MUTOPIA Research Paper

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MUTOPIA Research Paper

  1. 1. GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF NYU Mutopia: The Next Generation of Lunar Settlement Katrina Corley Georgia Institute of Technology Philip Barr The Pennsylvania State University Dennis Liaw Polytechnic Institute of NYU Dr. Jeannette Yen Faculty Advisor - Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Jack Matson Faculty Advisor – The Pennsylvania State University Dr. Richard Wener Faculty Advisor – Polytechnic Institute of NYU
  2. 2. OUTLINE problems that they face. Designing a settlement on the moon requires drawing from a very I. INTRODUCTION diverse skill set, as many problems require Mutopia complex, multidisciplinary solutions. To that end, this study of a permanent moon settlement II. LUNAR SETTLEMENT looks not just at conventional engineering Gravity solutions, but also at progressive engineering Moontrifuge Support System design theories. The human-building interface Sustainable Energy also is a key element in a successful settlement Acquisition of Materials and Construction and significant attention was spent to engineer the social environment in a productive, III. LIFE-FRIENDLY SETTING sustainable manner. Because our goal was to Location create a perfect settlement, we have given it the Environmental Systems name: MUTOPIA. Psychological Considerations Environmental Stress II. LUNAR SETTLEMENT Psychological Countermeasures Biologically Inspired Design Gravity 1. Launch 2. Self-healing Materials The adverse effects of weightlessness on 3. Compound Eye Motion Sensor the human body have proven to be a major 4. Compound Eye Light Guide limiting factor in space exploration. This issue 5. Fire Detection becomes an even more important challenge when designing a permanent lunar settlement. IV. COMMUNITY SETTING Though the moon has a gravitational Social Layout acceleration equal to 17% of Earth’s, this Privacy microgravity does not provide enough force to Interior Layout and Fractal Design sustain life forms that have evolved under Protective Systems Earth’s gravity. As a result, creating artificial Multiple Moontrifuges gravity is the most significant issue for a Entrepreneurship on the Moon permanent settlement on the moon. Feasibility The effects of living under microgravity Outreach for an extended period of time are not fully known. Current studies on the effects of V. SUMMARY weightlessness and microgravity on the human References body show that bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, and reduction of heart size and plasma VI. APPENDIX volume are among the most detrimental effects Figures of a lack of gravity1. Gravity is also greatly Acknowledgements beneficial for the growth of plants, common _____________________________________ human functions, and engineered systems. Astronauts in weakened physical condition with I. INTRODUCTION compromised immune systems will not be able to serve their purpose. Mutopia Various different countermeasures for these effects have been explored. These Living on the Moon presents a variety of countermeasures include exercise, challenges that will push its inhabitants to pharmaceuticals, and small radius centrifuges13. create new and innovative solutions to the These different techniques each solve parts of 1
  3. 3. the problem effectively, but only a large radius Sustainable Energy centrifuge can fully solve the problem by providing inhabitants with the amount of Having a sufficient, reliable supply of gravity experience on Earth. electricity is essential for the success of An important consideration when Mutopia. To this end, several energy sources designing a life-sustaining centrifuge is the have been identified. Solar energy promises to Coriolis force which results from linear be a reliable technology that will be capable of movement within a rotating reference frame1. providing a large quantity of energy. One option The conflicting force is directly proportional to for this will be to place large quantities of solar the angular velocity of the spinning object and panels or a thin film of photovoltaics on the can cause motion sickness when too great. surface of the moon. Another option would be Studies show that a speed of 10 rpm causes to have an orbiting satellite collect solar energy Coriolis sickness in most humans; while at a and beam it to the moon’s surface using either a speed of 4 rpm some will have motion sickness microwave or laser transmitter. There are but will adapt after a few days24. Based on these several other technologies that could be utilized data the centrifuges will be designed to rotate if the technologies mature to a sufficient level. continuously at 4 rpm to provide a suitable The first is nuclear fusion. If nuclear fusion is living environment. successfully developed for energy production, it The heart of the settlement is found in would be an excellent source. Furthermore, these centrifuges, called Moontrifuges. These there is a relative abundance of He3 on the are large (100m diameter) rotating centrifuges, moon, which is projected to be a main fuel where the majority of activity takes place. They source for fusion technologies. In addition it combine living, working, and utility spaces into also may be possible to collect energy from the one structure. This design will provide a solar winds that bombard the moon’s surface. solution to the most pressing issue of permanent While it is not currently possible to do this the lunar settlement and allow scientists to more energy density from the solar winds is sufficient fully grasp what gravity