I did not just define relevance. Communication is not relevance, but it is the means by which relevance operates and is established. Relevance is when the flow of information finds the proper outlets (or inlets)—not sure what kind of metaphor that is. It’s not so easy to describe, but maybe we know what it looks like.
Hundreds of libraries still being built. Many remodeled as well. Christopher Stewart studied 85 libraries in detail. His study gives us some idea of new design directions.Libraries are large, one new one was over 400,000 square feet.Even branch libraries are substantial.
Even more than in the past, libraries are the focal point and symbol of academic life for most university campuses. Nevertheless, design concepts and functions of the libraries are changing.
Libraries are now learning centers that combine social and learning spaces.Layout is more flowing, and flexible, than libraries of the past. Moreover, libraries have to be designed for ease of future changes.
Library capital costs are a formidable management issue. The design and usefulness must be right. Notice the high cost per student.Academic Library costs from 2008 PhD thesis by Christopher Stewart who studied 85 new, stand-alone libraries in the US. Stewart, C. (2009). The academic library building in the digital age: A study of new library construction and planning, design, and use of new library space. University of Pennsylvania).Public library costs from Library Journal Article 2006,American Library AssociationLibraries = Cultural Icons: 2006 Showcase of New and Renovated Facilities Reviewed work(s):Source: American Libraries, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Apr., 2006), pp. 28-47Published by: American Library Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27770720 .Accessed: 25/09/2012 23:15
Another example of people fighting to stay relevant are newspapers… The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, and The New York Times have continued to circulateHe talks about how different people want the news different ways whether in print, on the air, or the web. Isn’t this true for libraries too?
Ultra relevant library
Libraries Are Struggling to StayRelevant Because of the Effects of theDigitally Driven Technological World The Way Libraries Are Being Designedand Used Is Changing
Tefko Saracevic calls relevance "an elusive,human notion [that ... i]n its mostfundamental sense, [...] has to do witheffectiveness of communication.“Thats with regard to information, and it‟s notmuch of a definition.Maybe we‟ll know it when we see it…
For a library, establishing relevance draws on anumber of complex factors, among them:• Creating a unified vision for the community• Reinvisioning individual roles as librarians, with thehelp of leaders like you.• Reinvisioning integrated services within a sharedspace as well as in the digital realm• Branding as way to communicate value, utility, anda unique identity• Integrating technology smartly, with an eye towardbeing keeping it accessible and user-friendly.(Re)Establishing Relevance
And we have a long history of deliveringservice in an appropriate, relevant andequitable manner. Plus, we are eager toadapt to changing technologies.WHAT‟S THE PROBLEM?
We know we haveit. Somehwere.But, the game haschanged….Recognizing (and manipulating) Value
To serve the user or to get them back into the library toborrow more books we can count and keep track of so wecan get enough funding so as to not disappear off the faceof the earth?http://www-i4.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/content/research/projects/sub/bionics/What really motivates the library to change?We lure with technology, but(in a lot of cases) its an adhoc adoption which lacks apremeditated framework.Plus, Google is free too.
We need forge partnerships with contentproviders and leverage our POWER to makesure information is provided in a way thatsuits the user. We need to be a hub. We need to meet theinformation seekers in their domain, not atour desk. We have knowledge and skills. Anyone cannow find information, we need to make itaccessible.
Libraries Continue To Be Built orRemodeled, but Design Concepts areChanging Because of External TechnologicalChanges
First, Some Background◦ Between 1995 and 2002, three hundred and fiftyacademic library projects in the US◦ For the years 2003 to 2008, Christopher Stewartstudied 85 new, stand-alone libraries in the US◦ In this time period, new academic library size wasapproximately 100,000 square feet on average◦ Community libraries were also being built orremodeled. These were smaller, about 10,000 to40,000 square feet
Libraries Are Still the Focal Point and Symbolof Academic Life for Most UniversityCampuses Not Just Academic Libraries, but PublicLibraries Are Symbols of Value and Qualityfor Towns and Schools
Library Design and Function Strongly Affected by the DigitalAge The Library is No Longer Just a Repository of Books Architecture is Now Built Around the Learner Libraries Provide Combined Social and Learning Space◦ Collective learning◦ Flexible learning environment◦ Reading rooms◦ Information commons◦ Exhibition space◦ Meeting rooms and collaborative learning◦ Coffee Bar Center for Teaching Information Literacy
The ChallengesTwo different cultures, structures, labor groups, and pay scales...mean different priorities!
