brings together commuter, metropolitan, regional, and local lines into an integrated, transit-oriented development at the center of the an international business district. A1 0 A 11
  7. 7. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib legoa l : c e nt r a l a nd c on n ected n etw o rkm u l t i mo d a l t ran s p o rta tio n s y s te m and major t ransit orient ed developm en tpr o v i d e s a c c e s s to a ll c ity a me nit ies and services.k e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs• Streets have large right of ways, with over 80% Mobility for all! Residents and visitors, including the elderly, young, active, and handicapped, can easily go anywhere of space given to pedestrian, bike, and/or public on the site and beyond. transportation. large sidewalks to provide ample room walkers, active storefronts and temporary uses like markets • All buildings that contain residential units are within and pop-up galleries. a 5 minute walk from both a public transportation and an active transportation route (bike path or park pedestrian refuge areas and pedestrian bridges to provide safe and comfortable crossings on path). Age-friendly and inclusive features are integrated metropolitan roads. into all public transportation stops• All needed services are provided and dispersed over 4,000 street trees provide a natural amenity on throughout the site, especially those serving the every street. elderly and families. bus rapid transportation provides efficient access to • All site areas and services are easily accessible by and from the site and the intermodal hub. public transportation, with good connections and a regional highway is recessed in the ground, well-marked routes and vehicles. has a thick natural tree buffer, and has two major pedestrian bridges to connect users to the • Public transportation is reliable and frequent, even at waterfront. night, weekends, and holidays. a connected system of bike-only paths are provided • The intermodal hub is central to the site and easily on every street. accessibly by all public transportation routes, a local bus system and light rail connect users allowing visitors and residents travel to and from touch throughout the site, to Yongsan Park, the intermodal Youngsan easily. screen protected prominent hub, Downtown Seoul, and across the Han River. stops covered electronic and wayfinding• Transport stops and stations are conveniently clearly bike information accessible and map 3 main bridges for pedestrians, bikers, and lightrail located, accessible, safe, clean, and have adequate parking booths to connect users over the train tracks and provide marked seating display lighting, seating and shelter. viewing platforms to watch high-speed trains. underground tunnels provide access for service • Parking and drop-off areas are safe and conveniently vehicle and give through traffic an efficient means located close to other transportation options, and to move through site. there are priority parking and drop-off areas for people with special needs. visitor parking in key areas lets nonresidents leave their car and access the rest of the site on foot or by • Complete and accessible information is provided public transportation. to users about public transportation stops and all parking providing electric car charging schedules. A1 2 A13
  8. 8. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib lei nt e rc o n ne c t e d t r a n si tm u l t i mo d a l a t re g io n a l, me tro p o lit an, and local levelHanok City transit infrastructure Hanok City public transportation networkA1 4 A15
  9. 9. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib lef l exi b l e s t r e e t ss tr ee t s c a n c ha n g e o v e r time to include more act ive and public t ranspo r t at io n initial boulevard type less motorized boulevardA1 6 A17
  10. 10. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib let he i n t e rm o d a l h u ba l a rg e - s c a l e tra n s it o rie n te d d e velopmentThe intermodal hub is vital to the accessibility of Hanok City. As an augmentation of the existing Yongsan Station, its minimalist and expansive design seeks to better guide residents, businessmen, visiting relatives, tourists, shoppers, night life enthusiasts, and other users of all ages to their destinations. It offers direct connections to the Boardwalk, the Parc, Yongsan Park, museums, libraries, international businesses, and shopping, as well as facilitates easy connections between modes of transportation. Taking advantage of its central location and access to destination amenities in and around Hanok City, the intermodal hub will be an economic engine that drives development in Hanok City, in addition to being a prominent access point to Seoul and the rest of Korea. Night view of the intermodal plazaA1 8 A19
