Political Communication In CmcPresentation Transcript
What is CMC?
Cmc stands for Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction which occurs through the use of two or more networked computers.
Here are some examples of the usage of cmc:
Using chat rooms
Politics and cmc
Communicating between groups of people can generally be very easy. Using simple media forms such as TV , radio and news papers. All these are common place in today's society.
So where to go from here? is there a better way of communicating ideas to potential voters?
Politics using CMC
Using computer mediated communication was the answer. Using computers to gain political prowess was now becoming common place. With the internet being a huge media advertising tool it wasn’t long before political parties were using the internet to gain votes and spread the word about their parties thought and agendas.
Politics and their history
46% of internet users say that using cmc allows them to get a better understanding of politics,25% say that using the internet gives them more political power and 20% say that using the internet gives them more input in to politics
Mr Blair has also engaged in a series of "online" events such as pod casts, e-interviews and the like in an attempt to engage more directly with voters without the media getting in the way.
“ The Internet fits within an overarching historical change that has occurred since the early 1970s when we first witnessed the marriage between politics and all sorts of media. Politics has increasing become a media-manipulation game”
Who uses CMC?
Surprisingly a lot of people will use computer mediated communication . For example ex prime minister Mr. Blair engaged in a series of "online" events such as podcasts, e-interviews.
The reasons for this was he wanted to communicate to the voters directly without other forms of media getting in the way.
Engineers originally designed the Internet as a communication system to overcome the probability of a central communication facility from being destroyed in the event of a nuclear attack
Since the early 1970s when we first witnessed the marriage between politics and all sorts of media. Politics has increasing become a media-manipulation game
When the web took of in the 1993/1994 stage people considered communicating over the internet a a challenge to mass-media culture and also the political relationship it keeps.
Easy communication between parties
Wide range of communication
Online communities can be targeted for political needs
Allows a broad range of computer-mediated formats (i.e., instant messages , e-mails , chat rooms )
Allows voters to view information about polictal parties
1/3 of Americans user cmc to find out about political news on the internet and pose questions to candidates
giving a voice to numerous groups and individuals that other wise wouldn't have access to any media
Gives interactivity to political parties
Access to political information (Hansards, press releases, newspapers, speeches, party policies)
ways to organise political demonstrations
ways to organise both at the grass roots level and globally.
Online petitions cans be created appealing directly to the government to change laws
Cheap and effective means for activists to communicate both globally and locally
Current Cross Border Relations
With conflicts going on around the world between neighboring countries communication between the two countries has become difficult for citizens of both sides, but with cmc they can communicate between countries using messages or message boards without having to risk injury crossing borders.
Past Political crimes
“ Since 1949 when the Chinese Communist Party came to power, the government has maintained tight control over the various forms and methods information is spread to its people. In some cases, postings have even led to arrests. Fu Lijun,37, an assistant professor at Xinxiang Medical College in Henan, was arrested in October 1999 for posting an article in a chat room detailing how Falungong could cure illness”
Actions through politics
Jody Williams used email and the internet to successfully start a campaign against land mines in which 89 countries responded by banning land mines.
At the start of the iraq war more than 1000 websites were shutdown by cyber activists including military websites.
The campaign for Howard dean of the united states used political power and the internet to generate donations towards his campaign.
Other presidential campaigns fought over the internet
Bimber and Davis (2003)
2002 presidential election in South Korea
In 2004 parties and candidates used the Internet to effectively mobilize voters and to promote candidates' visions!
The features and why politics use internet
With the internet being an interactive medium it has become prominent in political campaigns because it is an interactive medium it can engage people and allow them to have a say where as other forms of media like TV don’t allow this.
In some ways, newer communication mediums (such as the Internet) may be revitalising citizen participation in political discourse
The internet gives every person that has it a voice whether they start a website or a petition to change a law there is always a part which is interactive and this can be good or bad as it is not just empowering for progressive groups.
Arguably this has altered democratic relationships between government and citizens and between citizens themselves.
The potential of computer mediated communication for political structuration http://www.javnost-thepublic.org/media/datoteke/hacker-1-2004.pdf (accessed 09/02/2009)
The Internet and Political Communication http://www.craigbellamy.net/2006/06/24/the-internet-and-political-communication/ (accessed 09/02/2009)
You've Got Dissent!Chinese Dissident Use of the Internet and Beijing's Counter-Strategies Michael Chase, James Mulvenon; Rand, 2002
Hacker, K. L., et al (1996). Uses of computer-mediated political communication in the 1992 presidential campaign: A content analysis of the Bush, Clinton, and Perot computer lists( Communication Research Reports, 13 , 138-146.)
CMPC (Computer Mediated Political Communication) And Its Impact On The Political Process In Korea ( http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1069.htm )
Computer Mediated Communication by Dr Crispin Thurlow, Laura Lengel, and Professsor Alice Tomic (Paperback - Feb 25, 2004)
Handbook of Research on Computer Mediated Communication by Sigrid Kelsey( May 30, 2008)
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(4). http://jcmc.indiana.edu