By Jacqui Wunderlich, Alexis Shaft & JohnFortenberryPHOTOREALISM
• Paintings & sculptures where photographs are used to gatherinformation and then replicated in exact detail so that they areindistinguishable from the original subject.• Reactionary movement against Abstract Expressionism artmovement, similar to Pop Art & Minimalism.• Took place during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.• Other names for Photorealism are:Hyperrealism, Superrealism, Sharp Focus & New Realism.WHAT IS PHOTOREALISM?
Critic Howard Smith askedme, “What are you going tocall this group?” I said, “I don’tknow, what am I going to callthem? They’re using thephotograph, they’re being veryopen about it. It’sphotographic realism. I don’tknow, photorealism. Does thatsound good to you?”-Louis K. MeiselThe term „photorealism‟ was coined by Louis K. Meisel in 1969."Six Views of Edo: Shinjuko III” byRichard Estes
• Abstract Expressionism was thefavored American art style duringthe post-WWII era.• Abstract Expressionism used littleto no pre-planning, a lot ofspontaneity and was veryconceptual.• Photorealism went back to theroots of heavy planning andrealistic depictions of objects.Unlike AbstractExpressionism, photorealismfavored random objects and“everydayness”.REACTION AGAINST ABSTRACTEXPRESSIONISM“Tourists” sculpture by Duane Hanson
• Everyday objects and everydayscenery, use of found objects• Detached and impersonal• Geometric and colorful• Lets art speak for itself• Rejection of elitism• More cluttered thanminimalism, no “less is more”• Points out commercialism ofAmerica, very satirical look• Relies very heavily on goodtechnique and skill• Mistaken for real photographsSimilarities to Pop art &MinimalismDifferences from Pop art &MinimalismPHOTOREALISM VS. POPART & MINIMALISM
Estes was born in 1932 inIllinois. He attended college atThe Art Institute inChicago, Illinois. Estes isregarded as one of the keyfounders of the photorealismmovement. Most of hispaintings are of reflective citylife, mostly in New York City.RICHARD ESTESb. 1932 - present
MICHIGAN AVENUE (1984)As Estes work progressesthroughout time, what is seen inhis pictures changes. He carefullyselects what goes into hispictures. From them you can seea snapshot of time—what thecars looked like, what was inshop windows, and even whatpeople dressed like.
• Born July 14, 1940• Used Grid Technique• His works are generally largerthan life and highly focused• Suffers from Prosopagnosia, alsoknown as face blindness• "The Event”b. 1940 - presentCHUCK CLOSE
• Born in Alexandria, Minnesota in1925.• It took him until he was 40 torealize he didn’t enjoy abstract artand to fall in love withphotorealism• Early works centered aroundviolent, graphic situations• Later works focused on ordinarylife, people who get ignored• Used his art to make a statementDUANE HANSONb. 1925 – d. 1996
• Duane Hanson used sculpture by casting parts of hismodels’ bodies and then using a mixture of fiberglassresin and polyester to create the forms.• He then painted them to have flesh-colored skin andany extra details like veins, muscles, freckles, etc. Heused real human hair to create wigs for the sculptures’heads and bought clothing to fit them properly.SCULPTURE TECHNIQUE
• Attended college inHonolulu, Hawaii and SantaBarbara.• Originally was a surfboardpainter, and did not want to be anartist.• Known for extreme precision andadding texture to his oil paintings• Went from object oriented worksto images he juxtaposed inrelation to anotherDON EDDYb. 1944 - present
Angels of Destruction (1967)One of his more well known pieces of art, it was a reaction toVietnam, including elements of G.I. Joe and Hell’s Angels (famousbiker gang). This referenced soldiers seriousness, set against anAmerican flag.
Prodigal Son Cycle: My Father Tempts Me, 1968In this picture, he liked to cut in another image in placeof something else that should’ve been there. E.g. theapple and the man’s face.
Two Volkswagens (1971)In this one, you can see his progression into the photorealistmovement, using hyperrealist techniques.
HOW TO MAKE PHOTOREALISMGrid Method• Take a Picture• Make a Grid• Focus on detail• Focus on lighting
• Paintings & sculptures where photographs are used to gatherinformation and then replicated in exact detail so that they areindistinguishable from the original subject.• Reactionary movement against Abstract Expressionism artmovement, similar to Pop Art & Minimalism.• Richard Estes (Painting)• Chuck Close (Grid Method)• Duane Hanson (Sculpture)• Don Eddy (Painting)RECAP