  11. 11. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib let he i n t e rm o d a l h u ba m u l t i - l a y e re d s ta tio n YON GSAN IN T ER M O D A L H U B RIDERSHIP 2010 2050 (estimate) Yongsan Pop 227,400 440,000 (94% increase) National Rail 33,000 ppl/day 63,850 Honam Jungang Jeolla Gyeongbu Local Rail/ 67,000 ppl/day 129,639 Subway Line 1 K1 sky Parc retail mall walkable canopy park direct access to IBD connection covered to civic immediate walk to district access to Parc station 4 high speed platforms local bus underground access to yongsan park bus rapid transit stop ride share pickup point 4 metro platforms transit centre parking from elevated walkwayeast/west section, looking northA2 0 A21
  12. 12. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib let he i n t e rm o d a l h u ba m u l t i - l a y e re d s ta tio n sky Parc access to canopy park access to yongsan park from elevated walkway walkable canopy access to park Sky Parc pedestrian public plaza overpass immediate access to Parc underground underground underground metropolitan road local road local roadnorth/south section, looking eastA2 2 A23
  13. 13. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib leserv i ces ne t wo r kpr o mo t e s i n t era c tio nIn Hanok City all the services a community needs mixed retailare at its fingertips. Unlike more traditional forms of development that support consolidation and segregation daycaresof land uses, Hanok City supports multiple programs neighborhoodsimultaneously. K - 12 schoolsThe result of this effort is a place of crossing paths and shared spaces. Regardless of their social status, residents of Hanok City are constantly exposed to a fitness centersvariety of lifestyles and perspectives. As the development matures, this constant process of discovery and police stationinteraction will provide powerful support for the evolution of Hanok City’s unique culture of collaboration. neighborhood clincsThe services found within Hanok City fall into three categories: Neighborhood services are services with a small hypermarketsservice population and small average area. Able to districtseamlessly integrate into a neighborhood, strong librariesneighborhood services are a cornerstone in the development of any area’s quality of life fire stations ParcDistrict services are services whose assets attract right of wayusers beyond their surrounding blocks. Capable of district hospital Meterscreating nodes of resident activity, district services often act as an anchor for their neighbors. 50 150 500 Urban Services Distribution StrategyRegional services are services that are designedto serve metropolitan Seoul. As a result of this wide big box retail regionalreach, regional services present substantial benefits health education retail emergency civic(i.e. real estate development) and significant challenges metropolitan hospital(i.e. traffic modeling). Hanok City addresses these metropolitan hospital continuing education big box stores fire department stations librariesdevelopment issues but using regional services district hospital high schools hypermarketsas a focal point for pedestrian circulation models, continuing educationdevelopment phasing, and general urban design. neighborhood clinic primary schools police stations fitness centersA2 4 A25
  14. 14. h a n o k c it y a c c e s s ib leserv i ces ne t wo r ka l l a g e s a n d a b ilitie s c a n e a s ily access needed services facility type service population avg sqm # of facilities libraries 25,000 2,300 9 civic fitness centers 8,700 7,300 24 maximum walking distance to nearest service facility fire stations 27,800 1,100 8 emergency police stations 10,200 460 21 metropolitan hospital metro Seoul 26,125 2 health district hopsitals 29,500 3,000 7 neighborhood clinics 17,200 750 13 big box retail 44,000 9,300 5 retail hypermarkets 22,000 6,000 10 mixed retail 450 280 510 continuing education metro Seoul 180,000 2 education K - 12 schools 6,700 6,200 33 daycares 730 160 303A2 6 A27
  15. 15. a home is healthy water energy waste management landscape urban ecology A good home supports the health and wellbeing of its residents and protects against threats to its citizens. To support the health of its residents and combate global climate change, Hanok City protects its natural features and incorporates many sustainable technologies like biogas reactors and pneumatic waste collection that minimize the City’s impact on the environment. In its sustainability endeavor, Hanok City also recognizes the necessity of an informed, engaged, and impassioned public. To champion this cause, Hanok City assures that every sustainable development initiative includes programs that operate at the scale of the individual. Creating a forum for residents of social classes to interact, these programs reinforce the mission of Hanok City to bring all age and social groups together under one roof. A2 8 A29
