Fungal CharacteristicsFungal Characteristics 1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium 4)Reproduce sexually and asexuallyAsexually by sporesSexually by mating of hyphae filaments
Cup Fungi – Ascomycete FungiNote the cup shapes andorange peel colour
Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla1. Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread MoldsRhizopus – black bread mold2. Oomycota = the Water MoldsWater mold, potato blight, mildew3. Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac FungiYeast, morels, truffles4. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club FungiMushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts,toadstools5. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
-are primarily decomposers-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia-sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forminga 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for along period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexualspores are haploidZygomycota (Rhizopus) theCommon Molds
Zygomycota – common moldsThe fungal mass ofhyphae, known as theMYCELIUMpenetrates the breadand produces thefruiting bodies on topof the stalksMycelia = a mass of hyphae orfilaments
Rhizoids = root-like hyphaeThe zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs betweenhyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
Truffles are round, warty, fungithat are irregular in shape. Theyvary from the size of a walnut tothat of a mans fist. Since the timesof the Greeks and Romans thesefungi have been used in Europe asdelicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and asmedicines. They are among themost expensive of the worldsnatural foods, often commanding asmuch as $250 to $450 per pound.Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffledogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature trufflesunderneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excitedwhen she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sexattractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
Bracket FungiPuff BallsMushroomsJelly FungiBasidiomycete Fungi that allproduce Basiospores
Other Basidiomycetes Rusts andSmutsRustinfectingwheat leaves Rust infectinga LeafWhitrot Smutdigesting old wood
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage hasbeen observed in their life cycle-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similarin structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry,polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
Deuteromycota – the FungiImperfecti• Resemble Ascomycetes,but their reproductivecycle has never beenobserved• Different fromAscomycetes becausethere is a definite lack ofsexual reproduction,which is why they arecalled Imperfect FungiPenicillium fungiUp Close
Water Molds -- OomycotaThe water molds are better known as theMILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.Protist-like mold because share commoncharacteristics with plant-like protists, suchas the cell wall
Things to Know about OomyceteFungi1. Water molds or mildews2. Cause diseases such as potato blight3. Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant)4. Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Becausethe cell walls do not fully close off.5. Spore swims away like a flagellate, whichis why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
Irish Potato Famine of 19thCenturyDevastated potato crops, causingdevastating starvation in Ireland
Basidiomycota MushroomsPuffballs,rusts,smutsCrosswalls inhyphaeAsexual by wayof Conidophoreswhich produceconidiosporesSexual whenhyphae fusein BASIDIAto producebasidiosporesFungiImperfectiDeuteromycotaPenicillium,Athlete’sFootfungus,TomatoBlightSimilarToBasidioandZygomyAsexual byconidia whichproduceconidophoresSexual reproNot known
Cross Walls of HyphaecoenocytichCoenocytic hyphae where thenucleis of each cell isembedded in the cytoplasmwithout a cell wallEg. Zygomycota, OomycotaHyphae with cross wallsEg. Basidiomycota,Ascomycota
Lichens are mutualistic symbioticorganisms. They have an____________ fungus and a_________ or cyanobacterialportion. There are three lichengrowth forms which are predominantin nature: __________________________________________________LichensLichens
MycorrhizaeMycorrhizae means “fungus-root”;mutualistic relationship betweenplant and fungiThe plant photosynthesizes whilethe fungus more efficiently takesup nutrients and water from therhizosphere than the roots wouldalone.Plant benefits include:•Improved nutrient/wateruptake•Improved root growth•Improved plant growth andyield•Improved disease resistance•Reduced transplant shock•Reduced drought stress
Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens,containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present toanchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layerand the fungal layer present in the above illustration.
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