Important people in sociology

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Important people in sociology

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION: SOCIOLOGY<br />SOCIOLOGY: SCIENCE THAT STUDIES HUMAN SOCIETY AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR – SOCIAL INTERACTION-HOW PEOPLE RELATE TO EACH OTHER AND INFLUENCE EACH OTHER.<br />SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE: SOCIAL CONTEXT IN WHICH PEOPLE LIVE AND HOW THAT CONTEXT INFLUENCES A PERSON’S LIFE. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR BY PLACING IT WITHIN ITS BROADER SOCIAL CONTEXT.<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY<br />SOCIAL LOCATION: THE GROUP MEMBERSHIPS THAT PEOPLE HAVE BECAUSE OF THEIR LOCATION IN HISTORY AND SOCIETY.<br />1. INCOME<br />2. EDUCATION<br />3. GENDER<br />4. AGE<br />5. RACE AND ETHNICITY<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION CONT.<br />SOCIAL IMAGINATION: THE ABILITY TO SEE THE LINK BETWEEN SOCIETY AND SELF- C.WRIGHT MILLS<br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION CONT.<br />SOCIAL FACT: ANY OBSERVABLE FACT OR EVENT IN SOCIETY.<br />SOCIALIZATION: PROCESS BY WHICH WE LEARN THE RULES AND MANNERS OF SOCIETY.<br />
  5. 5. ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY<br />Sociology began in the middle nineteenth century.<br />Four Factors lead to the development of Sociology.<br />1. Industrial Revolution: Moving from close- knit agricultural communities to cities traditional norms and values could no longer be counted on.<br />2. American and French revolutions: people began to question social life (the belief that people have inalienable rights)<br />
  6. 6. Origins of Sociology cont.<br />3. Imperialism: exposure to different cultures<br />4. Success of the natural sciences: The use of the scientific method<br />
  7. 7. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />AUGUSTE COMTE: FOUNDER<br /> (FATHER) OF SOCIOLOGY<br />INTERESTED IN HOW SOCIETY FUNCTIONS<br />SOCIAL STATIC<br />SOCIAL DYNAMIC<br />Sociology could discover social principles and those principles could be used for social reform.<br />4. POSITIVISM: Applying the scientific approach (scientific method ) to the social world.<br />1798-1857<br />
  8. 8. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY: COMTE CONT.<br />Coined the term Sociology<br />From the Greek – logos “study of” <br />From the Latin – socius “companion” or “being with others”<br />
  9. 9. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />THE FIRST FEMINIST SOCIOLOGIST<br />DREW AN ANALOGY BETWEEN THE PLIGHT OF WOMEN AND SLAVERY – SAID WOMEN WERE OPPRESSED BECAUSE THEY HAD NO ECONOMIC POWER<br />SOCIETY IN AMERICA: family, race, gender, politics and religion<br />HARRIET MARTINEAU<br />1802 - 1876<br />
  10. 10. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />HERBERT SPENCER<br />1. INFLUENCED BY CHARLES DARWIN<br />2. SOCITIES EVOLVE FROM LOWER (BARBARIAN) TO HIGHER (CIVILIZED)FORMS. THE MOST CAPABLE AND INTELLIGENT(FITTEST) SURVIVE –IMPROVING SOCIETY<br />2. COINED THE TERM “SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.”<br />SAID THE “FITTEST SOCIETY” WAS THE BEST SO ANYONE SICK, DISENFRANCHISED, POOR, SHOULD NOT BE HELPED. THIS WOULD MAKE THE SOCIETY WEAK.<br />1820 - 1903<br />
  11. 11. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />KARL MARX<br />1. THERE WILL ALWAYS BE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE HAVES AND HAVE NOTS –CLASS CONFLICT<br />2. BOURGEOISIE – OWN THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION<br />3. PROLETARIAT – OWN THEIR OWN LABOR<br />THIS CONFLICT MUST RESULT IN REVOLUTION BY THE MIDDLE CLASS RESULTING IN A CLASSLESS SOCIETY.<br />1818 - 1883<br />
  12. 12. IMPORTRANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />1. SOCIETY EXSISTS BECAUSE OF CONSENSUS (AGREEMENT) TO FOLLOW THE RULES TO KEEP SOCIETY STABLE<br />2. MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY<br /> SOCIAL PRESSURE FOR <br /> CONFORMITY, TRADITION<br /> FAMILY<br />EMILE DURKHEIM: 1858 - 1917<br />
