Edgar Dale&apos;s Cone of Experience<br />Amanda Jacobson<br />Walden University<br />Richard W. Riley School of Education...
Questions to be Addressed:<br />Who is Edgar Dale?<br />What is the Cone of Experience?<br />Is the Cone of Experienced ba...
Edgar Dale<br />Edgar Dale (1900-1985) served on The Ohio State University faculty from 1929 until 1970. He was an interna...
What is The Cone of Experience?<br />First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching<br />Designed ...
Concrete vs. Abstract Learning<br />Concrete Learning 	<br />Abstract Learning<br />First-hand experiences<br />Learner ha...
Influences on the Cone of Experience<br /><ul><li>Hoban, Hoban & Zisman’s Visual Media Graph
Value of educational technology is based on their degree of realism
Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Instruction
Three levels in the learning process
Enactive – direct experience
Iconic – representation of experience
Symbolic – words or visual symbols
The process of learning must begin in concrete experiences and move toward the abstract if mastery is to be obtained.</li>...
Mis-Conceptions of the Cone<br />All teaching/learning must move from the bottom to the top of the Cone.<br />One kind of ...
Misrepresentations of the Cone<br />web20guru.wikispaces.com/file/view/dalescone.gif<br />www.biij.org/2008/1/e16/fig4.gif...
Levels of the cone of experience<br /><ul><li>Enactive – direct experiences
Direct, Purposeful
Iconic – pictorial experiences
Study trips
Educational television
Motion pictures
Recordings, radio, still pictures
Symbolic – highly abstract experiences
Visual symbols
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  • Welcome everyone! My name is Amanda, and I am excited to share with you Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience. As the use of technology becomes more important in our daily lives, it has also become important as a classroom learning tool. It can be used to enhance learning experiences or even create new experiences. Think back to an academic learning experience you had in school. If technology was involved, how did it influence your experience? If it wasn’t involved, how could technology be applied today to enrich that experience for your students?[Take a few examples from the group to stimulate conversations and interest]
  • In today’s presentation I will address the following questions about Dale’s Cone of Experience.[read out loud]
  • Edgar Dale was an instructor at Ohio State University who specialized in the classroom use of audio-visual technologies. Dale’s Cone of Experience is considered to be the pioneer example of the marriage between learning and AV use.
  • Dale’s Cone first appeared in his 1946 textbook titled “ Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. This text is the grail for any educator wanting to successfully integrate AV materials into instruction. Dale intentions were not for the Cone to represent all ways of learning but instead to create a visual with which to categorize the progression of AV material usage, from the concrete to abstract experience.
  • Concrete and Abstract learning are key concepts in the visual layout of the Cone. (Read slide aloud) Although Dale points out that every level of the Cone contains some form of abstractedness, such as words, he emphasizes that the lower levels of the Cone rely more on concrete experiences as foundations for later abstract exploration.
  • Two previous theorists greatly influenced Dale while he was creating the Cone. (Read first bullet) Dale writes of his Bruner’s influence in his Audio Visual textbook. Dale writes that he based the division of the Cone on Bruner’s Theory of Instruction. Bruner’s theory involves (Read slide aloud)
  • Dale outlined his intentions for the use of the Cone of Experience in the 1969 version of his Audio Visual Textbook. (read slide out loud)
  • Dale’s Cone of Experience is often mis-interpreted and more recently mis-represented. In Dale’s 1969 version of his Audio Visual text, he dedicates an entire section to refuting these mis-conceptions, which include (read slide aloud).
  • Probably the most widely accepted, yet totally incorrect representation of Dale’s Cone are the examples you see here. Dale’s original Cone does not include the retention percentages nor had Dale ever mentioned them in his writings. These percentages have been attributed to a government report in the 1950’s and has since been refuted. There is no evidence as to who first attached these percentages to Dale’s Cone, but they have unfortunately stuck.
  • Now lets look at the real Cone and its contributions to education. Using Bruner’s three learning process levels, Dale grouped the Cone’s categories into Enactive, Iconic, and Symbolic experiences. (Read the slide out loud) Let’s start with the bottom of the Cone and explore the categories Dale considered the most concrete or enactive.
  • At the very bottom of the Cone we find the most concrete uses of experience. Direct and Purposeful Experiences are (read slide aloud).
  • Next in the Enactive category are contrived experiences which are (read slide aloud)
  • Finally to round out the enactive experiences, Dale has created the category of dramatized experiences which are (read slide out loud).
  • The next and largest set of categories on the Cone fall into the realm of iconic experiences. Iconic experiences encompasses (read the slide aloud).