  16. 16. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ygoa l : e n v ir o n m e n t a l su stai n ab i l i ty th at l astss us t a i n a b l e s ys te msk e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs action items by stakeholder group institutionConstructed infrastructure Fixture Flow Meters• Retain and recycle all stormwater generated on site Household Stormwater Recycling Water conservation is maximized by capturing Organic Waste Pre-processing stormwater, creating flood tolerant landscapes, and Solid Waste Sorting empowering citizens to reduce potable water use. Community Forestry Urban Agriculture• Reduce per capita consumption of fossil fuels within the site by 50% Low carbon energy is generated on site through the anaerobic digestion of organic waste and the installation of vertical axis wind turbines. business• Become Seoul’s first zero-landfill district Waste recycling is supported through a rapid, In-building Stormwater Cisterns pneumatic waste collection and sorting system Pervious Roofing Materials Stormwater Irrigation Systems In-building Waste Chutes Landscape infrastructure Electric Vehicle Facilities Native Species Landscaping• Eliminate all automobile emissions Garden Roofs Air Quality is improved through generous tree planting and electric vehicle incentives• Create a 100% native species landscape Biodiversity is protected by exclusively using a native- species planting palette and constructing remediative community Layout of Major Sustainable Systems Components throughout the Site wetlands Constructed Wetlands• Provide 10 square meters of garden space per Stormwater Vaults resident. Biogas Reactor Food Security is strengthened by establishing a local Pneumatic Waste Pipeline Parc Corridor Solid Waste Facilities food crisis safety net. Waste Sorting Centers Bioswales Proposed Wind Turbine Sites Meters Native Species Landscaping Constructed Wetlands and Streams Public Right of Way Urban Forestry Bioreactor Facility 50 150 500 Stormwater VaultsA3 0 A31
  17. 17. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ywat err eco n n e c t i n g p e o p le , p la c e , a n d hydrologyHanok City is a place where water ceases to be a action items by stakeholder groupcommodity and evolves into an active, omnipresent member of the community. Through a series of public institutionand private devices, residents of Hanok City are encouraged and invited to enrich their interactions with water, exposing opportunities for exploration, utilization, and conservation. Overtime, the accumulation of these opportunities will generate the intellectual and cultural Support a Culture of Waterresources needed to empower future development. Conservation and ActivismFlowing through buildings rather than over them, water in Hanok City also serves as a critical component of large scale urban patterns. Where water falls, the built environment offers porosity. Where water flows, the ground becomes green and playful. Where water pools, Hanok City responds with generous water-tolerant landscapes. Together these design responses forward businessa vision of urban environments serving as engines for restoration rather than degradation. To reflect the multifaceted nature of water use, Hanok City examines sustainable water use through three Construct Buildings whichthemes: Monitor their Potable and Wastewater MetabolismDrinking Water is the Han’s most precious service. Hanok City conserves this resource by using rainwater cisterns to supplement the regional water supply Stormwater is one of the Han’s largest sources of pollution. Hanok City ameliorates this threat by using bioswales and pervious roofing to capture runoff. community Layout of Major Water System Components Floodwater can threaten life and property. In many cases the waters of the Han are the primary source of Construct Infrastructure with thethis risk. To reduce this threat, Hanok City maintains Capacity to Recycle Stormwater Parc Corridora flood-tolerant river side landscape. Flooding can Stormwater Vaults Meters Develop Incentives to Motivate Bioswalesalso occur as the result of poor drainage. Hanok City Major Drainage Pipes Innovations in the Market Place Constructed Wetlands and Streams Public Right of Way 50 150 500addresses this concern by using constructed wetlands and underground vaults to sequester heavy precipitationA3 2 A33