• Library leaders• Library staff• Communities• Corporate partners• Government partners• Other partner libraries• Schools• Required for a cultural shift
• Putting a unified front: integrated referenceand circulation desks
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. LibraryA collaboration between the City of San Joséand San José State UniversityDr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library
• Phoenix Public Library + South MountainCommunity College = South MountainCommunity Library• Virginia Beach Public Library + TidewaterCommunity College Library = VBTCC jointlibraryMurvosh, Marta. "Powerful Partnerships. (Cover story)." Library Journal (May 16, 2012)
Envision a space that:• allows ease of access by community ANDcampus• creating spaces to gravitate to for-leisure reading-study-group activities and noise(for teens, children, & collegestudents)-workshops and meetings-around-the-clock access
Envision use of materials to:• dampen acoustical noise• encourage use of library materials• encourage collaboration (giant screens)
• In the architectural firm (because this isanother partnership)• In the ability to "figure it out as thepartnerships develops" (because there arefew models--in fact, inspire a new model)
Insert library services in:• retail spaces• parks and leisure areas• senior centers• cultural enclaves• eateries and coffee houses
Self-service technologies -- library servicesare possible where they are needed.Enis, Matt. "HELPING USERS HELP THEMSELVES." Library Journal 137, no. 14(September 2012)
The Design Must Be Appropriate, for theCapital Cost of a Library is Very High This is True for a Community Library or anAcademic Library
Capital Costs For an Academic Library the Cost Is About $250 to $300per square foot (2006)◦ Thus, a 100,000 square foot library would be about $30 million• Public Libraries Have Similar Costs, Some Even More On a$ per square foot basis◦ Range $200/square foot to $726/square foot (Ballard Library inSeattle)◦ Therefore a 15,000 square foot branch library would be $4.5million at $300 per square foot• If We Look at Cost per Student for Academic Libraries, it isan Average of $6,000 per Student (some as high as$32,000 per student!)
Operating Costs More Difficult to Determine 2011 Survey by Publisher‟s Communication Group ProvidesRelative Breakdown of Library Operating Expenses◦ Salary is 46%, or about one-half, more or less what we would expect◦ Operating expenses – 12%, not very high◦ Materials 42%, of which serials or periodicals are the biggest portion,27% of the overall operating expense (64% of materials cost).◦ Books are only 9% of overall operating expenses (22% of material cost) Materials Could Be for Print or for Electronic InformationResources◦ Nearly 60% of material costs are for electronic media (2010)◦ In comparison, about 30% for Electronic Information Resources in 2004– a clear rapid shift◦ Cost per serial is about $162 per year◦ Nearly every library takes e-journals. More than half of the journals arein electronic format only.
Doucett, Elisabeth. Creating Your Library Brand. Chicago: American Library Association, 2008.
LOGOTAGLINESERVICE OR PRODUCTMEANINGCONSUMER PERCEPTION
JSTOR: „The scholarly journal archive‟Science Direct „Digital Library of the Future‟Emerald „information ideas insight‟For users:“Emerald is here to make your life easier”For faculty:“Emerald‟s aim is simple-to make managementresearch effortless”
Story Community Appeal Competition1985 - 6 domain names registered2007 - over 91 million domain names registered(source: www.domaintools.com)
Redefine Value in society Traditional role“Perhaps we should turn our attention away from the electriclibrary that others have built and focus on the real books andbuildings that made us what we were to begin with…. Orperhaps not. Perhaps we have new rules to play in the digitalworld or old roles to play in a new way. Let‟s think aboutthat.” ~Steve Coffman (VP, Library Support Services) New directions
Other brands did it this way:① Get Personal-Amazon② Sell Happiness-Coca-Cola③ Live up to your promise-FedEx④ Keep it cool (and fun)-Apple⑤ Design an experience-Target⑥ Stay consistent-Ford⑦ Can-do attitude-Nike⑧ Forge connections-Starbucks⑨ Serve up the quirky-SouthwestAirlines⑩ Focus on the customer-Nordstrom