  • Demonstrations are a great mixture of concrete hands-on application and more abstract verbal explanation. Demonstrations can (read slide out loud). If you don’t have the room or materials to perform certain demonstrations, the Internet provides many options for demonstration viewing. (watch hyperlink). Although this creates a greater abstraction to the demonstration, I use this video in my own classroom during our forensic science unit because my room is not equipped to handle open flames. Even though this is not “hands on” the students love to watch this colorful demonstration.
  • Study trips are another great way to mix concrete and abstract concepts of learning. Study trips allow students to (read slide aloud). This photograph is of my students on our bi-annual trip to Washington, D.C.. This year will be our fifth trip to D.C since 2001 and I have found that students have gained a much deeper content knowledge through this experience. They are able to take seemingly abstract textbook concepts and view them at work in real life. It gives them a chance to view and touch the knowledge previously presented to them.
  • The next category on the Cone are exhibits. At first most people think of museum when they hear the work exhibits but Dale envisioned the use of exhibits as much more. Exhibits are (read the slide out loud).
  • This category is probably one of the most used in traditional education, today. With the advent of “live” television, students can become more intimately involved in real events as they are happening. Motion pictures can also take epic events and condense them into usable packages for lesson planning. Both however are nearing the top of the Cone as students are limited in their physical involvement. Television can (read slide aloud). Motion pictures can (read slide out loud).
  • Finally, the most abstract of the iconic category Dale places recordings, radio and still pictures. This category (read slide out loud).
  • The final two categories on the Cone involve symbolic experiences. Although considered the most abstract by Dale, symbolic experiences are the most used in traditional education, today. Symbolic experiences encompass (read slide out loud).
  • We all are inundated with visual symbols every day and most of the time we pay little attention to them. On the Cone, Dale describes visual symbols as (read slide aloud).
  • Finally, at the top of the Cone of Experience are verbal symbols. This category represents the most abstract band of the Cone in which concepts don’t look like the things they represent. If I said the word “K-i-t-e” the letters look nothing like a kite yet we have learned to understand what those letters together mean. Visual symbols offer (read slide aloud). Now that we have a better understanding of each category in the Cone of Experience, lets explore how to apply this knowledge to the classroom.
  • Here we have Calvin, a typical adolescent student, who struggles to find meaning in his test question.(Read slide aloud) (Have the group brainstorm ideas on how to help Calvin’s teacher. Write some of the suggestions on a whiteboard). Now think about your subject area. Choose a typical unit of study in your field and design a curriculum outline for AV use in that unit. What AV technologies could you use to enhance learning for students? Are your choices more concrete or abstract? (Give the group time to devise their plans and talk with group members. Share a few examples with the whole group).
  • (Read the slide aloud)
  • Although Dale’s Cone remains the central starting point for research on instructional technology, I have chosen two other theories that relate well to the Cone. (Read the slide aloud).
  • As we conclude our session together, let me leave you with a few questions to ponder. (read slide out loud).
  • Whew, that was a lot of information to remember! Let’s recap the most important aspects of this presentation. (read the slide aloud) Are there any questions? (take a few moments to answer any question the group may have). Thank you all for joining me today and have a great rest of the school year!
  • Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience1

    1. 1. Edgar Dale&apos;s Cone of Experience<br />Amanda Jacobson<br />Walden University<br />Richard W. Riley School of Education and Leadership<br />Ed.D Student<br />EDUC 8101 Section 3<br />
    2. 2. Questions to be Addressed:<br />Who is Edgar Dale?<br />What is the Cone of Experience?<br />Is the Cone of Experienced based on previous theories?<br />What are mis-conceptions of the Cone of Experience?<br />How can the Cone help instruction?<br />
    3. 3. Edgar Dale<br />Edgar Dale (1900-1985) served on The Ohio State University faculty from 1929 until 1970. He was an internationally renowned pioneer in the utilization of audio-visual materials in instruction. He also made major research contributions in the teaching of vocabulary and testing readability of texts. Jeanne S. Chall, an OSU Ph.D. graduate who went on to become a leading innovator in reading research. Perhaps Professor Dale&apos;s most famous concept was called the &quot;cone of experience,&quot; a graphic depiction of the relationship between how information is presented in instruction and the outcomes for learners.<br />- Take from the Ohio State University Website<br /> http://ehe.osu.edu/edtl/about/tradition.cfm#dale<br />
