Indigenous People

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managing wilderness -edexcel B

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Indigenous People

  1. 1. Indigenous People in Wilderness Areas
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>You will be aware of the issues of wilderness and the future of indigenous people </li></ul><ul><li>You will have specific knowledge of the people of the arctic and of one particular group of indigenous people </li></ul><ul><li>You will have specific knowledge of a group of indigenous forest people </li></ul>
  3. 3. People of the Arctic: Context <ul><li>Despite its perception by outsiders as a barren, inhospitable, and unexplored wilderness, the Arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, northern Scandinavia and Siberia are homelands for a diverse number of indigenous peoples. Subsisting for thousands of years on the resources of land and sea, Arctic peoples have learned to adapt to their environment, surviving and prospering under some of the harshest conditions on Earth. In Alaska, these peoples are known as Iñupiaq and Yup'ik Inuit, Alutiq (Aleuts) and Athapaskans; in Canada and Greenland, they are Inuit; in Scandinavia native people are the Saami; while in Siberia, indigenous groups include: the Chukchi, Nenets, and many more </li></ul>
  4. 4. How many? <ul><li>There are now approximately 4 million people in the Arctic, with the indigenous population ranging from 80 per cent in Greenland to 15 per cent in Arctic Norway and as little as 3-4 per cent in Arctic Russia. In general, the region is sparsely populated with population densities averaging fewer than 1 person per square mile. Settlements vary from a few large, industrialized cities to numerous small nomadic communities following a traditional lifestyle. Despite tremendous social, demographic, and technological changes during the twentieth century, Arctic cultures remain vital and resilient, wit many communities still closely linked, both economically and spiritually, to native wildlife and local resources. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conflict? <ul><li>Recent discoveries of oil, minerals, and diamonds in Arctic areas, and a growing interest in Arctic tourism, however, are bringing many non-indigenous people to the Arctic to live or visit. Simultaneously, the indigenous people are blending many parts of western civilization into their lifestyle.The outcome of these impacts is still unclear but will undoubtedly have major consequences for the local and national economy, the livelihood of native people, and the environment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. e.g. Athapaskan People <ul><li>The Athapaskan territory covers a huge expanse of coniferous boreal forest stretching across interior Alaska , parts of the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories of Canada , and down across the Arctic Circle into British Columbia. Having continuously inhabited the land for several thousand years, Athapaskan society exemplifies how humans can maintain a sustainable coexistence with their environment. Subsisting on the rich natural resources provided by the northern boreal forest, they have developed a deep respect for both the land and its animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Most archaeologists believe that Athapaskan-speaking peoples crossed the Bering Strait from Siberia to Alaska about 10,000 years ago as the vast ice sheets of the Pleistocene period receded. Traveling eastward across the continent they encountered a landscape very similar to the one that exists today. </li></ul>
  7. 7. heritage <ul><li>Much of Athapaskan history is preserved in stories and passed down through the generations. This rich oral heritage is spiritually-based and portrays a world where everything is interconnected. Most aspects of the natural world are embodied with human elements. In Athapaskan mythology, the raven is central to their beliefs about the origins of the world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Present and future? <ul><li>Dramatic change has swept through Athapaskan culture over the last 100 years. Policies of modernization and assimilation together with mandatory schooling has resulted in a loss of traditional skills and values. Land claims in Canada and Alaska, however, are helping Athapaskans retain and promote their cultural heritage and enabling a measure of self-determination </li></ul>
  9. 9. People of the forest <ul><li>Read extract on the Yanomami people of the Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise </li></ul><ul><li>What are the challenges for the Yanomami people? What are the possible solutions? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Work for Thursday <ul><li>Essay </li></ul><ul><li>For next Thursday! </li></ul><ul><li>“ To what extent are the conflicts between resource developers and indigenous people irreconcilable?” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Athapaskans (or other Arctic people) Other indigenous people Context Conflict?/ Issue(s) Management

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