The Wall Street Journal-2,118,315(1,566,027 print and 552,288 digital) USA Today-1,817,446 (1,701,777 print and115,669 digital) The New York Times-1,586,757 (779,731print and 807,026 digital)“As long as news providers give it to themwhen they want it, where they want it andhow they want it, they not only will survivebut also thrive.” ~Al Neuharthhttp://www.livingstondaily.com/article/20120925/OPINION01/209250318/Al-Neuharth-Newspapers-can-stay-relevant
• The ultra-relevant library is NOT aone-size-fits all library.• "Technology is the future. So what?"Technology is not something that alibrary can simply adopt and hopeto succeed.• Design inviting spaces consideringthe needs of the targeted users ofthe library.• Recognize and communicate value
Relevance of Hamilton Library(as an academic & public library)
TECHNOLOGYChoose a technologythat will improveaccess, appeal,interactivity, service,etc.DESIGNAdd a space/featureor improve on onethat already exists(e.g. do we needmore study areas?BRANDINGDo we need toincrease socialmedia presence?More/betterprograms &events?Write or draw an idea for improving Hamilton‟srelevance, based on your own experiences andpreferences.Choose to focus on:
Walk around and find the rest of your puzzle– this will be your group Hint: Each puzzle is color-coded, so find people withpieces that match your colors Now that you‟ve got your group, share yourpiece
One Technology One Design One branding idea If there is a topic that no one in your group hasapproached, discuss why? (e.g. if no one chose adesign element, discuss why this was so…isHamilton‟s design good as is? Are other aspectsmore important than library design?)
Reality Check BibliographyNinjas: Meagan Calogeras, Jessica Craft, Shavonn-haevynMatsuda, Jaclyn Parrott, Jordan Trader Andruss, Paula. "BRANDINGS big guns." Entrepreneur 40, no. 4(April 2012), Small Business Reference Center, EBSCOhost(accessed September 30 2012). This article talks about various brands that have successfullybuilt relationships with their users by appealing to them inemotional ways. It talks about the tactics used by Amazon, Coca-Cola, FedEx, Apple, Target, Ford, Nike, Starbucks, SouthwestAirlines, and Nordstrom. The reasons these brands have survivedis explored through a survey given to consumers conducted byThe Values Institute which identified five values that influencetrust in a brand. This article does a good job explaining whatkeeps brands relevant to the users. (non-LIS source)
Bell, Steven J. “Design Thinking.” American Libraries 39, no. 1⁄2(January/February 2008), JSTOR (accessed September 30 2012)This article suggests a management and project planning approach based on “designthinking.” In this context in means approaching a management issue throughunderstanding of a problem through careful observation before attempting to formulatesolutions. The author also emphasizes high value experiences rather than low value,commodity-like experiences, as applied to a library context.Bosanquet, Lyn. “Building relevance amidst the content revolution.” LibraryManagement 31, no. 3 (2010), Emerald (accessed September 20 2012).This article aims to present a way for the library to become “a central player in thedigitized information landscape”. The core competencies of the library profession--skills,knowledge, and serving user needs--have changed. In the present world, information-seeking tools have become user-friendly, causing traditional reference services to fallout of favor. Librarians are no longer the gatekeepers of knowledge. Libraries are eagerto regain that lost relevance in their community by eagerly adopting new technologies,but Bosanquet argues they are doing so in an ad hoc way. Moreover, the brand of thelibrary continues to be books--books people no longer need or read. Bosanquetidentifies a niche market for libraries in managing the overabundance of informationthrough forging partnerships with content providers and meeting the user in their owndomain. Informing future change involves learning more about the information-seekingbehaviors of the millennial generation and developing a framework for a structureddigital environment. Bosanquet concludes by calling on libraries to recognize and definetheir value and communicate it widely.