  18. 18. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ywat ers pe c i a l i z e d i n te rv e n tio n sconstructed wetlands building systemsWetlands are ecosystems specially adapted to the Water resource conservation begins in buildings. As the physical conditions associated with regular flooding. In largest source of impervious surface, buildings represent the hydrologic cycle, their ability to hold and filter water the largest generator of stormwater. To compensate, all plays a key role in maintaining the quality of water bodies buildings in Hanok City contain cisterns large enough to and recharging the local water table. The constructed store 10 cm of precipitation. wetlands in Hanok City play a similar role. Buildings also support the vast majority of potable water Located along the waterfront, constructed wetland are consumption. To offset this consumption, the plumbing used to create a landscape where flooding can occur in Hanok City buildings contain stormwater plumbing safely. Along the rail yard, wetlands protect sensitive for non-potable water uses. To inform consumption infrastructure and convert wasted space into valuable flow meters are installed on every household fixture. habitat. Within the Parc, wetlands similarly provide an Connected to both a household log and the utility environment where stormwater can gather, be processed metering system, these fixture meters allow greater by natural systems, and help re-establish the area’s understanding of how and when potable water use can native hydrology. be reduced. stormwater vaults surface flowsIn high density sites, even moderate amounts of runoff One of the keys to any successful conservation program can overwhelm surface storage systems. In areas where is public awareness. With regard to surface water quality, seasonal monsoons often generate large volumes this program component is satisfied by showcasing the of stormwater, like Seoul, it is therefore necessary to movement of water through the site. develop redundant storage systems. In Hanok City, underground vaults provide this overflow protection. The movement of water across the surface of Hanok City occurs as three different scales. Within the block, Linked to block drainage systems, Hanok City’s a planted bioswale between the sidewalk and the curb stormwater vaults provide enough storage capacity to brings water management into the neighborhood. In hold 10 cm of precipitation (220 cu m). The distribution the district, the construction of channel along the bed of the vault system mirrors the wetland system, and of historic stream makes water a central focus for the Restored in 2005, the Cheongyecheon is a historic stream channel that cuts through the heart of downtown Seoul. As a visitor therefore allows renovation without disturbing roadways. entire site. At the scale of metro Seoul, restoration of the moves from the stream’s headwater plaza down to its terminus at the banks of the Han, they encounter a series of landscapes which celebrate different aspects of the city’s relationship with water. This gradient serves as a primary inspiration for Hanok City’s Through site-level utilities, the vault systems’s reserves waterfront facilitates the reintroduction of the public with interpretation of infrastructure development. Photo credit: Jean Chung for The New York Times can be used for irrigation purposes their city’s greatest natural asset. A3 4 A35
  19. 19. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yene rg yr ei n v e n t i n g t he g rid action items by stakeholder group institutionHanok City challenges the traditional logic of the Help Build Hanok City’selectrical grid. Rather than conceptualizing districts Electric Vehicle Fleetas simply consumers, Hanok City situates the urban environment as a tool to generate, store, and recycle Incorporate Organic Wasteenergy. The heart of this initiative is a biogas production processing into Household Choressystem that is capable of not only increasing gross energy supply, but also reduce the total amount of Provide Vocal Support forenergy consumed for the transport and processing of Structural Wind Turbinesorganic waste and municipal sewage. Biogas is the market term given to methane gas thathas been produced from the decomposition of organic businessmaterials in environments devoid of oxygen (anaerobic). In the past biogas technology focused on industries Provide Electric Vehicle Chargingsuch as agriculture, food processing, and other sectors Facilities in all Parking Garageswhere large amounts of organic waste was produced and energy demand was high. More recently, however, Include Organic Waste Processingwaste management utilities have begun adapting biogas Facilities in all Buildingsfacilities to convert sewage and municipal solid waste into methane. Inspired by this advance, Hanok City takes Provide Loans for Wind Turbinebiogas out of the remote sewage treatment plant into Constructionthe city. The key to this transition is unifying the organic waste stream. Waste disposals elements are a common feature in community Layout of Major Energy Facilities Throughout Hanok Citymany homes. Most commonly they are used to grind food waste so as to prevent. Hanok City, however, asks them to do more. Mimicking a project run Siemens Construct and Manage Biogas Parc Corridorin the City of Milwaukee, WI, USA, Hanok City uses Reactors and Facilities Bioreactor Facilityhigh strength garbage disposals to turn virtually any Proposed Wind Turbine Sites Metershousehold organic wastes, including cardboard, into a Create Incentives to Install Wind Sewage Mains Turbines 50 150 500homogeneous product ideal for anaerobic digestion. Public Right of WayA3 6 A37
