Zone Control Basics
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Zone Control Basics: Types and Applications

Zone Control Basics: Types and Applications

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www.jacksonsystems.com

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  • Welcome to the Jackson Systems Learning Center. This training module is on forced air zone control basics with regard to system type and application use.
  • The basic principle of operation for a zone control system is to allow a single HVAC to be controlled by multiple thermostat strategically placed in areas called zones. Zone could represent a bedroom, family room, living room, or any other area within a home or commercial building.
  • In a home or commercial building that is not zoned, not all areas maintain the same temperature and someone usually ends up uncomfortable. Since a single thermostat can only control the temperature in the space where it is located, it can not provide comfort conditions for every room or office. Zoning divides a home or building into areas called zones that have similar heating and cooling requirements. Each zone is controlled by its own space thermostat which allows people to be comfortable in any zoned location.
  • In a home that is not zoned, there can be as much as 10 degrees difference between the upstairs and downstairs. The reason is because hot air rises and cold air falls. Changes in temperatures also are also affected by external influences such as solar radiation and wind. Since the thermostat can only control the temperature where it is located, the major complaint is that it’s too hot upstairs or too cold downstairs.
  • In a zoned home, each thermostats maintains its own individual setpoint thus providing comfort in any area of the home. Of course, there’s more to a zoning system than just thermostats since they can not be wired directly to a single HVAC system. This will be covered further in this training module.
  • A type of zoning system that most people are familiar with is lighting. How many light switches are in a home? There are multiple light switches that turn on individual lights in each room as needed. If lighting is zoned, why shouldn’t HVAC equipment be zoned? The concept behind zoning is to provide a thermostat in every room or zone to provide individual temperature control.
  • A zone control system can solve many comfort problems such as . . . Temperature differences between floors or finished basements. Home additions or an added sun room. Zoning can solve temperature differences caused by external and internal influences or in a bonus room located over a garage which typically is always too warm.
  • Zoning also allows unoccupied areas to be maintained at lower heating or higher cooling temperature which reduces energy and utility costs. With the use of programmable thermostat, individual zones can be scheduled to automatically change the heating and cooling setpoints based on an occupied and unoccupied program. For example, when a bedroom zone is not being occupied, a lower heating and higher cooling setpoint can be maintained in order to save energy.
  • The basic principle of operation for a zone control system is to allow a single HVAC unit to be controlled by multiple thermostats strategically located in areas called zones. Each zone thermostat is wired to a zone control logic panel. The logic panel wires to the HVAC equipment. Zone damper used to control the amount of conditioned air into each zone are also wired to the logic panel. The thermosats, if hardwired, along with the logic panel and zone dampers receive their power from a separate 24VAC transformer.
  • The operation of the zone thermostats and dampers is controlled by the zone control logic panel which monitors the zone thermostats and places the HVAC system in the proper mode of operation as well as controls the zone damper positions based on heating, cooling or ventilation demand.
  • A zone control panel provides the basic logic required in using multiple zone thermostats and zone dampers with a single HVAC unit. Selecting the right zone control panel involves knowing the application specifics and provides the base for selection of the remaining system components.
  • The following list of requirements is important when selecting a zone control panel that will fit the specific application. The number of individual zones. The type of equipment such as . . . Single stage heat/cool, multi-stage heat/cool heat pump or dual fuel. The type of dampers used . . 2 wire or 3 wire and the total number of dampers as some zones may require more than one damper. Knowing the cooling tonnage is also important as this is used in sizing the bypass damper. Cooling tonnage can also be calculated based on total system CFM as the total system CFM can be divided by 400 which will provide the cooling tonnage.
  • Jackson Systems provides a large selection of zone control logic panels to fit just about any zoning application. This is an example of a Green Zone Z-200-HP 2 zone heat pump panel.
  • This is a Green Zone Z-300-HC-MS, 3 zone multi stage panel.
  • This is a Z-600, 6 zone universal panel that will work with heat / cool, multistage, heat pump and dual fuel systems.
  • Here are a few things to remember with regard to zone thermostats. Thermostats must be compatible with the equipment. The basic rule of thumb is heat pump thermostat for heat pumps and dual fuel systems. Heat cool thermostat for conventional HVAC systems. Staging of equipment is usually thermostat controlled with the exception of the Z-600 panel which can stage equipment based on thermostat demand or by an internal upstage timer. Zone thermostats can be either programmable or non-programmble.
