How much does $1,000,000.00 grow into over 30 years with a 4% rate of return?
How much does $1,000,000.00 grow into over 30 years with a 8% rate of return?
Modern Portfolio Theory Proposes that a rational investor can optimize his returns and minimize his risk through proper asset allocation (investing one ’s total asset amongst various classes of assets). Asset Class = A group of securities that exhibit similar characteristics, behave similarly in the marketplace, and are subject to the same laws and regulations. The three main asset classes are equities (stocks), fixed-income (bonds) and cash equivalents.
There are 3 major rating agencies: Moody ’s, Standard & Poor’s (S&P) & Fitch. Each agency thoroughly monitors all issuers of debt financial health. They try to project each issuers default risk.
Bond Rating System Moody S&P/Fitch Grade Risk Aaa AAA Investment Highest Rating Aa AA Investment High Rating A A Investment Strong Baa BBB Investment Medium Grade Ba , B BB , B Junk Speculative Caa / Ca / C CCC / CC / C Junk Highly Speculative C D Junk In Default
Price and Yield are inversely related. When Price rises, yield falls.
Prices fluctuate in the market due to supply and demand factors.
Important idea: Yield to Maturity (YTM)
YTM = the total return from all interest payments as well as any gain or loss from the bond price at time of purchase and maturity.
If bond is trading at discount (current price is lower that par value) then YTM will be higher that coupon value. If bond is trading at premium (current price is higher than par value) then YTM will lower that coupon value.
An investment vehicle that is made up of a pool of funds collected from many investors for the purpose of investing in securities such as stocks, bonds, money market instruments and similar assets. Mutual funds are operated by money mangers, who invest the fund's capital and attempt to produce capital gains and income for the fund's investors. A mutual fund's portfolio is structured and maintained to match the investment objectives stated in its prospectus .
One of the main advantages of mutual funds is that they give small investors access to professionally managed, diversified portfolios of equities, bonds and other securities, which would be quite difficult (if not impossible) to create with a small amount of capital. Each shareholder participates proportionally in the gain or loss of the fund.
An aggressively managed portfolio of investments that uses advanced investment strategies such as leveraged, long, short and derivative positions in both domestic and international markets with the goal of generating high returns (either in an absolute sense or over a specified market benchmark). Legally, hedge funds are most often set up as private investment partnerships that are open to a limited number of investors and require a very large initial minimum investment. Investment in hedge funds are illiquid as they often require investors keep their money in the fund for at least one year.
For the most part, hedge funds (unlike mutual funds) are unregulated because they cater to sophisticated investors. In the U.S., laws require that the majority of investors in the fund be accredited. That is, they must earn a minimum amount of money annually and have a net worth of more than $1 million, along with a significant amount of investment knowledge. You can think of hedge funds as mutual funds for the super rich. They are similar to mutual funds in that investments are pooled and professionally managed, but differ in that the fund has far more flexibility in its investment strategies. It is important to note that hedging is actually the practice of attempting to reduce risk, but the goal of most hedge funds is to maximize return on investment. The name is mostly historical, as the first hedge funds tried to hedge against the downside risk of a bear market by shorting the market (mutual funds generally can't enter into short positions as one of their primary goals). Nowadays, hedge funds use dozens of different strategies, so it isn't accurate to say that hedge funds just "hedge risk". In fact, because hedge fund managers make speculative investments, these funds can carry more risk than the overall market.
Private equity consists of investors and funds that make investments directly into private companies or conduct buyouts of public companies that result in a delisting of public equity. Capital for private equity is raised from retail and institutional investors, and can be used to fund new technologies, expand working capital within an owned company, make acquisitions, or to strengthen a balance sheet. The majority of private equity consists of institutional investors and accredited investors who can commit large sums of money for long periods of time. Private equity investments often demand long holding periods to allow for a turnaround of a distressed company or a liquidity event such as an IPO or sale to a public company.
The size of the private equity market has grown steadily since the 1970s. Private equity firms will sometimes pool funds together to take very large public companies private. Many private equity firms conduct what are known as leveraged buyouts (LBOs), where large amounts of debt are issued to fund a large purchase. Private equity firms will then try to improve the financial results and prospects of the company in the hope of reselling the company to another firm or cashing out via an IPO.