is and how it affects the that it could become a potential source. human body. Figures 1 and 2 in the appendix display varying views of this design. Acquisition of Materials and Construction Moontrifuge Support System One of the central questions that must be faced when doing any type of construction is Given the size and importance of each the source of building materials. By studying Moontrifuge, it is essential that they are allowed the composition of the moon, it is clear that a to continuously rotate without failure. Several majority of the construction materials can be concepts were looked at (bearings, rotating acquired locally. Local acquisition of materials plates like those found in rotating restaurants, is especially advantageous when building a and magnetic levitation) and magnetic levitation structure in outer space, and significantly was chosen as the best option. Using the same reduces costs. technology found in stabilized passive magnetic The regolith on the moon is an abundant suspension maglev systems, it would be source of metals and oxygen that can be easily possible to rotate the Moontrifuge around in a strip mined. This regolith consists mostly of the safe, reliable, and energy efficient manner. This compounds FeTiO3 (Ilmenite), Al2Si2O8 system also would have an added advantage of (Plagioclase) and SiO4 (Olivine). From these being more resilient in the event of seismic compounds it will be possible to extract the activity. Due to the need for added redundancy, majority of the elements needed for the Moontrifuge would have a series of rollers construction of the Moontrifuges that are the on the bottom of it which would be able to central design feature of Mutopia. Extracting “land” it if it became necessary to stop. these elements would require transporting and 2
  4. 4. assembling a blast furnace on the moon, but Environmental Systems would allow for the creation of an almost unlimited quantity of high quality steel, Adequate and reliable life support titanium, and aluminum. These elements will systems will be crucial in sustaining all life form the primary structural components of the forms on Mutopia including humans, research Moontrifuges. In addition, research indicates animals, pets, plants and insects, and microbial that a sufficient quantity of nitrogen and life forms. This discussion will focus on the phosphorus can be extracted from the regolith four foundation systems: water, wastewater, to support life in the settlement. Oxygen also atmosphere and food. The overall themes of the can be recovered from the metal purifying life support systems will be mixing technology process. Mining, as well as the majority of with biology and a “zero waste” mentality. All excavating and construction will be done by products and materials used will need to have robots. Utilizing these robots removes the need sustainable, multiple uses or be constructed of for a large construction crew and the facilities recyclable or biodegradable materials. Current that also would be necessary to support them. general practices on the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Flights is to treat, III. LIFE-FRIENDLY SETTING recycle, and reuse water products and bring the solid waste-products back to Earth for ultimate When designing for environments that processing. This type of practice will not be are very different from the familiar one of the sustainable in Mutopia. Also, the ISS and other Earth there are many different factors that must ventures largely use physical/chemical be taken into consideration. Some of these processes for treatment methods12. While this factors are location, environmental systems, works for small duration visits, it is not deemed psychological considerations, environmental sustainable for a permanent settlement. For stress psychological countermeasures, and these reasons, the life support systems must be biologically inspired design. looked at as “total” life support systems that combine technology and biology to treat, Location recycle, and reuse the life system elements. The initial water supply and any needed The settlement site will be situated in the make-up water will be obtained from the southern polar region of the moon. Choosing planetary ice sources, which contain an this area offers numerous advantages over other estimated mass of 6.6 billion tons of water21. sites. The primary advantage of this location is While planetary water appears to be fairly the craters in the southern region that have been accessible, water conservation will be a identified as the most likely locations for water requirement due to the anticipated difficulty of on the moon. Access to local water is a central extracting and transporting the ice water. The need for life in Mutopia29. A second advantage conceived method for water capture would be to of this area is that it tends to have a higher melt the ice in place and pump the liquid into amount of sunlight than other areas of the inflatable membrane tanks aboard a lunar moon. This is very beneficial when using solar transportation vehicle before transporting the power generation. While a specific site at the product to Mutopia’s water treatment system. southern polar region of the moon was not Evolving from the closed water cycle systems chosen for the settlement, several criteria were currently used in space operations such as the identified. These criteria include a) a flat ISS11, the lunar water will be an entirely location for the site with b) a deep subsurface encompassing life system which finds layer of regolith and situated in c) a seismically inspiration in the Earth’s water cycle. To stable zone. compensate for the lack of substantial atmosphere and difficulty in acquiring the product, a closed loop system (the Water Orbit) 3
