Important people in sociologyPresentation Transcript
INTRODUCTION: SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY: SCIENCE THAT STUDIES HUMAN SOCIETY AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR – SOCIAL INTERACTION-HOW PEOPLE RELATE TO EACH OTHER AND INFLUENCE EACH OTHER. SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE: SOCIAL CONTEXT IN WHICH PEOPLE LIVE AND HOW THAT CONTEXT INFLUENCES A PERSON’S LIFE. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR BY PLACING IT WITHIN ITS BROADER SOCIAL CONTEXT.
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY SOCIAL LOCATION: THE GROUP MEMBERSHIPS THAT PEOPLE HAVE BECAUSE OF THEIR LOCATION IN HISTORY AND SOCIETY. 1. INCOME 2. EDUCATION 3. GENDER 4. AGE 5. RACE AND ETHNICITY
INTRODUCTION CONT. SOCIAL IMAGINATION: THE ABILITY TO SEE THE LINK BETWEEN SOCIETY AND SELF- C.WRIGHT MILLS
INTRODUCTION CONT. SOCIAL FACT: ANY OBSERVABLE FACT OR EVENT IN SOCIETY. SOCIALIZATION: PROCESS BY WHICH WE LEARN THE RULES AND MANNERS OF SOCIETY.
ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY Sociology began in the middle nineteenth century. Four Factors lead to the development of Sociology. 1. Industrial Revolution: Moving from close- knit agricultural communities to cities traditional norms and values could no longer be counted on. 2. American and French revolutions: people began to question social life (the belief that people have inalienable rights)
Origins of Sociology cont. 3. Imperialism: exposure to different cultures 4. Success of the natural sciences: The use of the scientific method
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY AUGUSTE COMTE: FOUNDER (FATHER) OF SOCIOLOGY INTERESTED IN HOW SOCIETY FUNCTIONS SOCIAL STATIC SOCIAL DYNAMIC Sociology could discover social principles and those principles could be used for social reform. 4. POSITIVISM: Applying the scientific approach (scientific method ) to the social world. 1798-1857
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY: COMTE CONT. Coined the term Sociology From the Greek – logos “study of” From the Latin – socius “companion” or “being with others”
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY THE FIRST FEMINIST SOCIOLOGIST DREW AN ANALOGY BETWEEN THE PLIGHT OF WOMEN AND SLAVERY – SAID WOMEN WERE OPPRESSED BECAUSE THEY HAD NO ECONOMIC POWER SOCIETY IN AMERICA: family, race, gender, politics and religion HARRIET MARTINEAU 1802 - 1876
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY HERBERT SPENCER 1. INFLUENCED BY CHARLES DARWIN 2. SOCITIES EVOLVE FROM LOWER (BARBARIAN) TO HIGHER (CIVILIZED)FORMS. THE MOST CAPABLE AND INTELLIGENT(FITTEST) SURVIVE –IMPROVING SOCIETY 2. COINED THE TERM “SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.” SAID THE “FITTEST SOCIETY” WAS THE BEST SO ANYONE SICK, DISENFRANCHISED, POOR, SHOULD NOT BE HELPED. THIS WOULD MAKE THE SOCIETY WEAK. 1820 - 1903
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY KARL MARX 1. THERE WILL ALWAYS BE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE HAVES AND HAVE NOTS –CLASS CONFLICT 2. BOURGEOISIE – OWN THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION 3. PROLETARIAT – OWN THEIR OWN LABOR THIS CONFLICT MUST RESULT IN REVOLUTION BY THE MIDDLE CLASS RESULTING IN A CLASSLESS SOCIETY. 1818 - 1883
IMPORTRANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY 1. SOCIETY EXSISTS BECAUSE OF CONSENSUS (AGREEMENT) TO FOLLOW THE RULES TO KEEP SOCIETY STABLE 2. MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY SOCIAL PRESSURE FOR CONFORMITY, TRADITION FAMILY EMILE DURKHEIM: 1858 - 1917
EMILE DURKHEIM CONT. 3. ORGANIC SOLIDARITY – SOCIAL INTERDEPENDENCY –HIGHLY SPECALIZED ROLES – SOCIETY DEPENDENT ON GOODS AND SERVICES 4. HE WANTED TO SHOW HOW SOCIAL FORCES AFFECT PEOPLES BEHAVIOR. 5. ANOMIE: THE BREAKING DOWN OF THE COTROLLING INFLUENCES OF SOCIETY. - PEOPLE BECOME DETACHED AND DO NOT HAVE ENOUGH MORAL GUIDANCE. - SOCIOLOGISTS INTERVENE BY CREATING NEW SOCIAL GROUPS TO PROVIDE A SENSE OF BELONGING 6. SUICIDE: SOCIAL INTERGRATION (HOW CLOSELY PEOPLE ARE TIED TO THEIR SOCIAL GROUP) – PEOPLE WITH WEAKER TIES ARE MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT SUICIDE-PROTESTANT, MALES, UNMARRIED ARE MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT SUCICIDE.
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY MAX WEBER 1. INTERESTED IN THE PERSONAL MEANING PEOPLE ATTACH TO THEIR BEHAVIOR AND THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS. 2. VERSTEHEN – BEING ABLE TO PUT YOURSELF IN SOMEONE ELSE’S SHOES 3. RELIGION IS THE CENTRAL FORCE IN SOCIAL CHANGE 4. PROTESTANT ETHIC 5. SOCIOLOGY SHOULD BE VALUE FREE 1864 - 1920
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY JANE ADDAMS 1. FIRST SOCIAL WORKER 2. FOUNDED HULL HOUSE IN CHICAGO (1889)-PROVIDED FOOD, EDUCATION, MEDICAL CARE FOR THE POOR 3. FIRST AMERICAN WOMAN AND ONLY SOCIOLOGIST TO RECEIVE A NOBEL PEACE PRIZE. 1860 - 1935
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY W.E.B. Du BOIS 1. INTERESTED IN RACE RELATIONS 2. HE WANTED TO ELIMINATE SOCIAL INJUSTICE 3. THE PHILADELPHIA NEGRO, THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK 4. FOUNDED THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE (NAACP) WITH JANE ADDAMS AND OTHERS IN 1909. 1868 - 1963
Du Bois and other members of the NAACP in 1929
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY C. WRIGHT MILLS 1. 1956 –URGED SOCIOLOGISTS TO BECOME MORE INVOLVED IN SOCIAL REFORM 2. POWER ELITE – TOP LEADERS IN BUSINESS, POLITICS, ANDTHE MILITARY ARE A THREAT TO FREEDOM 1916 - 1962
Society is a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. Society is held together through consensus - people agree to what is best for society and work together to ensure a stable social system. Study division of work in family – functions served by education Sociologists – Herbert Spencer/Emile Durkheim Functionalist Perspective
Conflict Perspective There are forces in society that promote competition and change. Conflict in society arises over competition for scarce resources and social change is an inevitable feature of society. Study decision making in the family; relationships of racial groups; labor disputes Sociologists – Karl Marx
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Individuals attach meaning to their own actions and to the actions of others; interaction between people takes place through the use of symbols. Studies how people interact with one another in society Study child development; relationships within groups; mate selection
Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Levels of Analysis 1. Macro – level analysis: Functionalists and conflict theorists - examine large-scale patterns in society – Homelessness = changes in society (family structure, outsourcing, failing economy) 2. Micro – level of analysis: symbolic interactionists – examine small scale patterns in society – homeless ( patterns of communication both verbal and nonverbal)