  • There are two basic type of zone damper actuators used with zoning sytems. 2 wire power closed, spring return open actuators and 3 wire, power closed, power open actuators. Either actuator can be used on round or rectangular dampers. When selecting zone dampers, the Va requirement of the actuator is important in properly sizing the transformer. The transformer VA rating should be equal to the VA sum of all zone damper actuators.
  • Two position zone damper actuators are widely used for forced air zone control applications. Two position zone dampers are either open or closed. The closed position can be mechanically adjusted to allow a percentage of air flow or leakage into a zone when the damper is in the closed position.
  • This is a photo of a 2 wire, power close, spring return open rectangular damper.
  • Rectangular dampers slide into the duct work and are available with the actuator on the side (vertical plane) or the bottom (horizontal plane) to accommodate for restrictions such as duct work that is between floor joists.
  • This photo shows a 2 wire power close, spring reutrn open round damper.
  • Rectangular dampers slide into the duct work and are available with the actuator on the side (vertical plane) or the bottom (horizontal plane) to accommodate for restrictions such as duct work that is between floor joists.
  • This photo shows a typical 3 wire, power open, power closed rectangular damper.
  • 3-wire rectangular dampers slide into the duct work and are available with the actuator on the side (vertical plane) or the bottom (horizontal plane) to accommodate for restrictions such as duct work that is between floor joists.
  • 3-wire round dampers are also available and are mounted the same way as a 2-wire round damper.
  • This photo shows a 3-wire retro-damper. A retro-damper is installed in the existing round ductwork. The damper comes with a template that is applied to the ductwork. A slot is cut out of the duct work and the retro-damper blade is inserted into the slot. The damper actuator is mounted to the outside of the duct using sheet metal screws.
  • Since forced air zone control systems are designed to be used with constant volume equipment, a bypass damper may be required. The air moving through a constant volume HVAC system does not speed up or slow down thus the static pressure remains constant. As zone damper open and close, the system static pressure can change. A bypass damper maintains the system static pressure by allowing a proportional amount of supply air to be ducted back to the return air plenum.
  • There are two type of bypass damper. This is a photo of a round barometric bypass.
  • Barometric bypass dampers utilize a mechanical counterweight attached to a shaft connect to an offset damper blade. When all zone dampers are in the open position and with the air handler running, the damper blade is closed. As zone dampers open and close, the static pressure changes. The bypass damper modulates open on an increase in static pressure and modulates close on a decrease in static pressure. Excess air is ducted back to the return air plenum.
  • This is a photo of an electronic bypass damper with static pressure controller.
  • Electronic bypass dampers utilize a motorized 24 Volt AC 3 wire actuator and a static pressure control with an adjustable static pressure setting. When all zone dampers are in the open position and the air handler is running, the bypass damper is closed. As zone dampers close and the static pressure increases, the pressure control sends a signal to the actuator which modulates the bypass damper open to maintain the static pressure setting.
  • There are other peripherals used with zoning systems such as High and Low limit protections. Since many zone control systems use bypass dampers to bypass air back into the return duct, high and low limit protection is an important part of the system. Jackson Systems zoning panels have dedicated terminals that accept an electronic discharge air sensor. The discharge air sensor is used for both high and low limit protection.
  • This photo shows an electronic discharge air sensor which is an important peripheral used with a zone control system.
  • When the system is in the cooling mode, cold air that is bypassed back into the return begins to super cool the air passing through the evaporator coil. If the condition persists for any length of time, the coil will freeze. The discharge air sensor detects the drop in air temperature and at a fixed point, the zoning panel de-energizes the compressor while allowing the fan to run to prevent coil freezing. A time delay is also activated to prevent the compressor from short cycling as the air temperature rises above the low limit setting.
  • When in the heating mode, hot air that is bypassed back into the return begins to super heat the air passing across the ehat exchanger. If the condition persists for any length of time, the HVAV system will trip out on high safety limit.
  • All Jackson Systems zoning panels require a separate 24Volt AC transformer sized to the proper VA. The HVAC system transformer is never used to power the panel, thermostats and dampers.
  • Jackson Systems zone control panels use a separate, dedicated 24 volt AC transformer to power the panel, thermostats and zone dampers. A separate transformer also isolates the zone panel, thermostats and zone dampers from the equipment transformer. The equipment transformer should never be used to power the zone control system.
  • Let’s review a few sample questions to test your basic understanding on zone control systems. You will have ten seconds to chose your answer before the correct answer is displayed.
  • This concludes this training module on Zone Control basics.