  13. 13. EMILE DURKHEIM CONT.<br />3. ORGANIC SOLIDARITY – SOCIAL INTERDEPENDENCY –HIGHLY SPECALIZED ROLES – SOCIETY DEPENDENT ON GOODS AND SERVICES<br />4. HE WANTED TO SHOW HOW SOCIAL FORCES AFFECT PEOPLES BEHAVIOR.<br />5. ANOMIE: THE BREAKING DOWN OF THE COTROLLING INFLUENCES OF SOCIETY.<br /> - PEOPLE BECOME DETACHED AND DO NOT HAVE ENOUGH MORAL GUIDANCE.<br />- SOCIOLOGISTS INTERVENE BY CREATING NEW SOCIAL GROUPS TO PROVIDE A SENSE OF BELONGING<br />6. SUICIDE: SOCIAL INTERGRATION (HOW CLOSELY PEOPLE ARE TIED TO THEIR SOCIAL GROUP) – PEOPLE WITH WEAKER TIES ARE MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT SUICIDE-PROTESTANT, MALES, UNMARRIED ARE MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT SUCICIDE.<br />
  14. 14. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />MAX WEBER<br />1. INTERESTED IN THE PERSONAL MEANING PEOPLE ATTACH TO THEIR BEHAVIOR AND THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS.<br />2. VERSTEHEN – BEING ABLE TO PUT YOURSELF IN SOMEONE ELSE’S SHOES<br />3. RELIGION IS THE CENTRAL FORCE IN SOCIAL CHANGE<br />4. PROTESTANT ETHIC<br />5. SOCIOLOGY SHOULD BE VALUE FREE<br />1864 - 1920<br />
  15. 15. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />JANE ADDAMS<br />1. FIRST SOCIAL WORKER<br />2. FOUNDED HULL HOUSE IN CHICAGO (1889)-PROVIDED FOOD, EDUCATION, MEDICAL CARE FOR THE POOR<br />3. FIRST AMERICAN WOMAN AND ONLY SOCIOLOGIST TO RECEIVE A NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.<br />1860 - 1935<br />
  16. 16. IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />W.E.B. Du BOIS<br />1. INTERESTED IN RACE RELATIONS<br />2. HE WANTED TO ELIMINATE SOCIAL INJUSTICE<br />3. THE PHILADELPHIA NEGRO, THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK<br />4. FOUNDED THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE (NAACP) WITH JANE ADDAMS AND OTHERS IN 1909.<br />1868 - 1963<br /><ul><li>Du Bois and other members of the NAACP in 1929 </li></li></ul><li>IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN SOCIOLOGY<br />C. WRIGHT MILLS<br />1. 1956 –URGED SOCIOLOGISTS TO BECOME MORE INVOLVED IN SOCIAL REFORM<br />2. POWER ELITE – TOP LEADERS IN BUSINESS, POLITICS, ANDTHE MILITARY ARE A THREAT TO FREEDOM<br />1916 - 1962<br />
  17. 17. Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology<br />1. Symbolic Interactionism<br />2. Functionalist ( Functional Analysis)<br />3. Conflict<br />
  18. 18. Society is a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system.<br />Society is held together through consensus - people agree to what is best for society and work together to ensure a stable social system.<br />Study division of work in family – functions served by education<br />Sociologists – Herbert Spencer/Emile Durkheim<br />Functionalist Perspective<br />
  19. 19. Conflict Perspective<br />There are forces in society that promote competition and change.<br />Conflict in society arises over competition for scarce resources and social change is an inevitable feature of society.<br />Study decision making in the family; relationships of racial groups; labor disputes<br />Sociologists – Karl Marx<br />
  20. 20. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective<br />Individuals attach meaning to their own actions and to the actions of others; interaction between people takes place through the use of symbols.<br />Studies how people interact with one another in society<br />Study child development; relationships within groups; mate selection<br />
  21. 21. Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology<br />Levels of Analysis<br />1. Macro – level analysis: Functionalists and conflict theorists - examine large-scale patterns in society – Homelessness = changes in society (family structure, outsourcing, failing economy)<br />2. Micro – level of analysis: symbolic interactionists – examine small scale patterns in society – homeless ( patterns of communication both verbal and nonverbal)<br />

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