  5. 5. is required to play the role of keeping all three principle gases to be concerned about are valuable water within the system from being carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen. Once lost. On board the ISS, the occupants take again, it is desirable to allow living biology sponge baths, utilizing only 4 litres (1 gallon) of (plants) to help with atmospheric control by water2. While this is attractive from a water consuming CO2 and providing oxygen. quantity standpoint, the Mutopia occupants will Relative to CO2; it is doubtful that the system be afforded slightly more water for bath/shower will contain enough green plant life to create a purposes, say 40 litres (10 gallons) as the CO2 balance, but the greenery will contribute. psychological aspects of showering are critical A large benefit of the plant life will be for long term occupancy. All water phases, providing color and a sense of health in the including humidity, within the settlement will environment. Mechanical CO2 scrubber be captured, taken through the water treatment technology will be employed to handle any process and reused. To maximize internal living excessive CO2 within the system, which will be space and minimize infrastructure and system a concern11. The large air handling devices will components, community water and wash areas be connected to indoor sensor systems that will will be utilized for each living space. operate automatically based upon need. In Due to the closed loop system, the water addition, individual people will be outfitted and wastewater systems will be closely linked, with personal equipment, such as wristband more so than the natural water system on the watch technology, that will double as a CO2 Earth. Near direct water reuse from wastewater scrubber. Oxygen is plentiful within the will occur to keep the Water Orbit closed. regolith and can be extracted to supplement the Current practices on the ISS use all Mutopia air if and when needed. Mutopia’s physical/chemical means of waste water “oxygen gardens” will provide some natural treatment, using the reliability and ease of replenishment. The “oxygen gardens” will be repair of the equipment to their advantage. outfitted with the latest varieties of highly While this would still properly treat waste efficient oxygen producing plant species. water, it doesn’t incorporate the thought of Nitrogen, which comprises approximately 80% microbial and plant life forms contributing to of the Earth’s atmosphere, will be more difficult the treatment. This system will take advantage to create initially. Once created within the of these as one of the primary means of interior atmosphere however, nitrogen treatment regenerators will be employed to renew and The biological steps will occur in the monitor the nitrogen levels. Nitrogen is found early stages of treatment to allow the nutrients within the lunar regolith that has been deposited (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) available by the solar winds. in the waste streams to be taken up by the plant and life forms. Solid wastes, such as fecal Psychological Considerations matter, food and organic wastes, and biodegradable matter also will be processed Although the ability of humans to within the wastewater system on Mutopia. Just survive in the extreme environment of space has as the treated water will be reused within the been repeatedly demonstrated by numerous system, the solid organic wastes will be reused space station programs, the living conditions are as a planting medium. Note that the latest a far cry from life on Earth. These conditions developments in technology such as reverse carry many psychological implications, osmosis membranes2 coupled with biological especially when proposing permanent features such as anaerobic digestion and habitation. During long term isolation, it is phytoremediation water gardens26 also will be difficult to walk away from interpersonal used. conflicts, making them more consequential, and The settlements’ atmospheric conditions the blurring line between work and leisure are crucial to sustaining all life forms. The spaces causes the value of personal privacy to 4
  6. 6. skyrocket. In a confined environment, the Psychological Countermeasures conventional circadian rhythm of day and night that humans are used to on Earth are replaced While most psychopathologies are by constant artificial lighting, which not only selected out when astronauts are being chosen disrupts sleep cycles, but diminishes overall for their missions, this technique may not hold sense of time. Some effects of these conditions on the Mutopia. While the first generation may observed by research were increases in not have a record of psychiatric disease the insomnia, depression, and hostility17. In order to speculation that nothing will develop in later promote a sustainable community in space, generations cannot be made. Psychological salutogenic measures must be taken to mitigate countermeasures are therefore essential for these negative effects. maintaining the Mutopia’s sustainability. This can be implemented by using biometric sensors Environmental Stress to transmit physiological data either to on colony psychologists, or Earth based advisors. Space habitats are not just secluded in The methods however present certain issues of the sense that the inhabitants are locked inside. practicality. For example, circadian rhythm is This isolation is due to the intense external monitored