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  • Good afternoon and welcome to my thesis defense. During the next 45 minutes, I will present the core of my work for the last 4 years: the COMMON-Sense Net project. The essence of this work is the application of emerging technologies for rural development in Developing Countries. In order to address this problem in a concrete and meaningful way, I focused on the design, implementation and assessment of wireless sensor networks to tackle some of the problems faced by marginal farmers in India, more precisely in Karnataka.
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    • 1. COMMON-Sense Net Wireless Sensor Networks for Marginal Farming in India Jacques Panchard PhD Private Defense Advisor: Prof. Jean-Pierre Hubaux Jun 5, 2009
    • 2. COMMON-Sense Net <ul><li>Motivation : Help define and implement farming strategies for poor farmers in a situation of water scarcity . </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome : decision support system based on environmental monitoring via sensor networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected: soil moisture, temperature, humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based data access with GIS </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>http://commonsense.epfl.ch </li></ul>
    • 3. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><li>State-of-the-Art </li></ul><ul><li>Project description </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of Results </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor-Tunes </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Jun 5, 2009
    • 4. Environment and Development? <ul><li>There is a growing tension between economic development and environmental sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Development Goals and the Environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure environmental sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce child mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced environmental monitoring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore Environment-to-Person Information Systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New technological window: wireless sensor networks </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 5. Wireless Sensor Network Jun 5, 2009
    • 6. ICT4D <ul><li>ICT4D: Information and Communication Technologies for Development </li></ul><ul><li>ICT as an enabler for development [Heeks 2002, 2008], [Walsham 2001], [Negroponte 1998] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight against exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common pitfalls of ICT4D projects [Heeks 2002, 2008] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design/actuality gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design guidelines [Surana et al. 2008], [Heeks 2002, 2008] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Hybrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization of existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 7. Test-Case: India <ul><li>India is a country with two faces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting Edge Technology and Excellent higher education system </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 8. India Agriculture <ul><li>Agriculture in India : 67% of employment </li></ul><ul><li>Small land-holding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 80% farms are less than 4 ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39% farms are less than 1 ha (Karnataka) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green revolution: from subsistence to market agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties for small farmers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot invest in intensive agriculture practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional crisis: From collectively managed infrastructure to individual management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early impacts of climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-arid areas characterized by low-rain fall and high climatic variability </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 9. WSN Projects in Developing Countries <ul><li>Arsenic detection in Bangladesh: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh University of Engineering, UCLA, MIT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SenSlide: Landslide detection in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Colorado, Boulder, IIT Mumbai, Microsoft Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water-quality management in Malawi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flood detection in Honduras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Road Quality Monitoring in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Colombo, Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 10. WSN Projects in Developing Countries Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion Arsenic detection Landslide prediction Water quality mgt Flood detection Road Monitoring Location Bangladesh India Malawi Honduras Sri Lanka Status Full deployment Simulation, laboratory Laboratory Preliminary deployment Laboratory Architecture 3-Tier Multi-cluster WSN 2-Tier Multi-cluster WSN Multi-hop WSN 2-Tier Multi-cluster WSN Delay-Tolerant Network with Data Mules Size 48 sensors 3 APs 65 (deployed) 600 (projected) 4 (projected) Unknown Unknown
    • 11. WSN Projects in Developing Countries Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion Arsenic detection Landslide prediction Water quality mgt Flood detection Road Monitoring Platform Unknown TelosB SPOT Proprietary Proprietary Radio range < 100m 30 – 40m 200-300m 8 km (cluster) 25 km (inter-cluster) 30 – 40m Data Soil moisture Temperature pH Nitrates Rock strains pH Redox Turbidity Water pressure Acceleration Energy Solar panel Battery Solar panel Solar panel Car battery
    • 12. System Description Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 13. COMMON-Sense Net Jun 5, 2009 IISc CEDT Prof. Jamadagni EPFL/SDC Cooperation Fund EPFL SDC HYDRAM Prof. Mermoud MICS Cluster 2 Chennakeshava Trust (NGO) S. Rao LCA Prof. Hubaux, J. Panchard Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 14. Chennakeshavapura Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 15. Test-beds Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 16. Platform selection: mica2 motes Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Crossbow Technology Inc </li></ul><ul><li>Atmel ATMega128 processor </li></ul><ul><li>Chipcon CC1000 radio (915 MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Runs tinyOS </li></ul>Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 17. Platform Choice: TinyNode <ul><li>Tinynode has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better useful radio range : more than 500 m was achieved at 15 dBm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In theory longer lifetime (tests on-going) </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Shockfish </li></ul><ul><li>MSP 430 processor </li></ul><ul><li>XEMICS 1205 radio (868MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Runs tinyOS </li></ul>Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 18. Lessons Learned Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Environmental monitoring is useful for small farmers (User survey 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Impossibility to identify precise use cases for marginal farmers at this point </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists are needed to deploy and maintain the network </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with farmers : estrangement towards technology </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence: </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity to develop tools to put wireless sensors in the hands of non-specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Target scientists rather than farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Find precise use cases, design experiments, carry them out in a controlled environment </li></ul>Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 19. Survey of agriculture scientists <ul><li>Qualitative and quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>20 participants: Indian agriculture scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing meeting </li></ul><ul><li>2 weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging of web application queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenario-based detailed questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debriefing interviews </li></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 20. Environmental Data for marginal agriculture Jun 5, 2009 Rain Fall 16% Soil Type 17% Temperature 22% Soil Moisture 29% Humidity 16% <ul><li>Spatial variability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High: soil moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low: temperature, rain-fall, atm. pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed: Soil physics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time variability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day is lower limit </li></ul></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 21. Debriefing Meetings <ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap between discourse and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debriefing allows optimism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space/time variability still an open question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinterest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer literacy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one-size-fits-all scenario </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 22. New method for agriculture scientists <ul><li>Based on data collected by the test-beds </li></ul><ul><li>3 use cases and potential customers found </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments could take place in 2009 (S. Rao) </li></ul><ul><li>Entomology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore links between soil moisture recent history and emergence of white grub and red hairy caterpillar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crop physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asses water efficiency of different crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess efficiency of underground drip irrigation </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art CSN Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 23. Sensor-Tune Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 24. Deployment Technical Issues Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Challenging physical environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity depends on fluctuating radio channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network topology is highly unpredictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty to know link-quality over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ergonomic problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LCD displays are ill-adapted to outdoor conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless sensors have very limited interfacing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task at hand requires attention and disponibility </li></ul></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 25. An Alternative: Sonification Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Hearing is a passive sense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require specific attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens continuously in the background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The human brain can analyze complex sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Physical ability is not impaired by hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands are free for the work at hand </li></ul></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 26. Sensor-Tune Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 27. Use Cases Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Non-expert users </li></ul><ul><li>WSN deployment/maintenance staff </li></ul><ul><li>Live connectivity to the Base Station </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As deployment goes on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor radio link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor distance to one base station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectivity history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>over the last 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodes with a PER below a threshold replay their history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User can select and tag nodes </li></ul></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 28. Parameters and Mapping Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet delivery rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance to the base station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model ideal state with a repetitive pleasant sound: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural sound (bird songs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The noise metaphor: Degrade the sound when the quality drops. </li></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 29. Prototype Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 30. User experiment Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Performed indoor </li></ul><ul><li>Simple deployment task </li></ul><ul><li>Non-specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison between audio and visual </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor, audio interface performs as well as visual </li></ul><ul><li>Audio advantages in a challenging environment (hands free, vision free), come at no performance price </li></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 31. Contributions <ul><li>Participatory design the first WSN toolkit for resource-poor agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>First reported WSN deployment in an ICT4D project </li></ul><ul><li>Identified precise applications with agriculture scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a WSN interface targeted at non-specialists, using sonification </li></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 32. Future Work Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Extended laboratory deployments with identified scientific partners </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive tests of sonification interface in the field </li></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 33. Publications <ul><li>Journal </li></ul><ul><li>J. Panchard, S. Rao, T. V. Prabhakar, J.-P. Hubaux, and H. S. Jamadagni. COMMONSense Net: A Wireless Sensor Network for Resource-Poor Agriculture in the Semiarid Areas of Developing Countries . Information Technologies and International Development, 4(1):51-67, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Conference/Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>J. Panchard, P. S. Rao, M. Sheshshayee, P. P. Papadimitratos, and J.-P. Hubaux. Wireless Sensor Networking for Rain-fed Farming Decision Support. In ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Networked Systems for Developing Regions , 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Prabhakar T V , N V Chalapathi Rao, Sujay M S, J. Panchard, H S Jamadagni, A. Pittet, Sensor Network Deployment For Agronomical Data Gathering in Semi-Arid Regions, WISARD 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>J. Panchard, S. Rao, T.V. Prabhakar, H.S. Jamadagni and J.-P. Hubaux, Improved Water Management for Resource Poor Farmers via Sensor Networks, ICTD06, Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>J. Luo, J. Panchard, M. Piorkowski, M. Grossglauser and Jean-Pierre Hubaux, MobiRoute: Routing towards a Mobile Sink for Improving Lifetime in Sensor Networks, INSS2006 </li></ul><ul><li>J. Panchard, A. Osterwalder, ICTs and Capacity Building through Apprenticeship and Participatory Methods, Applied to an ICT-based agricultural water management system , IFIP WG 9.4, Abuja 2005 </li></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 34. <ul><li>Thank you. </li></ul>Jun 5, 2009
    • 35. System Description Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 36. System Description Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 37. Design Science and participative Method Jun 5, 2009 3 Development 2 Suggestion 1 Awareness of Problem 4 Evaluation 5 Conclusion Community meetings led by a local faclitator Translation into a technical language: local facilitator and scientists Multidisciplinary development Participatory approach and apprenticeship Discussion and refinement of the artifact. (back to 1) Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 38. Protocol Description (Live use case) Jun 5, 2009 PDA Master Wireless Monitor Slave i Wait Init Start_Probing Info_request(seq_num, g_info*) … Compute g_info(i,t) if (g_info(i,t) < g_info*) Info_response(l_info, g_info) Info(l_info, g_info*) Probing(l_info, g_info) Delay D INIT ACTIVE CLOSE Info_request(seq_num, g_info*) Update g_info* Stop Stop_Probing Stop_Info Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 39. Clustering Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 40. Use Case 1: Entomology <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore links between soil moisture recent history and emergence of white grub and red hairy caterpillar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefit for farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict occurrences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy pesticides accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milieu: Field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensors: Soil moisture, temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number: 10 (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency: daily (?) </li></ul></ul>Jun 5, 2009 Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 41. Use Case 2: crop physiology Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asses water efficiency of different crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefit for farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate crop selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milieu: Pots in the lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensors: Soil moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number: 100+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 80 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency: as high as possible </li></ul></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion
    • 42. Use case 3 : Irrigation Jun 5, 2009 <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BAIF applied research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess efficiency of underground drip irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefit for farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess benefit/cost ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milieu: Field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensors: Soil moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number: 100+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency: daily </li></ul></ul>Field State of the Art Contribution Results Sensor-Tune Conclusion

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