Zone Control Basics Zone Control Basics Presentation Transcript

  • Learning Center Zone Control Types and Applications ZONE 1 THERMOSTAT ZONE 2 THERMOSTAT ZONE 1 DAMPER DISCHARGE AIR SENSOR ZONE CONTROL ZONE 2 LOGIC PANEL DAMPER TRANSORMER FURNACE Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control PRODUCT DEFINITION  The basic principle of operation for a zone control system is to allow a single HVAC unit to be controlled by multiple thermostats strategically placed in areas called zones. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control APPLICATION USE  A home or commercial building not zoned typically leaves someone uncomfortable. It is too much to expect one thermostat to provide comfortable conditions for every room.  Zoning divides a home or building into areas (these areas are called zones) with common heating and cooling requirements.  Each zone is controlled by its own thermostat, allowing people to be comfortable no matter where they are in the building. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control APPLICATION USE  A home without zoning. “I’m too hot!” “I’m too cold!” Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control APPLICATION USE  A home with zoning. “I’m comfortable.” “I’m comfortable.” Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control APPLICATION USE  A type of zoning system that most people are familiar with is lighting.  How many light switches are in a home?  There are multiple light switches that turn on individual lights in each room.  If lighting is zoned why shouldn’t HVAC equipment be zoned?  Why have one thermostat to control the temperature in an entire house?  Why not have a thermostat in every room, or zone, to provide individual temperature control? Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control APPLICATION USE  A Zone Control System can solve comfort problems:  Between different floors  In finished basements  In home additions  In added sun rooms  Between external and internal areas  In bonus rooms located over garages Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control APPLICATION USE  Zoning also allows unoccupied areas to be maintained at lower heating or higher cooling temperatures which reduces energy usage and utility costs.  With the use of programmable thermostats, individual zones can be scheduled to automatically change the heating and cooling setpoints based on an occupied and unoccupied program.  When a bedroom zone is not being occupied, a lower heating and higher cooling setpoint can be maintained. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control PRODUCT DESCRIPTION  The basic principle of operation for a zone control system is to allow a single HVAC unit to be controlled by multiple thermostats strategically located in areas called zones.  The logic panel wires to the HVAC equipment.  Each zone thermostat is wired to the zone control logic panel.  Zone dampers, used to control the amount of conditioned air into each zone, are also wired to the logic panel.  The thermostats along with the logic panel and zone dampers receive their power from a separate 24VAC transformer. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control PRODUCT DESCRIPTION  The operation of the dampers are controlled by the zone control logic panel which monitors the zone thermostats and places the HVAC unit in the proper mode of operation as well as controls the zone damper positions based on heating, cooling or ventilation demand. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE CONTROL PANELS  A zone control panel provides the basic logic required in using multiple zone thermostats and zone dampers with a single HVAC unit.  Selecting the right zone panel involves knowing the application specifics and provides the base for selection of the remaining system components. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE CONTROL PANELS  Requirements for selection of a zone control panel.  Number of individual zones  Type of equipment  Single-stage Heat/Cool  Multi-stage Heat/Cool  Heat pump  Dual fuel  Type and number of zone dampers  2 wire or 3 wire  Cooling tonnage  Important when sizing bypass dampers Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE CONTROL PANELS  2 Zone Panel Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE CONTROL PANELS  3 Zone Panel Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE CONTROL PANELS  6 Zone Panel Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE THERMOSTATS  Zone thermostats must be compatible with the equipment.  Heat pump thermostats for heat pumps and dual fuel systems.  Heat / cool thermostats for conventional HVAC systems.  Staging of equipment is usually thermostat controlled with the exception of the Z-600 panel which can stage equipment based on thermostat demand or by an internal upstage timer.  Zone thermostats can be either programmable or non- programmable. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Basic types of zone dampers actuators:  2-wire (Power Closed/Spring Open)  3-wire (Power Closed/Power Open)  When selecting zone dampers, the VA requirement of the actuator is important in properly sizing the transformer.  The transformer VA rating should be equal to or greater than the VA sum of all zone damper actuators.  VA = Volts x Amps Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Two position zone dampers are widely used for force air zone control applications.  Two position zone dampers are either open or fully closed.  The closed position can be mechanically adjusted to allow a percentage of air flow or leakage into a zone when the damper is in the closed position.  This is commonly called “minimum position”. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Rectangular 2 wire damper Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Rectangular dampers slide into the duct work and are available with the actuator on the side (vertical plane) or the bottom (horizontal plane) to accommodate for restriction such as duct work that is between floor joists. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Round 2 wire damper Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Round dampers are typically mounted to rigid metal round duct and the damper can be adjusted so that the actuator is in any position. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Rectangular 3 wire damper Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  3-wire rectangular dampers slide into the duct work and are available with the actuator on the side (vertical plane) or the bottom (horizontal plane) to accommodate for restriction such as duct work that is between floor joists. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  Round 3 wire damper Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control ZONE DAMPERS  3-wire Retrofit damper Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control BYPASS DAMPERS  Since forced air zone control systems are designed to be used with constant volume equipment, a bypass damper may be required.  The air moving through a constant volume HVAC system does not speed up or slow down thus the static pressure remains constant. As zone dampers open and close, the system static pressure can change.  A bypass damper maintains the proper system static pressure by allowing a proportional amount of supply air to be ducted back to the return air plenum. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control BYPASS DAMPERS  Barometric bypass damper Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control BYPASS DAMPERS  Barometric bypass dampers utilize a mechanical counterweight attached to a shaft connected to an offset damper blade.  When all zone dampers are in the open position and with the air handler running, the damper blade is closed.  As zone dampers open and close, the static pressure in the supply duct changes. The bypass damper modulates open on an increase in static pressure or modulates closed on a decrease in static pressure. Excess air is ducted back to the return air plenum. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control BYPASS DAMPERS  Electronic bypass dampers Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control BYPASS DAMPERS  Electronic bypass dampers utilize a motorized 24VAC, 3 wire actuator and a static pressure control with an adjustable static pressure setting.  When all zone dampers are in the open position and with the air handler running, the bypass damper is closed.  As zone dampers close and the static pressure increases, the pressure control sends a signal to the actuator which modulates the bypass damper open to maintain the static pressure setting. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SYSTEM PERIPHERALS  High and low limit protection  Since many zone control systems use bypass dampers to bypass air back into the return duct, high and low limit protection is an important part of the system.  Jackson Systems zoning panels have dedicated terminals that accept an electronic discharge air sensor.  The discharge air sensor (DAS) is used for both high and low limit protection. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SYSTEM PERIPHERALS  Electronic discharge air sensor (DAS) Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SYSTEM PERIPHERALS  When in the cooling mode, cold air that is bypassed back into the return begins to super cool the air passing through the evaporator coil. If the condition persists for any length of time, the coil will freeze.  The discharge air sensor detects the drop in air temperature across the coil and at a fixed point, the zoning panel de- energizes the compressor while allowing the fan to run to prevent the coil from freezing. A time delay is also activated to prevent the compressor from short cycling as the air temperature rises above the low limit setting. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SYSTEM PERIPHERALS  When in the heating mode, hot air that is bypassed back into the return begins to super heat the air passing across the heat exchanger.. If the condition persists for any length of time, the HVAC system will trip out on high safety limit.  The discharge air sensor detects a rise in air temperature across the heat exchanger and at a fixed point, the zoning panel de-energizes the gas valve while allowing the fan to run. This prevents the furnace from tripping on high safety limit. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SYSTEM PERIPHERALS  System transformer Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SYSTEM PERIPHERALS  System transformer  Jackson Systems zone control panels use a separate, dedicated 24 volt transformer to power the panel, thermostats, and zone dampers.  A dedicated transformer also isolates the zone panel, thermostats, and zone dampers from the equipment transformer.  The HVAC equipment transformer should never be used to power a zone control system. Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SAMPLE TEST  A Zone Control System consists of multiple . . .  A. HVAC Systems  B. Thermostats  C. High Voltage Wiring  D. None of the above  A Zone Control Panel is powered by . . .  A. The equipment transformer  B. A separate, dedicated transformer  C. An underwater transformer  D. An isolation relay Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control SAMPLE TEST  A Zone damper can be . . .  A. 2 wires  B. 3 wires  C. Rectangular  D. All of the above  Programmable zone thermostats can save energy through  A. Occupied and unoccupied scheduling of zones  B. Reduction of the HVAC system blower speed  C. Maintaining the system static pressure  D. None of the above Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • Learning Center Zone Control Types and Applications ZONE 1 THERMOSTAT ZONE 2 THERMOSTAT ZONE 1 DAMPER DISCHARGE AIR SENSOR ZONE CONTROL ZONE 2 LOGIC PANEL DAMPER TRANSORMER FURNACE Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011
  • 888.652.9663 www.jacksonsystems.com Intellectual rights apply© Jackson Systems, LLC 2011