Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Benedictine libraries
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Benedictine libraries

761

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
761
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Benedictine tree multiplied books and libraries, gave impulse to study in once was called dark ages
  • End of 5th century,Europe in period of confusion, corruption, despair, and deathHeresy, divisions in churchMonks also examples of disorder and scandalBarbarian invasionsPlaces once Christian, now pagan
  • Pope Gregory the Great wrote about Benedict in book Dialogues – Benedict ‘s 4 disciples reportedBenedict shined light that regenerated Europe for ten centuries to comePeople tried to poison him out of jealousyLived in cave on mountain for three years!Wanted to be alone, but disciples sought him out because of the fame of his virtues and miracles, so formed 12 monasteries with 12 monks each in Subiaco before going to Monte CassinoSister names Scholastica who also vowed herself to Godhttp://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=22 (pic)
  • World Digital Library, Hill Museum and Manuscript Library1587 CEMirror and Example for the Worshippers of Christ: the Life of the Blessed Father Benedict, Most Holy Patriarch of MonksIllustrated example of his life, his holiness and powersRich iconography for adornment of Benedictine manuscripts and monasteries
  • Had lived under rule form East of St. BasilBenedict though those were lax, vague, and confusingSpecifically for Monte Cassino, but spread through Western EmpireLeft its mark on education, literature, art of Europe as chief factor in the work of European civilization like no other book except the Bibleguide for the government and spiritual and material warfare of a monasteryhttp://www.wdl.org/en/item/9926/#additional_subjects=Benedict%2C+Saint%2C+Abbot+of+Monte+Cassino1520 CERegulaSanctissimiPatrisnostriBenedictiFlorence, LatinCongregation of Santa Giustina in Padua, Italy,Hill Museum and Manuscript Library
  • http://www.wdl.org/en/item/8945/#additional_subjects=Benedict%2C+Saint%2C+Abbot+of+Monte+CassinoBavarian State Library in Munich, Germany1414 CELatin, GermanMettener Regel
  • Holding to long tradition of scholarship and studyLabor is honorable and dignified and conducive to sanctity“He who works prays”Truly monks when live by labor of handsSpiritual labor – action of soul upon itself"the strong and bright armor of obedience, to fight under our Lord Christ, our true king.” sacrifice of the will, tempered by authorityIn community, opening oneself up to others, find yourself, community of monastics MONK MEANS ALONE, tension between the two, solidarity in silence – no enduring place here to settle, open self up to GodHorcmpetens – the appropriate hour, the right time – so noone disquieted or distressed in house of God – for peace of community and individuals, be internally ruled by it, find wholeness Clear order makes possible a clear life
  • established at outset of monasteriesMonks devote this time to reading 4th to 6thhrFree for reading up to 2nd hourDuring Lent read book from Bibliotheca straight through by the end of lentSundays, except those who have assigned duties to spend time readingWhoever appointed to read at table enter his office on Sunday, ask all to pray for him, preserve him from the spirit of pride, no questions asked about what is being read! Eats afterwards
  • Books not a storehouse for text, but a window on the world and God, a garden for wisdomReading had social and physical dimension since often done out loud
  • Challenge posed to our understanding of text and approach to reading Lectiodivina (sacred reading) a gathering, collecting, and unifying processChew and digest words so they become part of oneself – helps when mouth words Meditatio inscribes text into soulToday lectiodivina being revived, called reading God or preaching to the self in religious circles
  • Texts could be read silently with words separated since words did not need to be disentangled from mass of letters on page, increased speed of reading too
  • Disruptions throughout time