Doucett, Elisabeth. Creating Your Library Brand. Chicago: American Library Association,2008.This book comes from the perspective of a librarian with a background in marketing who took herlibrary through the branding process. She conveys how marketing and branding relate to eachother, and who should be involved in the process. Of importance is knowing who the targetaudience is while developing brand that has a unique message and visual identity that defineslibrary and reaches community. Her approach was to evaluate the current brand and materials,create a meaningful and memorable tagline, and design an appealing logo. Then select brandadvocates who can train staff on how to implement a business tool in a nonprofit environment,and identify marketing tools and if outside help is needed. Is the brand working? It is important tomaintain the brand by building relationships with users through blogs, etc. One must clarify falsefalse assumptions about branding and look to learn from other libraries who have brandedthemselves. This book does a good job communicating how a library should go about brandingthemselves.Enis, Matt. "HELPING USERS HELP THEMSELVES." Library Journal 137, no. 14(September 2012), Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 13, 2012).This article takes a look at self-service technologies--such as ebook download terminals andtablet computer check-out kiosks, and how they a) raise the visibility of services and librarycollections, drawing more foot traffic to new patrons; b) allow library staff more time for referenceassistance; c) allow for cost benefits; d) raise the profile of ebooks; e) allow access to people withno web connectivity; and f) help to dispense knowledge. Since this is a newer technology, theresponse and success is still be monitoring, but so far so good. There is an increase in benefitsall around, and such self-service stations look to be a fixture in our future. With examples galorefrom actual libraries and existing terminals, this is a good reference for augmenting our resourcesfor relativizing library services..
Hill, Chrystie. Inside, Outside, and Online: Building Your LibraryCommunity. Chicago, IL: ALA Editions, 2009.This book provides guidance for library professionals interested in communitybuilding. Hill, who was recently hired as the Community Relations Director at theOCLC, emphasizes the importance of identifying your community‟s needs andworking with your community to address those needs. In a time when people arequestioning the relevance of libraries, engaging with and building community areessential to our success.James, Roger. “Out of the box - Freescale: How free models scale in theworld of information.” Business Information Review 29, no. 2 (2012).This article posits certain factors that libraries should consider when drawing up astrategy for future change. While libraries were early innovators in the field ofinformation technology, that innovation led to a sort of institutional pathdependence. Moreover, the very environment the library created is threatened by“professionally naive entrepreneurs [who] can set pace and revolutionize ourprofession.” James believes the answer to regaining control over the domain ofinformation lies in learning to manipulate the market economy of the digital realm,where scarcity and surplus are managed not by the traditional model of supplyand demand, but by arbitrary creations thereof. Thus, while the library offers atraditionally free service, by mastering the economics of the social internet inoffering digital content to public, they can potentially compete in an industry drivenby competition and offering various routes to „free‟.
Murvosh, Marta. "Powerful Partnerships." Library Journal (May 16, 2012),Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 13, 2012).This article looks at library partnerships with realized examples of: shared buildings,shared building sites, integrated public and academic library services, and mixed -use developments (library and condominium). Each scenario breaks down theinformation of the project to: the architect and entities involved; associated project,construction, and site costs; population served; square footage; and so on. Ofparticular interest are the profiles of integrated libraries, and how both the community,served by the public library, and college, served by their academic library, stand tobenefit with the merger. The library staff as well as patrons appear to learn, grow,and thrive in these newly created spaces, though there can be challenges as well inthe blending of the two library cultures, especially for the staff. Since each case isuniquely different, it is useful to examine them for the opportunities as well as thepossible threats to successful services integration in regards to our situation.Stewart, C. “The academic library building in the digital age: A study of newlibrary construction and planning, design, and use of new library space.”University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses(accessed September 21 2012).Dissertation. Provides analysis of recent academic library building in many differentcampuses in US. Gives building sizes, cost per square foot, total cost, and cost perstudent. Addresses changes of number of books in comparison with electronicresources.
Templeton, Thomas Clay. “Placing the Library: An Argument for thePhenomenological and Constructivist Approach to the Human Geographyof the Library.” The Library Quarterly 78, no. 2 (April 2008), JSTOR(accessed September 25 2012).Provides a theoretical framework for discussing“library as place” in contrast to “library without walls” and how to think about thisconceptual issue. Introduces several thinkers on the subject with a view tounderstanding a library‟s underlying purpose.Walton, Graham. “Theory, research, and practice in library management 5:branding.” Library Management 29 (2008) Library, Information Science &Technology Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed September 20, 2012).This article talks about how libraries can benefit from having an effective brandso library users can be informed of the services rendered. Looking to otherpopular brands and libraries that have created their own unique identity canserve as examples of how to formulate a brand strategy. He talks about whybrands are needed and how libraries have been focused on this idea for over 30years. People are not aware of what the library can actually do for them sobranding gives libraries a chance to redefine themselves. Finding the library‟sniche is what will distinguish it from the competition. In essence, all libraries havetheir own brands, and should they re-brand?