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  1. 1. Creative Media Production Management Project
  2. 2. In media terms the audience is any group of peoplewho receive a media text, and not just people whoare together in the same place.Radio listeners, Television viewers, Newspaper andmagazine readers, Web traffic on web sites.Audiences
  3. 3. All media texts are produced with anaudience in mind – that is to say agroup of people who will receive thetext and make some sort of sense outof it.Audiences
  4. 4. A media producer has to know who is thepotential audience, and as much about themas possible.The three main methods of AudienceResearch that you should be aware of are:1. Demographics2. Psychographics3. Research OrganisationsAudience Research
  5. 5. A common and traditional method of audienceresearch is known as demographics.This defines the adult population largely by the workthat they do.It breaks the population down into 6 groups, andlabels them by using a letter code to describe theincome and status of the members of each group.Demographics
  6. 6. • A- Higher managerial, administrative, professional e.g.Chief executive, senior civil servant, surgeon• B - Intermediate managerial, administrative, professionale.g. bank manager, teacher• C1- Supervisory, clerical, junior managerial e.g. shop floorsupervisor, bank clerk, sales person• C2 - Skilled manual workers e.g. electrician, carpenter• D- Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers e.g. assemblyline worker, refuse collector, messenger• E - Casual labourers, pensioners, unemployed e.g.pensioners without private pensions and anyone living onbasic benefitsNRS ClassificationsSocioeconomic Grades
  7. 7. Which category would they fall into?Which media products do they consume?
  8. 8. ABC1C2DE
  9. 9. It does not tell the media producers some thingsthey would like to know, such as how much moneyeach group has to spend each week.Some skilled manual workers, like electricians, earnmore money each week than say a teacher, but theyprobably do not spend it in the same way.Also demographics is only about the main earner in ahousehold so young people at home – for example,are not included.Criticisms
  10. 10. An alternative demographic measure of a person may includeinformation such as:– Area of Residence (Rural/City)– Mobility– Age– Gender– Sexual Orientation– Place of Origin (Ethnicity)– Religion– Disabilities/Health– LanguagesDemographics
  11. 11. This is a way of describing an audience bylooking at the behaviour and personalitytraits of its members.Psychographics labels a particular type ofperson and makes an assessment about theirviewing and spending habits.Psychographics
  12. 12. Young and Rubicam created a theory thatlooked at the brands people brought and howpeople felt about them.4Cs is an acronym - short for Cross CulturalConsumer Characterisation.They put the audience into groups withlabels that suggest their position in society.Young and Rubicam
  13. 13. Resigned. Rigid, strict, authoritarian and chauvinist values, oriented tothe past and to Resigned roles. Brand choice stresses safety, familiarityand economy. (Older)Struggler. Alienated, Struggler, disorganised - with few resources apartfrom physical/mechanical skills (eg car repair). Heavy consumers ofalcohol, junk food and lotteries, also trainers. Brand choice involvesimpact and sensation.Mainstream.Domestic, conformist, conventional, sentimental, passive, habitual. Partof the mass, favouring big and well-known value for money ‘family’brands. Almost invariably the largest 4Cs group. (Average demos)Aspirer. Materialistic, acquisitive, affiliative, oriented to extrinsics ...image, appearance, charisma, persona and fashion. Attractive pack moreimportant than quality of contents. (Younger, clerical/sales typeoccupation)The 4Cs
  14. 14. Succeeder. Strong goal orientation, confidence, work ethic, organisation... support status quo, stability. Brand choice based on reward, prestige -the very best . Also attracted to ‘caring’ and protective brands ... stressrelief. (Top management)Explorer. Energy - autonomy, experience, challenge, new frontiers. Brandchoice highlights difference, sensation, adventure, indulgence and instanteffect - the first to try new brands. (Younger - student)Reformer. Freedom from restriction, personal growth, socialawareness, value for time, independent judgement, tolerance ofcomplexity, anti-materialistic but intolerant of bad taste. Curious andenquiring, support growth of new product categories. Select brands forintrinsic quality, favouring natural simplicity, small is beautiful.(High education)The 4Cs cont…
  15. 15. DISCOVERYENLIGHTENMENTStruggler. Alienated, aimless, disorganised –with few resources apart from physical/mechanical skillsHeavy consumers of alcohol, junk food and lotteries,also trainers. Brand choice involves impact and sensation.Aspirer. Materialistic, acquisitive, affiliative,oriented to extrinsics ... image, appearance,charisma, persona and fashion.Attractive pack more important than quality of conte(Younger, clerical/sales type occupation)Mainstream. Domestic, conformist,conventional, sentimental, passive, habitual.Part of the mass, favouring big and well-knownvalue for money ‘family’ brands.Almost invariably the largest 4Cs group.Average demosSECURITYResigned. Rigid, strict,authoritarian and chauvinist values,oriented to the past and to traditional roles.Brand choice stresses safety,familiarity and economy. OlderSURVIVALESCAPEReformer. Freedom from restriction, personal growth,social awareness, value for time, independent judgement,tolerance of complexity, anti-materialistic but aware of ‘good taCurious and enquiring, support growth of new product categoriesSelect brands for intrinsic quality, favouring natural simplicity.( High education)STATUSSucceeder. Strong goal orientation,confidence, work ethic, organisation status quo, stability.Brand choice based on reward, prestige - the very best .Also attracted to ‘caring’ and protective brands ...stress relief. Top mngmntCONTROLExplorer. Energy - autonomy, experience,challenge, new frontiers. Brand choice highlightsdifference, sensation, adventure, indulgence,instant effect. The first to try new brands. Younger - studen
  16. 16. SucceederMainstreamResignedReformerExplorerAspirerStruggler
  17. 17. Hierarchy of NeedsAn American psychologist, Abraham Maslow, suggested that weall have different layers of needs.We have to achieve certain needs before going on to the nextlayer.His Hierarchy of Needs suggests that once people have theirbasic needs met like housing, food, safety, shopping,technology, and a job they can then go on to satisfysuccessively ‘higher needs’ that occupy a set hierarchy orsystem of ranking.
  18. 18. An alternative psychographic measure of a person mightinclude:– Interests– Activities– Opinions– Behavioural Patterns– Habits– Lifestyle– Perceptions– HobbiesPsychographics
  19. 19. There are many different research organisations that produceaudience reports for the media industries.Some of these are:• RAJA (Radio)• BARB (Broadcast, TV)• ABC (Magazines, Newspapers, Journals)• CAA (Cinemas)• ELSPA (Gaming)• ChartTrack (Music, Video, Software)• MCV (Games)Research Organisations
  20. 20. Find out the latest research facts andfiguresSummarise these in note form and/or in amind-map
  21. 21. Original information, gathered by the researcher.Such as:• Observations• Interviews• Questionnaires or SurveysComplete at least one of the above as part of your researchinto your target audiencePrimary Research
  22. 22. PrimaryResearchYour own photographsVisits to galleries,exhibitions ormuseumsSketchesObservationsDrawingsQuestions (Surveys)
  23. 23. Summary, collection or gathering of existing information.Such as:Newspapers, Magazines and BooksAudio-Visual Products, Audio Products, Visual ProductsThe Internet, WebsitesFind at least 5 pieces of information from at least 3 differentsources in relation to your target audience and/or productSecondary Research
  24. 24. SecondaryResearchLibrariesWebsitesPhotocopiesPrintsCollectedItemsClippingsBooksMagazinesLeafletsTV andotherformats