    4. 4. What is The Cone of Experience?<br />First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching<br />Designed to “show the progression of learning experiences” (Dale (1969) p. 108) from the concrete to the abstract<br />
    5. 5. Concrete vs. Abstract Learning<br />Concrete Learning <br />Abstract Learning<br />First-hand experiences<br />Learner has some control over the outcome<br />Incorporates the use of all five senses<br />Difficulty when not enough previous experience or exposure to a concept<br />Every level of the Cone uses abstract thinking in come way<br />
    6. 6. Influences on the Cone of Experience<br /><ul><li>Hoban, Hoban & Zisman’s Visual Media Graph
    7. 7. Value of educational technology is based on their degree of realism
    8. 8. Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Instruction
    9. 9. Three levels in the learning process
    10. 10. Enactive – direct experience
    11. 11. Iconic – representation of experience
    12. 12. Symbolic – words or visual symbols
    13. 13. The process of learning must begin in concrete experiences and move toward the abstract if mastery is to be obtained.</li></li></ul><li>Intentions of the Cone of Experience<br />Dale (1969) wrote that<br />May lead to a more useful way of thinking about audio visual materials and their application in the classroom<br />The levels of the Cone are interactive<br />As one moves up the Cone there is not necessarily an increase in difficulty but rather an increase in abstract thought<br />
    14. 14. Mis-Conceptions of the Cone<br />All teaching/learning must move from the bottom to the top of the Cone.<br />One kind of experience on the Cone is more useful than another<br />More emphasis should be put on the bottom levels of the Cone<br />The upper level of the Cone is for older students while the lower levels are for younger students<br />It overemphasizes the use of instructional media<br />
    15. 15. Misrepresentations of the Cone<br />web20guru.wikispaces.com/file/view/dalescone.gif<br />www.biij.org/2008/1/e16/fig4.gif<br />www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/sae/ppt1/img012.GIF<br />www.compstrategies.com/.../img002.gif<br />
    16. 16. Levels of the cone of experience<br /><ul><li>Enactive – direct experiences
    17. 17. Direct, Purposeful
    18. 18. Contrived
    19. 19. Dramatized
    20. 20. Iconic – pictorial experiences
    21. 21. Demonstrations
    22. 22. Study trips
    23. 23. Exhibits
    24. 24. Educational television
    25. 25. Motion pictures
    26. 26. Recordings, radio, still pictures
    27. 27. Symbolic – highly abstract experiences
    28. 28. Visual symbols
    29. 29. Verbal symbols</li></li></ul><li>Direct and Purposeful Experiences<br /><ul><li>Direct, first hand experiences
    30. 30. Have direct participation in the outcome
    31. 31. Use of all our senses
    32. 32. Examples:
    33. 33. Working in a homeless shelter
    34. 34. Tutoring younger children</li></li></ul><li>Contrived Experiences<br /><ul><li>Models and mock-ups
    35. 35. “editing of reality”
    36. 36. Necessary when real experience cannot be used or are too complicated
    37. 37. Examples
    38. 38. Use of a pilot simulator
    39. 39. Mock up of an auto plant to show the auto making process</li></li></ul><li>Dramatized Experiences<br /><ul><li>Reconstructed experiences
    40. 40. Can be used to simplify an event or idea to its most important parts
    41. 41. Divided into two categories
    42. 42. Acting – actual participation (more concrete)
    43. 43. Observing – watching a dramatization take place (more abstract)</li></ul>Monticello Students engaged in a mock trial<br />
    44. 44. Iconic Experiences on the Cone<br /><ul><li>Progressively moving toward greateruse of imagination
    45. 45. Successful use in a classroom depends on how much imaginative involvement the method can illicit from students
    46. 46. Involves:
    47. 47. Demonstrations
    48. 48. Study trips
    49. 49. Exhibits
    50. 50. Motion pictures
    51. 51. Educational television
    52. 52. Radio, recordings, and still pictures</li></li></ul><li>Demonstrations<br />Visualized explanation of an important fact, idea, or process<br />Shows how certain things are done<br />Examples: <br />How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich<br />How to play the piano<br />How to lift a fingerprint<br />www.ttr.com/model1.html<br />Flame Salt Test Demonstration- You Tube (right click to open link)<br /><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFqq1rL8PjQ</li></li></ul><li>Study Trips<br /><ul><li>Watch people do things in real situations
    53. 53. Observe an event that is unavailable in the classroom
    54. 54. Examples:
    55. 55. Civil War Re-enactment
    56. 56. Old World Wisconsin
    57. 57. Class trip to Washington D.C.</li></li></ul><li>Exhibits<br /><ul><li>Something seen by a spectator
    58. 58. Two types
    59. 59. Ready made
    60. 60. Museum
    61. 61. Career fair
    62. 62. Home-made
    63. 63. Classroom project
    64. 64. National History Day competition</li></li></ul><li>Educational Television and Motion Pictures<br />Television <br />Motion Pictures<br /><ul><li>Bring immediate interaction with events from around the world
    65. 65. Edit an event to create clearer understanding than if experienced actual event first hand
