Audience Response Theories 2014


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Audience Response Theories 2014

  1. 1. Audience Response Theories Rachel Heyes The Manchester College
  2. 2. Consumption Passive Active Audiences are believed to respond passively to media products – That is, the media tells them something, and they all respond in the same way Audiences are made up of individuals who each respond in different ways, depending on their own opinions, experiences and personalities
  3. 3. Hypodermic Needle Model The hypodermic syringe theory is that the media is like a syringe which injects ideas, attitudes and beliefs into the audience • In some cases this may work, but the problem is that people are affected in different ways by the media - films, advertising, newspapers, television etc. • The ‘audience’ are also now much more critically aware of the media and having ideas ‘injected’ into them. • However, this theory still has uses - i.e. watching violent crimes can make you violent, for example the Jamie Bulger killers, copycat crimes, the ‘Power Rangers’ fighting in play grounds.
  4. 4. Two Step Flow The two-step flow theory suggests: • We are much more likely to be affected by the media if we discuss it with others. • Our opinions are affected by the way our friends etc have viewed the media, i.e. discussions on Eastenders - Cat and Zoe, views on documentaries etc. • The people we discuss our ideas with are called ‘opinion leaders’. • This is another theory where the James Bulger case has been cited - apparently one boy talked to his friend about a film he had watched and apparently influenced the other’s behaviour.
  5. 5. Uses and Gratifications Theory According to uses and gratification theory we all have different uses for the media and we make choices over what we want to watch. We are expecting something from our use of the media. 1. Information - we may want to find out about society and the world. We want to satisfy our curiosity. 2. Personal Identity - we may watch television for models for our behaviour. For instance - we may identify with soap characters or their situations. 3. Integration and Social Interaction - we use the media to find out more about the circumstances of other people perhaps through empathy or sympathy. 4. Entertainment - enjoyment, relaxation, fill the time. CRITICISMS: You don’t always choose what media you use - you may be a secondary or tertiary user. Your mum has the remote control! You have no control over what posters you see on your way to work or college.
  6. 6. Audience Response Models Rachel Heyes The Manchester College
  7. 7. Reception Theory Preferred Negotiated Oppositional The preferred reading is the reading media producers hope audiences will take from the text. Negotiated reading is when audiences acknowledge the preferred reading, but modify it to suit their own values and opinions. Audience members from outside the target audience may reject the preferred reading, receiving their own alternative message.
  8. 8. Black Swan (2010) Preferred Negotiated Oppositional “What a beautiful, wonderful film. Superbly acted, worthy of an Oscar. I was so inspired” “I guess that the acting was really good and the film was beautifully shot but I didn’t really like the storyline and I would have liked to have seen more ballet” “The film was so bad. It didn’t make any sense and it was rubbish. I fell asleep”
  9. 9. Twilight (2008) Preferred Negotiated Oppositional “I love Twilight. I think it’s a great movie. I could watch it over and over again” “I thought the film was good although it was slow paced in places” “I thought the film was very dark, depressing and not entertaining”
  10. 10. Further Reading • Media Studies: The Essential Resource p96-97 • AS Media Studies: The Essential Introdution p132-133 • BTEC National Media Production p163-168 • Media Studies Number 010 Ideology • Media Audiences