  20. 20. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yene rg ycl o s i n g t h e l oo pSupporting innovation in energy management requires the utilization of multiple complimentary programs and an integrated network of tools. Hanok City embraces this call for diversity by using wind energy and fuel cell technology to supplement its premier biomass program. Sanitary sewers are the next key piece of the biogas system. Hanok City’s sanitary sewers transport the organic waste slurry to an array of biogas digesters located beneath the IBD. Within this series of tanks, the waste slurry is inoculated with a culture of methane popular consumptionproducing bacteria that expedite decomposition. Capable of being completed in 24 hours, effective digestion will energy recaptureconvert a substantial amount of the slurry into gas, thus reducing the overall volume of waste that must be treated and transported. The methane itself can be burned on site to generate heat, be used to power a steam turbine, or pumped through a fuel cell to directly produce electricity. organizing the waste streamVertical axis wind turbines are known for their compact size, low vibrations, and ability to generate electricity even at low wind velocities. For all of these reasons, vertical axis wind turbines are being targeted as a attractive design for highrise wind power generation. Hanok City embraces the opportunity to further wind energy design and provides a builder incentive structure for installing rooftop turbines on high rise structures. Electric Vehicles are most often conceptualized as private assets and not pieces of regional energy biogas productioninfrastructure. Hanok City challenges this conception by arguing that electric vehicle fleets stored within the Creating innovative energy systems cannot be accomplished alone. Their success requires investments on the parts of multiple district can, during low consumption periods, act as stakeholders. With the regard to the development of biogas facilities, perhaps the most central of these investments is made by reservoirs for excess energy. Electric vehicles attached to the public. As the generators of waste, the public is uniquely situated to deconstruct the waste stream into separate, more uniform the grid during periods of excess energy production can components. Just like a refined ore, the inventiveness of the private sector can then begin to experiment with ways to create value store unused electricity in their batteries. During periods from these components. Rather than priming the market, institutions can then work to make the infrastructural polices and invest-of high energy demand, the grid can then draw energy ments needed to formalize emerging technologies. In the case of biogas production, investments of this kind might include estab-back out of the electric vehicles, and thereby reduce the lishing pricing schemes for biogas-sourced energy or loan programs for emerging utility providers. A3 8 A39
  21. 21. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h ywast e ma n a g e m e n tm akin g a mo u n ta in in to a mo le hill action items by stakeholder groupSeoul and South Korea as a nation already maintains a highly advanced solid waste management program. Unlike the United States, where household garbage is institutiongenerally unsorted, all solid waste from households and Sort the Waste Stream into itssmall businesses must be disposed in content specific Individual Componentsbags. The bags can be purchased from a variety of vendors, and their price reflects the cost of managing Generate a Demand for Products Disposal Hatchesthat particular part of the waste stream. In most places with Minimal Packaging and Non-this program has lead to a segregation of recyclable from Recyclable Componentsnon-recyclable items. In some, more progressive areas, however, the South Korean bag system has lead to the consolidation of household kitchen scraps into a distinct, composting waste stream. Based on this success, the challenge of Hanok City is not to organize a muddled waste stream, but instead to facilitate its collection and reprocessing businessThe basis of the Hanok City solid waste collection Pneumatic Pipelinesystem is pressured pipeline that quite literally sucks sorted garbage out of structures and into two centralized Integrate Disposal Conduits intosorting facilities. The are three major components of this Building Design and Constructionpneumatic system Test the Feasibility of On-siteDisposal hatches are the first major