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Prentice6 ppt ch02 (1)

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  • 1. Chapter 2: Creating A Healthy Lifestyle McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. 2-2 Why should you be concerned about your lifestyle? • Physical activity is critical to a healthy lifestyle • Social, emotional, mental and spiritual stability are also critical • Choosing a healthy lifestyle can lead to illness prevention
  • 3. 2-3 Elements/Domains of Wellness • Social wellness • Physical wellness • Emotional wellness • Career wellness • Intellectual wellness • Environmental wellness • Spiritual wellness • Financial wellness
  • 4. 2-4 • Planning is critical for wellness and involves: – Assessment of lifestyle – Setting goals – Planning your program – Implementing the program – Rewards for goal attainment – Continually assessing your plans and goals
  • 5. 2-5 • A healthy lifestyle integrates the following: –Physical activity –Stress management –Elimination of controllable risk factors, including alcohol, smoking, and drug abuse
  • 6. 2-6 What is the effect of stress on a healthy lifestyle? • Stress is linked to: – Disease – Declines in daily performance – Reduced quality of life • Stress is the result of a stimulus, or stressor
  • 7. 2-7 • Stress can be beneficial and is necessary for growth and development – If prolonged, it may become harmful • Stressors: – Eustress = stress that is beneficial – Distress = detrimental response or negative stressor – Fine line between good and bad stress
  • 8. 2-8 The Psychological or Cognitive Response to Stress • Once the stressor is applied, psychological or thought processes take over • Ultimately the response is dependent on how the individual views the situation
  • 9. 2-9 The Physiological Response to Stress • Three stage response in the body: – Alarm – Resistance – Exhaustion • Nervous & endocrine systems regulate systems of the body relative to stress – Nervous system response is short-lived – Endocrine system response is long lasting
  • 10. 2-10 • Alarm stage –Fight or flight response • Resistance stage –Body adjusts to stress • Exhaustion stage –Results if stress is persistent –May result in illness and/or death
  • 11. 2-11 Exercise and Stress Reduction – Physical activity is often used to reduce stress – A “high” is often achieved through exercise both during and immediately following – Consistent exercise also results in lowering resting blood pressure and cholesterol
  • 12. 2-12 Personality and Stress • Personality traits were once linked to cardiovascular disease: – Type A person – Type B person – Type C person • Now evidence shows disease risk is more related to an individual’s ability to cope with anger and hostility
  • 13. 2-13 Coping with Stress and Stress Management • Coping – An attempt to manage stress so that it does not dominate your life • Some coping methods are safe and effective – Defense mechanisms are not normally effective
  • 14. 2-14 • Stress management: – Must realize own responsibility for well- being – Perception is under your control – Can utilize exercise and modify thought processing • Relaxation techniques – Classified as muscle- to-mind or mind-to- muscle
  • 15. 2-15 • Relaxation techniques include: –Progressive relaxation –Massage –Biofeedback –Yoga –Meditation –Imagery –Autogenic training (hypnosis)
  • 16. 2-16 How can you prevent coronary artery disease? • #1 worldwide killer of men and women • 40% of deaths in the US are attributed to coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • 17. 2-17 • Cardiovascular diseases are a broad range of diseases that impact heart and flow of blood: – Coronary artery disease (CAD) – Heart attack – Heart failure – High blood pressure – Stroke – Congenital heart disease – Arrhythmias – Peripheral artery disease – Pericarditis – Cardiomyopathy
  • 18. 2-18 • CAD: – Result of fatty accumulation in the coronary arteries – Involves a narrowing of arteries – Blockage = myocardial ischemia • Risk factors may be: – Controllable – Uncontrollable
