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Paraphrasing & Summarizing

Paraphrasing & Summarizing






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    Paraphrasing & Summarizing Paraphrasing & Summarizing Presentation Transcript

    • PARAPHRASING & SUMMARIZINGIn your own words…
    • What’s the need for both? On many occasions you have to write or rewrite shortened versions of materials that you have read
    • How to avoid plagiarismIf you don’t, then you are a criminal!That is plagiarism!There are two methods of doing this:paraphrasing and summarizing.They give you the facility to write or saythings close to the original but stilldifferent from it.
    • What is a paraphrase?The paraphrase is telling in yourown words what the author issaying.It simplifies a selection but doesnot necessarily shorten it. Likenote taking, the paraphraserecords essential information,captures the tone or attitude of the
    • How do I paraphrase?Here are the steps to observe in writinga paraphrase:1. Locate the main idea2. List the supporting details3. Determine the tone4. Rethink the vocabulary – rememberto use your own words in your attemptto simplify the material5. Reread and make revisions
    • Technique 1 - SynonymsThe hardest language to learn isMandarin.The most difficult language to learn isMandarin.The most difficult language to master isMandarin.Mandarin is one of the most difficult
    • Technique 2 - AntonymsThe man is tall.The man is not short.The school is far away fromthe city.The school is not near to thecity.
    • Phrasal verbShe discarded her usedlipstick case in the trashcan.She threw away her usedlipstick case.
    • General VerbsThe factory manufacturescorrugated boxes.The factory producescorrugated boxes.The factory makescorrugated boxes.
    • PhrasesMany people in Canada arebilingual.Many people in Canadaspeak two languages.
    • What is a summary?The summary (also called aprécis) shortens a passageand condenses the originalmaterial without sacrificingits basic meaning.It is usually shorter than aparaphrase.
    • How do I summarize?In summarizing, use the followingsteps as guides:1. Reread the selection as yousearch for the main idea.2. Summarize the selection byrewriting it in your own words. Omitunnecessary details.3. Reread your summary.
    • Other forms of summaries:1. Precis – general form of a shortened or condensed version of the original.2. Synopsis – a summary of a book.3. Abstract – a summary of a research paper.4. Concept paper – a summary of a proposal.
    • The End