component. They Recycling Facilitiescan be inside units or along sidewalks. They can be locked private facilities or they can operate much like trash cans in a public park. The pipeline network is the second major system Processing Facilitycomponent. Consisting of pressured pipes both within structures and within the public right of way, this network community Layout of Major Energy Facilities Throughout the Siterequires strong public-private cooperation to construct Construct and Manage Pneumatic SystemCentralized sorting facilities are the final system Infrastructure Parc Corridorelement. Located beneath the IBD and at the southeast corner of the site, the structures sort, store, and prepare Continue Developing Pricing Solid Waste Processing Facilitieshousehold for being shipped to processing centers Signals to Incentivise Reduced Pneumatic Pipeline Meters Public Right of Way Waste Production 50 150 500A4 0 A41
  22. 22. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yl an d scap ec ul ti v a t i n g e co s y s te m s e rv ic e sParc serves as Hanok City’s premier piece of landscape action items by stakeholder groupinfrastructure. At its northeastern tip, it functions as a transitional buffer between the more forested condition institution bioswales throughout the parcproposed for Yongsan Park and the heavy residential areas to the south. Along its western edge, a historic Create community forestry pro-stream channel is uncovered and a series of constructed grams to care for neighborhood creek/storm water basinwetlands and channels reintroduce native floodplain tree canopyspecies into the site. Along the site’s riverfront, the Parc reach its full potential, providing abundant tree cover and Develop gardening programs step pool and fountainextensive wetlands amidst a premier social space and clubs to expose the youth to traditional Korean gardeningIn Hanok City, the natural world is a key partner in the techniquescollaborative development process. As contributor to the management of physical infrastructure, native landscapes freshen the air, reduce the urban heat island effect, and guard against flooding. As a component of Yongsan bufferHanok City’s cultural systems, elements of the region’s natural history create a shared identity through which business greenwaysyoung and old can build rapport. The three main Develop nurseries to provide na-components of this system are: tive species planting stockRooftop gardens, although domesticated, provide a wetland buffer Integrate landscape systems intovery tactile way for youth to reconnect with the rural building design and real estatetraditions of earlier generations. As a component of development projectsdistrict wide food security plan, they can also help a community relieve periods of food scarcity. Tree Canopy help reduce the severity of urban heat islands, freshen the air, and absorb significant amounts of stormwater. In Hanok City tree canopy are present along every right of way, and in concentrated stands communityalong the waterfront, the Parc, and the rail corridor. Regulate landscaping to ensureConstructed wetlands are a central part of Hanok the use of native speciesCity’s water management system. By providing a place for water to accumulate and be metabolized, they Train parks personnel to care stormwater flowsubstantially reduce the district’s ecological footprint. As for naturalized park Metersa collection of native species, however, these pocket- environmentshabitats also act as reservoirs of native biodiversity. Stormwater Flow Accumulation and Supporting Landscape Infrastructure 50 150 500A4 2 A43
  23. 23. h a n o k c it y h e a lt h yurb a n e c o log ya n e n v i ro n me n t th a t s u p p o rts itself t hrough biodiversit y bioswales throughout the parc 492 species of birds greenways creek/storm water basin step pool and fountain 216 species of freshwater fish found in Korea’s rivers and lakes (carp are the most common) earth ramp shade intolerant plants flood tolerant plants shade tolerant plants earth ramp earth ramp quercus aliena lindera erythrocarpa (tree) acer pseudosieboldianum (a.k.a. the oriental white oak) (a.k.a. the Korean maple tree) zoysia japonica (grass) miscanthus spp. (shrub) euonymus japonica (shrub)Landscape Various landscape interventions throughout the site, The Parc promotes the site’s natural green and water including greenways and local art, help guide people to Metersfeatures. It provides fresh air, sunlight, and water amidst the Parc. The Parc’s pathway connects Yongsan Park all a highly dense and built urban fabric. the way to the riverfront. Layout of Major Landscape Infrastructure 50 150 500A4 4 A45
