Psychology In Learning And Instruction1

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Psychology In Learning And Instruction1

  1. 1. Psychology in Learning and Instruction Chapters 3 and 4 Development and Knowledge LaToya Robinson & Jackie McMillan
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ I don’t think my students lack knowledge or ability. Rather, the knowledge they have and use is just not valued outside their community.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helenrose Fives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts? Do you agree? Disagree? </li></ul></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Epistemology is a study that asks two questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is knowledge individually acquired or socially constructed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is knowledge presumed to reside? </li></ul></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Where do you think knowledge comes from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please place a sticky note on the line to represent your current thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individually oriented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially Oriented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or somewhere in the middle? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Yes or No? <ul><li>Do you give students specific techniques for processing information more efficiently and effectively? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, do you have your students summarize or outline information? </li></ul></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  6. 6. Yes or No? <ul><li>Do you focus on the organization and coherence of information during instruction? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Yes or No? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you prime existing knowledge so that info can move quickly to long term memory? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  8. 8. Information-processing (IP) Theory <ul><li>“ Individuals take in information from the environment and transform it into knowledge stored in the mind” </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory  Long term memory </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  9. 9. Yes or No? <ul><li>Are you careful to select materials and experiences that are developmentally appropriate for your students? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  10. 10. Yes or No? <ul><li>Do you create learning activities that complement and strengthen your students’ existing mental abilities? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  11. 11. Cognitive Constructivism <ul><li>“ Knowledge is created or constructed by individuals or groups, knowing can not exist without human construction.” </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget- “level of mental maturation has a great deal to do with the information individuals can grab from their environments” </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  12. 12. Yes or No? <ul><li>Do you treat school content as truths that your students must accept and memorize? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  13. 13. Yes or No? <ul><li>Are your students free to apply alternative logic? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  14. 14. Yes or No? <ul><li>Do you believe that the reality of concepts occur in one’s mind? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as, gravity is only what your mind makes of it. </li></ul></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  15. 15. Radical Constructivism <ul><li>“ Educational equivalent to existentialism in philosophy” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reality and purpose are meaningless beyond the individual’s perception of them.” </li></ul><ul><li>I Heart Huckabees </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  16. 16. Yes or No? <ul><li>Will you clarify an idea for your students? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  17. 17. Yes or No? <ul><li>Classroom discussion takes place often in my classroom. </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  18. 18. Agree or Disagree? <ul><li>“ Society and culture are essential for learning but individual cognition is important as well.” </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  19. 19. Social Constructivism <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>“ How thinking and learning depend on social interactions and reflective of cultural values” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Individual mind does not develop in a vacuum” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are dependent on human-to-human interactions” </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development- “people can develop mentally alone and with a group or with the guidance of another with more knowledge or capability” </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  20. 20. <ul><li>How often do you pose a problem to the class and point them to resources to use on their own? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Do you use computers, internet, textbooks, videos, experts, visitors, field trips to extend your teaching often? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  22. 22. Situated Cognition <ul><li>Focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ physical and human resources in the environment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ process of knowing rather than the product of knowledge” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JJ Gibson- Research on how the environment’s resources “affords” human thinking </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  23. 23. <ul><li>How often do you carry out concepts in social contexts? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  24. 24. <ul><li>Agree or disagree: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects in our environment contribute to the responses we make. </li></ul></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  25. 25. Socioculturalism <ul><li>“ Groups, not individuals, construct understandings” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thinking and learning are full of emotions and goals and social contact which is considered to be the essence of humanness” </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  26. 26. States of Knowledge <ul><li>Declarative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I know that…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is how…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is when, where and for what reason I will…” </li></ul></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  27. 27. States of Knowledge <ul><li>Declarative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I know that…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is how…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is when, where and for what reason I will…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which has the most value in learning? In assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you use most often in class? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of learners benefit from each type of knowledge? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  28. 28. Prior Knowledge and Experiences are Important! <ul><li>“ Every sound, smell, taste or sight that is encountered has a chance of imprinting itself on a person’s thoughts.” </li></ul><ul><li>The mind is not a “Tabula rasa” (Blank Slate) as Locke suggested. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We carry mental histories with us.” </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  29. 29. Schooled vs. Unschooled Knowledge <ul><li>Unschooled knowledge is acquired outside of the classroom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for teachable moments! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Schooled Knowledge is purposeful and intended learning. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you find more valuable? </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you think stays with students longer? </li></ul>Alexander, Patricia A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction, PEARSON Merrill-Prentice Hall.
  30. 30. Where do you stand on the continuum of “where does knowledge come from” now??

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