Signing and Speaking William C. Stokoe Competitors, Alternatives, or Incompatibles? Jacqueline Hurst
Introduction <ul><li>Language origins – we should not assume that language was only spoken and heard </li></ul><ul><li>Sig...
What are Neanderthals? <ul><li>An extinct human species or subspecies  </li></ul><ul><li>(Homo neanderthalensis and Homo s...
Neanderthal Culture <ul><li>Evidence shows that they buried their dead and put artifacts into their graves </li></ul><ul><...
Lieberman (1972, 1975) <ul><li>Suggested that Neanderthals lacked the physiology for speech </li></ul><ul><li>But still po...
Opponents of Lieberman: <ul><li>Evidence of Neanderthal culture implies a human culture </li></ul><ul><li>Such a culture r...
But It Is Possible! <ul><li>Neanderthals had other human attributes like bipedalism, human hands with unpongid thumb place...
Other Ways of Communicating <ul><li>Facial expressions – thanks to binocular vision </li></ul><ul><li>Body language  </li>...
Sign Language of Aboriginal Australia (1988) <ul><li>Adam Kendon </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sign languages </li></ul><ul><l...
Primary Sign Language <ul><li>Used mostly by persons whose hearing acuity makes it impossible for them to acquire true spo...
Alternate Sign Language <ul><li>Use is determined by culture instead of physical necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used a...
Examples <ul><li>Australian Aborigines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires signing to be substituted for speaking under certain...
<ul><li>Warramungu/Walpari women </li></ul><ul><li>Signing is the preferred form of communication for prolonged conversati...
<ul><li>Yucatans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with hearing and deaf fluently in sign language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Conclusion <ul><li>Signing and speaking are and always were compatible  </li></ul><ul><li>To assume vocal language is ethn...
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Signing And Speaking Ch. 5

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Signing And Speaking Ch. 5

  1. 1. Signing and Speaking William C. Stokoe Competitors, Alternatives, or Incompatibles? Jacqueline Hurst
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Language origins – we should not assume that language was only spoken and heard </li></ul><ul><li>Sign languages are true languages </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultures use a combination of signed and spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Language is necessary for humanity but the crucial feature is not vocal </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are Neanderthals? <ul><li>An extinct human species or subspecies </li></ul><ul><li>(Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) </li></ul><ul><li>They lived during the late Pleistocene Epoch throughout most of Europe and parts of Asia and northern Africa and are associated with Middle Paleolithic tools </li></ul>
  4. 4. Neanderthal Culture <ul><li>Evidence shows that they buried their dead and put artifacts into their graves </li></ul><ul><li>Implies a culture that includes some notions of life after death </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lieberman (1972, 1975) <ul><li>Suggested that Neanderthals lacked the physiology for speech </li></ul><ul><li>But still possessed a fully human culture complete with language </li></ul><ul><li>… How is this possible? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Opponents of Lieberman: <ul><li>Evidence of Neanderthal culture implies a human culture </li></ul><ul><li>Such a culture requires language </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Neanderthal man could speak and understand </li></ul><ul><li>Lieberman’s conclusions must be false </li></ul>
  7. 7. But It Is Possible! <ul><li>Neanderthals had other human attributes like bipedalism, human hands with unpongid thumb placement, convergent binocular vision, and human faces </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken language is not the only form of human language </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other Ways of Communicating <ul><li>Facial expressions – thanks to binocular vision </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Hand gestures – thanks to bipedalism, hand are free </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sign Language of Aboriginal Australia (1988) <ul><li>Adam Kendon </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sign languages </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate sign languages </li></ul><ul><li>Shows that signing and speaking are not incompatible </li></ul>
  10. 10. Primary Sign Language <ul><li>Used mostly by persons whose hearing acuity makes it impossible for them to acquire true spoken language competence </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alternate Sign Language <ul><li>Use is determined by culture instead of physical necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as speech is used, for normal conversation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples <ul><li>Australian Aborigines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires signing to be substituted for speaking under certain circumstances. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Warramungu/Walpari women </li></ul><ul><li>Signing is the preferred form of communication for prolonged conversations </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Yucatans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with hearing and deaf fluently in sign language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teenagers use both sign and speak in everyday discourse </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Signing and speaking are and always were compatible </li></ul><ul><li>To assume vocal language is ethnocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Signing is more likely than speaking to have been the means by which language was first transmitted and acquired </li></ul>
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