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Csd 210   articulation disorders - fall 2010
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Csd 210 articulation disorders - fall 2010



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  • How data is collected: tens of thousands
  • Oral motor- movement of the muscles in the oral cavity Problems eating, drinkinking ) getting a seal around the cup)
  • No bottle, passifier, no thumb past age 1
  • Functional disorders – they exist with no known cause Resitdual – not able to reproduce
  • Focus on the message, not the manner. Daddy I wove you! Oh, I Love you so much. I really Love you.


  • 1. Articulation Development, Differences and Disorders COMSDIS 210: Survey of Communication Disorders
  • 2. Articulation disorder
    • A speech sound disorder resulting from difficulty with the physical production of one or more phonemes.
  • 3. Comparing and contrasting articulation and phonology
    • Both are examples of “speech sound disorders”.
    • Phonology: the sound system of a language and the rules that govern the sound combinations. (ASHA, 1993)
    • Phonological disorders result from lack of awareness and/or use of the linguistic rules governing the use and combination of speech sounds.
  • 4. ASHA Definition of Articulation Disorder
    • “ An articulation disorder is the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions or distortions that may interfere with phonology.” (ASHA, 1993)
  • 5. Facts and figures Incidence and prevalence
    • Articulation disorders most commonly occurring communication disorder.
    • May affect children and adults; can be result of congenital or acquired etiologies.
      • 10-15% of preschoolers
      • 6% of school-age children
    • Almost 91% of speech-language pathologists in schools indicated that they served individuals with phonological/articulation disorders (ASHA, 2006)
  • 6. Types of articulation errors
    • Substitutions
    • Omissions
    • Distortions
    • Additions
  • 7. Substitutions
    • One phoneme (the target phoneme) is replaced with another.
    • Common substitutions.
  • 8. Omissions
    • A phoneme which has an obligatory context is omitted/deleted.
    • Examples
  • 9. Distortions
    • Use of a non-standard allophonic variation of a phoneme in replacement of the target phoneme.
    • Diacritic symbols
  • 10. Additions
    • A phoneme is added to a word for which no obligatory context exists.
    • Examples
  • 11. Articulation development
    • What is normative data ?
    • How is it gathered?
    • How is it used?
  • 12. Articulation normative data
    • Vowels mastered before consonants.
    • Vowels mastered by age 3 years.
    • Normative data on mastery of consonants.
  • 13.
    • Mastery of consonants may vary by word-position.
    • Individual AND cultural differences exist.
  • 14. A note about articulation differences
    • Distinction between articulation disorder and articulation difference
  • 15. Causes of articulation disorders (Etiologies)
    • Structural impairments of the articulatory system
    • Anatomical deviations (congenital or acquired)
      • Craniofacial anomalies
    • Dental/orthodontic issues
  • 16.
    • Functional impairments of the articulatory system
    • Neuromuscular impairments
      • Weakness, paralysis, spasticity
    • Oral motor impairments
      • Oral motor discoordination
  • 17.
    • Myofunctional disorders
      • “ Tongue thrust” (“reverse swallow”)
    • Hearing impairment (transient and chronic)
    • Perceptual/discrimination impairments
    • Mental retardation/cognitive disabilities
  • 18.
    • Unknown etiologies
      • Functional disorders
      • Residual errors
  • 19. Disorder-specific components of the articulation evaluation
    • Assessment of articulation skills at the word level .
    • Assessment of articulation skills in connected speech .
      • Sentence level
      • Reading level
      • Conversational speech level
  • 20.
    • Assessment of effects of co-articulation/ facilitating contexts
      • Contextual testing
    • Assessment of stimulability
      • Stimulability: the degree to which a client can modify their phoneme production given cues provided by the examiner
  • 21.
    • Assessment of ability to auditorily discriminate between accurate and inaccurate productions of the phoneme.
      • Auditory discrimination
  • 22. Treatment of articulation disorders
    • A variety of treatment approaches available.
    • “ Traditional Approach to Articulation Therapy” (Van Riper, 1939) continues to be widely used for clients exhibiting residual errors.
  • 23.
    • Goal of TAAT: increase production accuracy of the target phoneme in various word positions across the “linguistic hierarchy”.
  • 24. Linguistic hierarchy
    • Isolation
    • (nonsense) Syllable level
    • Word level
    • Phrase level
    • Sentence level
    • Reading level
    • Conversational speech level
  • 25. Ways to help a child with an articulation disorder
    • Be a good speech model.
    • Be a knowledgeable referral source.
      • Understand developmental & cultural norms
      • Make referral to SLP for evaluation & diagnosis
    • Never tease/ridicule.
      • Focus on the message, not the manner.
  • 26.
    • Reinforce accurate productions.
    • Leave intervention to the SLP.
    • Realize that treatment is a process.
      • Takes time and skill.
      • Many factors relate to speed at which goals are accomplished.