my temperature readings from rectal conditions that are completely unsupportive to thermostors17. At the minimum, on colony human life. Should something go wrong, rescue psychiatric advisement is something that should operations are near impossible, and on an be implemented. autonomous facility like the Mutopia this means that safety is paramount. In isolation, people Biologically Inspired Design can adapt to predictable stressors over time, but they are unable to adapt to unpredictable Biologically-inspired design (BID) is an stressors. Any responses to these unpredictable evolving field that brings designers from stressors are not cumulative, and are dependent numerous fields together to create innovative on the levels of the stressor at that particular solutions to problems in human design and time7. On the ISS and submarines it has been engineering14,15. The natural world provides an noted that the continuous noise of on board excellent example of adaptations that have systems can become irritating over time, occurred due to specific problems or challenges. however should those noises stop, it would These adaptations tend to approach solutions to cause immediate stress because a crucial life problems from a different viewpoint than those support system has failed. These stressors can humans tend to favor, thus expanding the design be mitigated by enforcing policies of part space. Because of these differing approaches redundancy for ease of maintenance, consistent BID provides the opportunity to form more part logging during that maintenance, and innovative designs. Here are several examples conducting emergency drills for the various of how BID can be utilized in the Moontrifuge. types of system failures that could occur6. Though it is stressful in itself being aware of 1. Launch every possible failure mode of one’s habitat, being prepared for all of these possibilities Nature designs its folding mechanisms makes these stressors less persistent and so that they can be easily deployed, but also promotes the self sufficiency and emergency easily retracted10. Some examples of this are a awareness required to operate a permanent and beetle’s wings or leaves packed into buds. The sustainable colony. hornbeam leaf is on example of an excellent folding mechanism. The leaf folds tightly into the bud and then is able to expand both its length and width when unfolding like many of our engineered folding designs (umbrellas, 5
  7. 7. etc.). This feature is very useful for designing needing a detection system to indicate that they folding mechanisms for solar cells. By creating are damaged. an ordered pattern of folds it is possible to Maintaining structural integrity on the create a structure that can be both opened and moon is also important. Moonquakes and closed with a single pull. This folding pattern, meteorites present a threat of damage to Miura-ori, can be applied not only to solar structures and could be difficult to repair if arrays, but to other folded items such as maps. normal materials such as solid sheeting are Folding and deployment mechanisms for used. Polymer composites inspired by platelet solar arrays and other equipment in space are aggregation also have been developed. These very important. For solar arrays it is important polymers are able to autonomously heal to maximize surface area in order to capture the themselves when damaged28. Figure 3 in the optimal amount of energy from the sun. appendix shows how these polymer composites However, since these arrays must be launched it work. The polymer consists of is also very important for them to pack down as microencapsulated healing agents and a tightly as possible into their launch module catalytic chemical triggers that are embedded similarly to leaves. Miura-ori was applied to within an epoxy matrix. A crack ruptures the solar arrays on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit microcapsules releasing the healing agent which that was launched in 1995. The arrays are polymerizes when it comes into contact with the folded with the same shape and angles as a catalyst and bonds the crack faces together. The piece of paper would be folded, but in space benefits of using these self healing structures there is no one to pull them open. As a result of over traditional materials that must be repaired this these arrays require joints and tension struts by hand are that they heal on their own without in order to be able to manipulate them. any detection and they allow multiple healing Additionally because of the Miura-ori folding events to occur. pattern, these solar arrays are able to expand in Water conservation on the moon is very two dimensions like leaves which allows important as any water that is lost must be maximum surface area from a tightly packed replaced by delivery from Earth. One way in array. By maximizing surface area more which water is lost here on Earth is through energy can be collected from an array which water main breaks which are very difficult to takes the same amount of space to launch. repair. Challenges such as the fact that repair materials may not be readily available if a break 2. Self-healing Materials should occur will be faced when living on the moon. An additional challenge for designing Having materials that can repair water pipes on the moon is moonquakes. These themselves when damaged is an important moonquakes can cause cracks to form in the consideration when designing for the moon. water pipes which could result in water leaks. Due to moonquakes and the possibility of being One solution to this challenge is to use self- struck by small meteorites