Internationalization in Rails 2.2

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These are the slides of my talk about Rails 2.2 i18n (internationalization) which I gave at the Fosdem '09 Ruby and Rails DevRoom on February 8th 2009. …

These are the slides of my talk about Rails 2.2 i18n (internationalization) which I gave at the Fosdem '09 Ruby and Rails DevRoom on February 8th 2009.

See http://fosdem.org/2009/schedule/events/ror_i18n_rails_2_2 for more details.

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  • 1. Internationalization in Rails 2.2 Nicolas Jacobeus - Belighted sprl FOSDEM ’09 - Ruby and Rails Developer Room February 8th 2009
  • 2. Summary What is internationalization? Internationalization before Rails 2.2 The Rails i18n framework Short demo Globalize2 Resources
  • 3. What we are talking about Internationalization (i18n): “designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes” Localization (L10n): “the process of adapting software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text”
  • 4. What it means This emcompasses Language Culture Writing conventions Why does it matter? Not everybody speaks english, even on the web In Europe: dozens of cultures and languages
  • 5. Rails i18n before 2.2 English was hardcoded in the codebase Rails was a framework localized to English (en-US)
  • 6. Rails i18n before 2.2 i18n plugins had to monkey-patch Rails everywhere Remove english defaults Enhance business logic so that it handles translation
  • 7. The Rails i18n framework Started in Sep ’07 by several i18n plugin developers Aim: eliminate the need to monkey-patch Rails for i18n implement a minimal, common API for all solutions
  • 8. The Rails i18n framework A gem by Sven Fuchs and other contributors http://github.com/svenfuchs/i18n Shipped with Rails since 2.2 (ActiveSupport vendor dir) 2 parts: An API A minimal “Simple” backend implementing the API
  • 9. The Rails i18n framework The API is now used by Rails instead of hardcoded strings The Simple Backend implements the API to re-localize Rails back to en-US Rails is still a framework localized to English, but it’s now globalized too Doesn’t remove the need for plugins!
  • 10. The Rails i18n framework Advantages? The backend can easily be swapped No monkey-patching anymore!
  • 11. The i18n module in details Defines #translate / #t and #localize / #l Stores the current locale in Thread.current Store a default locale Stores a backend Stores an exception handler
  • 12. So how do I translate? Put your translations in config/locales (YAML or Ruby), or use I18n.backend.store_translations in the console: I18n.backend.store_translations :en, :hi => “Hi!” I18n.backend.store_translations :fr, :hi => “Salut!” Set the current locale: I18n.locale = :fr Keys can be strings or symbols: I18n.t :message I18n.t 'message'
  • 13. Scopes / namespaces I18n.translate :exclusion, :scope => [:activerecord, :errors, :messages] I18n.translate “activerecord.errors.messages.exclusion” I18n.translate “messages.exclusion”, :scope => “activerecord.errors”
  • 14. Defaults I18n.t :missing, :default => 'Not here' # => 'Not here' Default value can itself be a key and get translated! Chaining defaults: I18n.t :missing, :default => [:also_missing, 'Not here'] # => 'Not here'
  • 15. Interpolation All other options will be interpolated I18n.translate :hello, :name => “Nicolas” # => ‘Salut Nicolas !’
  • 16. Pluralization I18n.translate :inbox, :count => 2 # => '2 messages' Pluralization rules defined by CLDR: [ :zero, :one, :two, :few, :many, :other ]
  • 17. Localizing dates and times I18n.l Time.now, :locale => :en quot;Sun, 08 Feb 2009 15:42:42 +0100quot; I18n.l Time.now, :locale => :fr => quot;08 février 2009 15:42quot; I18n.l Date.today, :locale => :fr, :format => :short => quot;8 févquot; You have to provide the localizations!
  • 18. Short demo Basic “hello world” app: Configure the i18n module Set the locale in each request Internationalize the application
  • 19. Shortcomings The simple backend is... simple Pluralization is basic (singular and plural) Storage only in YAML or Ruby files No model translations
  • 20. Globalize2 http://github.com/joshmh/globalize2 Like Globalize but sits on top of the Rails i18n API Adds model translations Provides a new backend Provides a new exception handler
  • 21. Model translations #translates specifies which fields you want to be translatable The accessor will return the localized version transparently
  • 22. Model translations The translations are stored in a separate table for each model Shortcut: Post.create_translation_table! :title => :string, :text => :text
  • 23. Globalize::Backend::Static Builds on the Simple backend Locale fallbacks Allows custom pluralization logic
  • 24. Locale fallbacks Allows you to set fallbacks when a translation is not available in a particular locale I18n.fallbacks[:quot;es-MXquot;] # => [:quot;es-MXquot;, :es, :quot;en-USquot;, :en] You can edit fallback chains I18n.fallbacks.map :ca => :quot;es-ESquot; I18n.fallbacks[:ca] # => [:ca, :quot;es-ESquot;, :es, :quot;en-USquot;, :en]
  • 25. Custom pluralization logic For languages not behaving like English Globalize2’s pluralization logic is not hardcoded New rules can by added with lambdas @backend.add_pluralizer :cz, lambda { |c| c == 1 ? :one : (2..4).include?(c) ? :few : :other }
  • 26. Missing translations log handler Will log all missing translations in a file require 'globalize/i18n/missing_translations_log_handler’ logger = Logger.new(quot;#{RAILS_ROOT}/log/missing_trans.logquot;) I18n.missing_translations_logger = logger I18n.exception_handler = :missing_translations_log_handler Pretty useful to quickly find what’s missing
  • 27. Resources Some additional resources to help you start localizing your applications For a comprehensive list see: http://rails-i18n.org/wiki
  • 28. The Translate plugin Adds a translation UI to your app in seconds Allows you or your translators to easily translate all your strings Available on Github: http://github.com/ newsdesk/translate/
  • 29. 99translations.com Hosted webservice for sharing and maintaining translations Meeting place for developers and translators Admin interface, version control, API
  • 30. Relevant Git repositories http://github.com/svenfuchs/i18n http://github.com/svenfuchs/rails-i18n http://github.com/joshmh/globalize2 http://github.com/rails/rails
  • 31. Thank you !