  • 19. 2-19 Effects of Exercise and Diet on Risk Factors • Increased physical activity results in a decreased number of deaths attributed to CAD • Good dietary habits can be beneficial in reducing CAD • Lifestyle changes can reduce coronary atherosclerosis, cholesterol and blood pressure
  • 20. 2-20 What is cancer? • Second leading cause of death in adults • Linked to cellular behavior: – Cellular activity becomes abnormal due to changes in cell-genetic makeup – Cell division of the abnormal cell results in formation of additional abnormal (cancer) cells – Collection of cells (tumor) will spread and invade other tissues
  • 21. 2-21 • Tumors can be benign (pose little threat) or malignant (harmful) – Malignancies are classified by tissue they invade • Causes of cancer are not easily identified: – May occur along family lines – May be caused by environmental factors (viruses, UV light, radiation, alcohol, tobacco, fatty diets)
  • 22. 2-22 Effects of Exercise and Diet on Cancer • Exercise has been associated with reducing certain types of cancer: – Enhances certain enzymes that reduce formation of free radicals – Free radicals enhance risk of chronic illnesses
  • 23. 2-23 • Eating a healthy diet has the potential to reduce risk of cancer • American Cancer Society recommendations: – Reduce total fat intake – Eat foods high in fiber – Eat foods rich in vitamins A and C – Include vegetables in your diet – Avoid smoke, salt-cured and charred foods – Limit alcohol consumption – Avoid obesity
  • 24. 2-24 What lifestyle habits are deterrents to fitness? • Negative practices can impact fitness: – Smoking – Abusing other drugs – Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
  • 25. 2-25 Tobacco Use • Why do people smoke? – Pleasure may be both social and physiological – Nicotine is physically addictive • What is in tobacco smoke? – Carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tars
  • 26. 2-26 • Passive smoke: –Also known as second-hand smoke –Inhaled by individuals not smoking cigarette –Non-smoker may develop: • Nasal symptoms • Eye irritation • Headaches • Cough and possibly allergies to smoke • Premature death
  • 27. 2-27 Smokeless Tobacco •Pinch or pouch of chewing tobacco is placed between gum and cheek •Nicotine level is similar to that achieved with smoking •Increases risk of: – Periodontal disease – Decay of tooth enamel – Cancer of the mouth
  • 28. 2-28 Curbing the Use of Tobacco •Warning from US Surgeon General is printed on packages of cigarettes •Television commercials are banned •Group therapy sessions have been organized to help individuals stop smoking •Nicotine patches are used to “kick the habit” •New filters have been devised to cut down tar and nicotine •Smoking is outlawed in public places in some states
  • 29. 2-29 Drug Use and Abuse • Drug use – Taking a drug for medical purposes • Drug misuse – Irresponsible use of drugs by individuals • Drug abuse – Use of drugs for non-medical reasons – Used with the intent of getting “high” (altering mood or behavior) – Tolerance, habituation, and addiction
  • 30. 2-30 • Common recreational drugs include: – Marijuana – Cocaine – Crystal methamphetamine – Ecstasy – Abused prescription drugs – ADHD medications
  • 31. 2-31 Alcohol Abuse • Alcohol consumption is common in the US • Environmental and social situations are often linked to alcohol consumption: – Used in social settings that may be uncomfortable – Offers a temporary means of escape from reality
  • 32. 2-32 • Alcoholism – Disease where an individual is dependent on consumption and abuse of alcohol – Chronic condition that is progressive and incurable without the individual ceasing consumption • Effects of Alcohol – Depresses the central nervous system – Loss of motor coordination – Progressive effects which may become life- threatening
  • 33. 2-33 • Alcohol-related diseases –Gastritis: Inflammation of stomach –Malnutrition –Liver disorders • Cirrhosis (scarring and hardening of liver) • Cancer of liver, larynx, esophagus, and tongue
  • 34. 2-34 Creating a Healthy Lifestyle: Your Personal Responsibility • Health is an obligation on the part of each individual • More health services do not equate to better health • Decisions that people make relative to their lifestyles have an impact on their health • Optimal health is a lifetime challenge