  • With the help of benefactors,Foundation laid 520529 same year when pagan school of philosophy closed doors in AthensHouse of learning through reproduction of manuscript copiesLibrary big enough to have at least one book for each monk, but probably not more than that since scriptoriums came laterBibles and other religious works that were gifts or from booksellers “nothing sold faster, nothing for a greater price”
  • Title: Das weltberühmteKloster Monte Cassino, das am 15 Februar den Bombenanglo-amerikanischerKreigsverbrecherzumOpferfiel Date Created/Published: [1944] Medium: 1 photographic print. Summary: Photograph shows the cloister at Monte Cassino. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-33485 (b&w film copy neg.) Rights Advisory: Rights status not evaluated. For general information see "Copyright and Other Restrictions...,"(http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/195_copr.html)Call Number: LOT 7489-E [item] [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
  • February 15, 1944 Monte Cassino was bombed and almost completely destroyed by the U.S. during WWII.by American air raidsDefensive line for Germans to keep Allied attackers from advancing further into ItalyAllied forces broke line in May and took command of Abbey May 18They said there was “irrefutable evidence” that Germans were on post there, then in 1961 said only a small military poiice detachment, and a final correction in 1969 says the abbey was unoccupied!!The good news is that he richness of the Abbey’s archives, library and gallery included "800 papal documents, 20,500 volumes in the Old Library, 60,000 in the New Library, 500 incunabula, 200 manuscripts on parchment, 100,000 prints and separate collections” were all transported out along with monks November 1943 before this happened.Rebuilt and resconsecrated in 1964
  • Benedictine scriptorium – clearly written, large, round hand, rubrics (initial capitals painted in red) and illuminations, pages large like folio 20 x 30cm, thick parchment, stout binding
  • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ashka.eu/cassino/monte_cassino_11.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.ashka.eu/cassino/cassino.html&h=535&w=800&sz=102&tbnid=LTcgKwtceyN8YM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&zoom=1&usg=__8bizuzQLmtANhoTJ6hdEKORCueU=&docid=jCkprzOO0zpEMM&sa=X&ei=SyQtUaG9PO6xigKyqYHgBw&ved=0CFsQ9QEwBg&dur=410
  • Protection from floods on upper floorTypical in middle agesWalls painted green – restful on eyesLow light - large windows
  • Nonantola manuscripts from Monte Cassino, twice destroyed by fire, but still have several original acquisitionsBobbio –Rule of Benedict superseded Columban rule
  • Lanfranc, professor of law, position of prior, second to abbot, instructed librarian, introduced education and culture
  • Wearmouth andJarrow - Ruled by same abbot, Benedict Bishop had one of finest libraries at the timeLibrary historians say “greatest…”
  • “On the Saints of the Church at York”
  • Established 1074, largest monastic library in the worldKnown for Baroque architecture, scientific, art and manuscripts collectionsOne more thought:We need to realize how laborious, how artistic, how conscientious they were.. That the Middle Ages rocked the cradle of our knowledge, we “see their hope become reality”
  • AUSTRIA - JANUARY 01: Admont, Styria: Benedictine monastery. Monastery library. Codex E, folio 4v, third volume of the Admont Giant Bible. Beginning of the Book of Genesis with the Initial "I". Last third of the 11th cent. Photography by Gerald Trumler. (Photo by Imagno/Getty Images) [Admont, St: Benediktiner-Stift. Stiftsbibliothek. Codex E, folio 4v, dritter Band der AdmonterRiesenbibel. Beginn des Buches Genesis mitInitiale I. LetztesDrittel 11 Jh.]
  • Libraries (from LIS 590TL)Europeana think cultureArtstorMasterfile premier
  • Transcript

    • 1. Library Histories“The history of an old librarycan only be tracedintermittently, the factsplaying hide and seek like adistant lantern carried overbroken ground.”Ernest Albert Salvage
    • 2. Benedictine Order ofMonks Founded 529 or 530 AD Saint Benedict of Nursia Monte Cassino, Italy Beginning of library era“Behold! How great a matter a littlefire kindleth!”