    66. 66. Example:
    67. 67. TV coverage of 9/11
    68. 68. Can omit unnecessary or unimportant material
    69. 69. Used to slow down a fast process
    70. 70. Viewing, seeing and hearing experience
    71. 71. Can re-create events with simplistic drama that even slower students can grasp</li></li></ul><li>Recordings, Radio, and Still Pictures<br /><ul><li>Can often be understood by those who cannot read
    72. 72. Helpful to students who cannot deal with the motion or pace of a real event or television
    73. 73. Examples:
    74. 74. Time Life Magazine
    75. 75. Listening to old radio broadcasts
    76. 76. Listening to period music</li></ul>copyservices.tamu.edu/clipart/clip09/index.html<br />
    77. 77. Symbolic Experiences<br /><ul><li>Very little immediate physical action
    78. 78. Difficult only if one doesn’t have enough direct experience to support the symbol
    79. 79. Used at all levels of the Cone in varying importance
    80. 80. Involves:</li></ul>Visual symbols<br />Verbal symbols<br />
    81. 81. Visual Symbols<br /><ul><li>No longer involves reproducing real situations
    82. 82. Chalkboard and overhead projector the most widely used media
    83. 83. Help students see an idea, event, or process
    84. 84. Examples:
    85. 85. Chalkboard
    86. 86. Flat maps
    87. 87. Diagrams
    88. 88. charts</li></ul>http://pro.corbis.com<br />http://419.bittenus.com/6/6ballgameslottery/geography.gif<br />
    89. 89. Verbal Symbols<br />Two types<br />Written words – more abstract<br />Spoken words – less abstract<br />Examples:<br />Discussion<br />Explanation/lecture<br />
    90. 90. Concrete or Abstract Learning?<br />How could Dale’s Cone of Experience have changed this lesson for Calvin? <br />What instructional media could his teacher have used to have helped Calvin find meaning in this lesson?<br />
    91. 91. What does the Cone mean for instruction?<br /><ul><li>Dale (1938) taught teachers that they should help their students learn how the media effects us, and to critically evaluate it.
    92. 92. Teachers must evaluate the benefit of the learning vs. the amount of time required in the lesson
    93. 93. How to effectively use instructional media to helping students move from concrete to abstract thought</li></ul>http://elzeeyed.com/ydome/wpcontent/uploads/2007/08/teacher_cartoon.gif<br />
    94. 94. Other Instructional Technology Learning Theories <br /><ul><li>Anchored Instruction
    95. 95. Developed by John Bransford at Vanderbilt University
    96. 96. Principles:
    97. 97. 1. Learning and teaching activities should be anchored around a case-study or problem
    98. 98. 2. Curriculum materials should allow students to explore a lesson through instructional media
    99. 99. Elaboration Theory
    100. 100. Charles Reigeluth (Indiana University) and his colleagues in the late 1970s
    101. 101. Elaboration theory is an instructional design theory that emphasizes the creation of a learning sequence from simple to more complex content in order to create deeper understanding.</li></li></ul><li>Questions to Ponder:<br />How do you use technology in your instruction?<br />Does the use of technology enhance learning?<br />Do today’s technology savvy students require greater usage of technology than in the past?<br />How can you use technology to create learning experiences?<br />
    102. 102. Conclusion:<br /><ul><li>The Cone of Experience is a visual device to aid teachers in the selection of instructional media
    103. 103. The Cone is based on the movement from concrete experiences to abstract experiences
    104. 104. The literal interpretation of the Cone has resulted in misconceptions of its use
    105. 105. The Cone has practical applications in classroom instruction </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cisco Systems, Incorporated. (2008). Multimodal learning through media: What the research says. Fadel, C., & Lemke, C. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf on February 10, 2009.
    106. 106. Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Dryden Press
    107. 107. Dooley, K. (2005). Advanced methods in distance education: Applications and practices for educators, administrators and learners. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
    108. 108. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., & Russell, J. D. (1989). Instructional media and the new technologies of instruction. New York: Macmillan.
    109. 109. Molenda, M. (2003). Cone of Experience. In Kovalchick, A., & Dawson, K. (Eds.). Education and technology: An encyclopedia (p. 161-164). Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
    110. 110. Seels, B. (1997). The relationship of media and ISD theory: The unrealized promise of Dale’s cone of experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Albuquerque, New Mexico. (ERIC Document Reproducation Service No. ED409869)
    111. 111. Turner, G. (2000). Teaching young adults: A handbook for teachers in further education. Florence, KY: Routledge.
    112. 112. Elaboration Theory - http://www.learning-theories.com/elaboration-theory-reigeluth.html
    113. 113. Anchored Instruction - http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html</li></ul>References<br />
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