  24. 24. a home is social network of spaces the parc the boardwalk the street marketplace the village square the parc promenade Hanok City connects people by creating the physical space for interaction to occur. These spaces are found in traditional places like the street and parks, but also in the vertical realm as well. Public transit in Hanok City is a great option, but in designing social spaces, pedestrians must come first. Earth ramps, non-motorized pathways, and sky parks preserve safety for pedestrians and bicycles and create stimulating environments throughout Hanok City that everyone can access and enjoy. As soon as people arrive at the intermodal hub, they are greeted with colorful signage and breathable spaces along the canopied platform, which directs people to the Parc, the Boardwalk, and Parc Promenade, where they will pass many more vibrant social spaces along the way.A4 6 A47
  25. 25. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lgoa l : f l ex ible a n d v ib ran t so ci al sp acesopti o n s f o r e ve ry o n ek e y c h a r a c t e r i s ti cs ting with ng ac pi• Entry points to open spaces are plentiful in somethin th r sho p inte e number, conveniently located, and accessible for g water people with special needs. g in ne learn w• Affordable public options and transit stops located street ve strategically near public open spaces ensure that nd every person has access regardless of age, ability, ors and social class. plazas• A pathway along the Parc minimizes traffic barriers and maximizes safety by passing under streets, providing pedestrians with a continuous, safe place nearest open spaces to walk and enjoy fresh air. 10th floor• Variety in types of spaces provides the elderly with 76th floor ian mall lling flow numerous options for leisure activities where they pedestr se er can choose to be alone or with others. the parc, 5m s plaza, 10m• Skyparks and vertical space requirements ensure that no person is more than 5 minutes from public space in either a building or at street level. transit nd stop• ou Community space requirements ensure that spaces reflect the preferences of their users. r playg rooftop e share d• Wayfinding and signage provide users with bik ini information about routes, access, and a sense of ng whereabouts.• Open spaces are clean, well-maintained, not overcrowded, and have plentiful sitting areas.A4 8 A49
  26. 26. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lnet w o rk of s o c ia l s pacespa r k s , p l a z a s , a n d c o mmu n ity -o wned spacesA variety of social spaces at multiple levels gives people the option to be with other people, watch other people, or to enjoy time alone. At ground level, the Parc encourages all types of passive and active recreation. The streets are a place for the community to be creative, where pedestrians come first and sidewalks become vibrant markets. Tree-lined sidewalks create greenways Yongsan Parkbetween parks, provide shelter from sun and rain, and assist in stormwater management. To meet demands for social space, especially for those with more leisure time, the plan proposes untraditional social spaces within buildings themselves. Because Han Riverbeing able to reach street level may actually be a five minute trip down an elevator, vertical social spaces offer an innovative alternative. In community- and publicly-owned spaces, described in detail in “building the home”, people connect above Metersstreet level - on rooftops, on the skypark, and in studios 50 150 500that they have made their own. The social initiative introduces light, air, and spontaneous interaction to towers. social spaces, vertical realm public open space parks and greenways parks and greenways hard-scaped plazas hard-scaped plazas streets community-owned spaces courtyards institutional courtyards publicly-owned spaces station marketplace commercial courtyardsA5 0 A51
  27. 27. h a n o k c it y s o c ia lt he p arca r eg i o n a l a n d lo c a l n a tu ra l a s s et Ansan Mountain Nam Mountain Yongsan Park Yeouido Park Nodeil Island bioswales creek/wetlandEnvironmental Benefits • The creek is a year-round amenity where activities change with the season. • The wetland is vegetated and graded to assist Connecting Regional Parks SystemsThe creek runs through a large portion of the Parc, starting near the Station in the north and bringing people in storm water management, especially during monsoon season and flood events. The Parc is the backbone of the social space network; the Han riverfront. The Parc is the so-called “living room” to the river. It serves social and environmental purposes activities surround it in every direction. It gets its name of the home where there are a variety of spaces, both by providing an attractive water amenity and a practical • Bioswales, located throughout the Parc and on streets, are used to convey surface water in order to from its arc shape, which completes a continuous, shared and private. storm water mitigator. regional parks system by connecting Yongsan Park to reduce surface runoff.A5 2 A53