B Y :J A C O B R E D L I N G S H A F E RAdolescent Depression
Table of Contents What is Adolescent Depression? Causes of Adolescent Depression Effects of Adolescent Depression Treatment of Adolescent Depression
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What is Adolescent Depression? Cont. Depression – A serious mood disorder that affects8.3% of adolescents, with about one third ofadolescents experiencing depressive moods (Burgic-Radmanovic, 2011). Classidied by symptoms of persistent and pervasivesadness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, lowself esteem, excessive guilt, suicidal thoughts orbehavior, and sleep and appetite disruptions(Maughan, Collishaw, &Stringaris, 2013).
What is Adolescent Depression? Cont. This can be very challenging to classify inadolescents because they are experiencing a greatdeal of emotional changes from hormones andpuberty. The factor that sets depression apart from normalmood changes is symptoms that last for an extendedamount of time that disrupt daily living for anadolescent.
Causes of Adolescent Depression: Genetic: An adolescent‟s genes, that have a predisposition fordepression can greatly increase the chance that they have adepressive episode in adolescence. A adolescent can be brought into the world much more likelyto become depressed depending on what the mother‟ssituation was leading up to the pregnancy. “The fetal programming hypothesis states that under stressfulconditions pregnant mothers send messages to the fetus to prepareit for a hostile environment (Colman, Ataullahjan, Naicker, & VanLieshout, 2012).”
Other Factors: Even an adolescent does not have predisposed to depressionthey can still develop it. Adolescents that are exposed to high stress environments runthe risk of developing depression. Increasing Likelihood: Low levels of parental warmth. Parental mental health problems. Early or chronic adversity such as abuse, poverty or socialdisadvantage. (Vogel, 2012)Causes of Adolescent Depression: Cont.
Effects of Adolescent Depression: Symptoms of Depression: Mood is sad or unhappy, with very little spontaneity. Irritability with nagging, whining and angry outbursts (may be mistaken for „naughtiness‟). Loss of interest in usual activities with energy level changes, which may be increasedor decreased. Changes in appetite accompanied by weight changes, or „fussy‟ eating. Changes in sleep pattern. Capacity to have fun is reduced, the child complains of boredom. Self-esteem may be low. There may be social withdrawal such as refusing to visit friends. They may talk less and may express the wish to be dead, with suicidal attempts orideation. They may express guilt and feelings of hopelessness. Poor concentration associated with depression may be mistaken for attention deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They may present with physical complaints such as a headache or sore tummy and somatise. High levels of anxiety may predate the onset of depression.• (VOGEL, 2012)
Treatments of Adolescent Depression: Treatments for youth depression were firstdeveloped for the treatments of adults and thereforeare not tailored toward the adolescent. Though a proper development of treatment foradolescent depression is still in the works there aretwo forms of psychotherapy used, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy(IPT) (Vogel, 2012).
Treatments of Adolescent Depression: Cont. “CBT is the most frequently used of the two, thisstarts with psycho-education and includes selfmonitoring, e.g. diary keeping, challenging cognitivedistortions, and activity scheduling, IPT addressesmore of the problem relationship portion ofpsychotherapy, such as transition or losses, and asrole conflict (Vogel, 2012).”
Conclusion Adolescent depression is an absolute problem intoday‟s society, because of the disregard for what isgoing on. The best step an adolescent can take, is beingproactive on their mental health and takepreventative measures. Depression is serious and can cause life longproblems and in extreme cases death.
Refferences Burgic-Burgic-Radmanovic, M. (2011, April 3). Affective disordersin childhood and adolescence. ActaMedicaAcademica, 40(1), 67-74.Retrieved April 21, 2013, from Ebscohost. Colman, I., Ataullahjan, A., Naicker, K., & Van Lieshout, R. J. (2012,January). Birth weight, stress, and symptoms of depression inadolescence: Evidence of fetal programming in a National CanadianCohort. CanJPsychiatry, 57(7), 422-428. Retrieved April 21, 2013,from Ebscohost. Maughan, B., Collishaw, S., &Stringaris, A. (2013, February).Depression in childhood and adolescene. Journal of the CanadianAcademy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(1), 35-40. RetrievedApril 21, 2013, from Ebscohost. Vogel, W. (2012, April). Depression in children and adolescents.CME: South Africas Continuing Medical Education Journal, 30(4),114-117. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from Ebscohost.