    • 3. Scene
    • 4. Benedict of Nursia 480 born in Nursia-Benedictus “well-said” or“blessed” Sought refuge and solitude with God Barely 14, renounced riches and family Patriarch of Western Monasticism, instrument ofregeneration, Father of Western Civilization, Patronof Europe 543 died standing raising his hands to God
    • 5. Speculum & exemplar Christicolarum: vita beatissimi patris Benedicti monachorum patriarchae sanctissimihttp://www.wdl.org/en/item/9923/#q=benedictine+library&qla=en
    • 6. Rule of St. BenedictRegula Benedicti (RB)• Detailed series of social, liturgical, and penalordinances• By 7th Century applied to women• By early 9th century supplanted most othermonastic styles in northern and western Europe.
    • 7. The Rule of Saint Benedict, from the Abbey of Metten-World Digital Library
    • 8. • St. Benedict prescribed:• Ora et labora (prayer and work)• Discretio (The Gift of Discernment)• Pax benedicitna (Benedictine Peace)• Stabilitas (Order)• Obedience to the abbot is emphasized• Concrete community of monastics• Caritatem fraternitatis caste impendant• “they should show brotherly love for one another”• Solitariness is silence• Hora competens (Order of days-structured divisionin the course of daily life)
    • 9. “Idleness is the enemy of the soul.At set times, accordingly, thebrethren should be occupied withmanual work, and again, at settimes, with spiritual reading.”Saint Benedict of Nursia
    • 10. Reading Monk should be able to read (Pachomius) Made to use this skill (Benedict) Lent to October, fourth to sixth hour October to Lent, up to second hour Beginning of Lent given book from library Sundays Reading at table – Weekly Reader
    • 11. “Above all, have one or two seniorsappointed to go around the monasteryduring the hours for reading to see thatno restless brother is by chance idle orchattering and not intent on his readingand so of no profit to himself and adistraction to others.... However, if thereis anyone so dull or lazy that he either willnot or cannot study or read, let him havesome task assigned him which he canperform, so that he may not be idle....”
    • 12. • Importance of lectio divina (divinereading)emphasized• Audire (hear) and aedificare (buildup)• Scriptures rejuvenate so Benedictwanted readers to be vcare (free)• memor (remembering) which camefrom meditatio (meditation)Lectio divina and meditatio
    • 13. • Silent reading made possible• Word separation• English monks Venerable Bede(673-735)• Monk-missionary Boniface (675-754)• Innovation in scribaltranscription
    • 14. • Benedictine abbot JohannesTrithemius (1462-1516)• Wrote De laude scriptorum• Print technology would underminemonastic culture• Challenge of computer technologytoday
    • 15. Monte Cassino Built Monte Cassino 529 AD Saint Benedict residedthere 14 years Towering height midway between Rome and Naples Principal sanctuary of monastic order Centre of spiritual virtue, “School of the Lord” Gained reputation as house of learning Several times destroyed and rebuilt
    • 16. • 581 Lombards destroyed, thenrebuilt• 884 destroyed by Saracens• Greatest influence in 11th century• 1389, earthquake, period of decline• 1799 sacked by Napoleon• 1866 dissolution of Italianmonasteries, became nationalmonument• 1944, World War II, aerialbombardment from Allied advance
    • 17. BATTLE OF MONTE CASSINO (Jan-May 1944)Wikimedia Commons
    • 18. • Desederius (abbot 1058-1087)• Beneventan script• 200 monks copying and illuminating• Literature preserved through scriptoria• Great service to European civilization• Encouraged original writings• Copying of books in all branches oflearning, intellectual revivalMonte Cassinos’ Golden Age
    • 19. MONTE CASSINO TODAYwww.ashka.eu
    • 20. LIBRARIES of Benedictine Houses• Bibliotheca on upper floor, scriptorium onlower• Oblong room, high vaulted ceilings• Two sets of books: one for brethren, andthose kept in a safe place• (lending library and library of reference)• Armeria (books shut up in presses orbookcases)• Books chained to desks• Cloister of conversation• We understand collegiate libraries throughmonastic libraries
    • 21. Other BenedictineLibraries in Italy Nonantola, 752- Library contained manuscripts older than the monasteryitself Bobbio, 614-803 Librarian ranked among officials of library, 700 Codices, ofbroad scope surpassed Monte Cassino in influence Subiaco, 520- First printing house in Italy 15th century Farfa, 681- littera Farfensis, script based on Beneventan
    • 22. FRANCE Saint-Germain-des-Pres, 543-1790 – intensive literaryactivity Fleury-Saint-Benoit, 651- Carolingian scriptorium,history of calligraphy, one of richest libraries inChristendom Corbie, 657-1790 renowned for scriptorium, library,and school, first true Carolingian writing Bec, 1034- advancement of theological learning andinfluence on course of church history, LanfrancStatutes to Benedictines
    • 23. ENGLAND Canterbury, 605-1538 -St. Augustine and hiscompanions introduce monasticism to England, Abbey library catalog documents donors andbenefactors from 13th century forward Whitby, 657-1543 – library rich in humanisticliterature Wearmouth, 674-1539 and Jarrow, 681-1536 “greatest library-builder before the Norman-Conquest,” “first great monastic library” Bede studied here
    • 24. • Glastonbury, 5th century-1539 – large library includedworks of modern theology• Durham, 1083-1538 - library contained large proportion ofclassical authors, humanistic, and medical works, detailedarrangement of books• Libraries not assigned special rooms for use until 14th or15th centuries• York, 625-1539 - Alcuin, friend of Charlemagne educatedhere and accompanied him on book hunting expeditions,metrical catalogue, motto was “learn in order to teach”
    • 25. Germany Reichenau, 724-1802 –Abbot Waldo “spared neithertrouble nor money to increase the library,” severalrare works, supported many scholars Fulda, 744-1803 –love of learning, countless books “There you will find all that God has sent down toearth from heaven for the benefit of man in the piousworks of sacred scripture and all the worldly wisdomthat has been made known to the world in variousages.” Boniface
    • 26. • Benediktbeuern, 740-1803 – library and archives hasmany priceless manuscripts and charters• Sankt Michael Library of Metten, 766-• Monk from here founded first Benedictine abbey inUnited States, Latrobe, Pennsylvania• Maria Laach, 1093-center of liturgical reform,hymnology, art• Beuron, 1687-liturgical monastic revival, supportsschool
    • 27. AUSTRIA -Admont AbbeyWikimedia Commons“A monastery without a library was like a fortresswithout an arsenal”
    • 28. MasterFILE Premier, Codex E, Admont Giant Bible
    • 29. BIBLIOGRAPHY“Benedictine (<Christian orders>, Christianity, ... Associated Concepts).” Art & Architecture Thesaurus Onlinehttp://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=monte+cassino&logic=OR&note=benedict*&page=1&subjectid=-1&checked=300148044. Accessed February 23, 2013.Benedictus. 1909. The Rule of Saint Benedict. London: Chatto and Windus Publishers.Casson, L. 2001. Libraries in the Ancient World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Clark, J. W. Libraries In The Medieval and Renaissance Periods. The Rede Lecture, 1894. Chicago: Argonaut, Inc.,1968. http://www.library.uiuc.edu/ereserves/item.asp?id=51278Grun, A. 2006. Benedict of Nursia: His Message for Today. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.Lerner, F. 2011. The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age. New York: Continuum.Laubier, G. and Jacques Bosser. 2003. The Most Beautiful Libraries in the World. Harry N. Abrams Inc.Montalembert, C. 2006. Monks of the West: From St. Benedict to St. Bernard. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.Neuhofer, M. D. 1999. In the Benedictine tradition: The origins and early development of two college libraries.University Press of Amer.Savage, E. A., & Hutt, J. 1912. Old English libraries: the making, collection and use of books during the middle ages(No. 240). Methuen & co. ltd..Studzinski, Raymond. 2009. Reading to Live. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.Wilson, R. 1957. English Benedictine Lmonastic Libraries During the Middle Ages. New York: University of RochesterPress for the ACRL.

    ×