it is important to healing pipes. Self-healing pipes are inspired consider this in both the paneling for structures by platelet repair which uses the above on the moon as well as the infrastructure such mentioned three component system to repair as piping systems. Solutions inspired by blood vessels8. In order to simulate this platelet aggregation which uses a wound mechanism a repair agent, a barrier and an closing agent (platelets), a barrier (healthy activating agent are needed. In addition vessel walls), and agent activators (collagen) inflammation was a biological inspiration for can be applied to create self-healing composites the resin so that it would expand quickly in as well as structures such as self-healing pipes. order to seal off the crack. Concentric circles The benefit of having these self-healing are stacked to prevent crack propagation and the structures on the moon is that they can repair resin is stored in a porous storage chamber themselves immediately if damaged instead of inspired by the structure of bone. The resin then 6
  8. 8. is stored between two catalyst embedded layers. the image has changed thereby detecting This design can be seen in Figure 4 in the motion. Compound eyes are known to be very appendix. The pipes are made of PVC sensitive to motion. In addition by combining (polyvinyl chloride). Two different this system with an electrodynamic dust shield polyurethanes are used as the resin, 4,4’- it would be possible to keep the majority of Diphenylmethane-diisocyanate and lunar dust off of the lenses4. The electodynamic polymethylenepolyphenylene ester, and the dust shield is a thin, transparent, flexible sheet. catalyst is Tetramethylguanidine. The first resin The electromagnetic field of each electrode on was chosen because of its water resistance and the electrodynamic dust shield is out of phase strength when cured. The second resin was with its neighbors which creates an chosen because it produces carbon dioxide as it electromagnetic wave that is able to push the cures which turns it into a foam that will charged lunar dust particles off the surface. pressurize the resin chamber and force excess Due to the extremely harsh nature of the lunar resin to the wound site. When compared with soil it is also important to be able to easily regular PVC piping these pipes have a life replace scratched surfaces. With the compound expectancy that it three times longer. Because eye design only the damaged facets have to be these pipes offer the strength of regular PVC, replaced as opposed to the whole camera that but are able to heal themselves upon damage would have to be replaced in a typical system. they provide a perfect solution for minimizing Another benefit of this system is that unlike the amount of water lost through pipes that are typical motion sensing systems it has an almost damaged through moonquakes or other events. 360 degree field of vision. 3. Compound Eye Motion Sensor 4. Compound Eye Light Guide Keeping track of people and equipment Having natural light in a building was such as rovers on the moon is very important. determined to be important for the health and In order to do this we propose using a motion well being of its occupants. In order to guide sensor that is modeled after the compound eye. light into out structures on the moon we Compound eyes have many different facets and propose using a light guide based on the allow a much wider range of vision than those superposition compound eye seen in Figure 6 of of mammals. The apposition compound eye has the appendix. Unlike the apposition compound facets that are optically isolated from one eye the superposition compound eye’s images another so that they each provide part of the are projected in an overlapping fashion onto a total picture19. Figure 5 in the appendix shows common retina19. The light guide will use a picture of the compound eye and its structures lenses to collect the light and send them through on the left, and the apposition compound eye on tapered tubes that reflect the light so that it can the right. The advantages of this type of eye are be focused down into a single fiber optic cable that images are processed in parallel which and transported into the Moontrifuge. By using allows for fast motion detection and image a shape modeled after the compound eye it will recognition, but as a result has diminished be possible to collect light on a three brightness. For our motion sensor we propose dimensional surface rather than from a given using the configuration of the apposition light source (halogen lights, etc.) like those compound eye. Advances in technology have typically used on Earth. In addition this method made cameras as small as 15 x 15 x 20 mm takes advantage of the abundance of sunlight possible30. For this system each facet will be available on the moon instead of using an replaced with a camera. The video feeds will be alternate light source. In addition by combined by software into a single video feed. combining this system with an electrodynamic This single video feed then will be analyzed by dust shield it would be possible to keep the another piece of software to determine whether majority of lunar dust off of the lenses4. The 7
  9. 9. electodynamic dust shield is a thin, transparent, cost only a few dollars. This cost reduction flexible sheet. The electromagnetic field of would allow the implementation of these each electrode on the electrodynamic dust sensors over large areas which could help detect shield is out of phase with its neighbors which fires much more quickly and could help creates and electromagnetic wave that is able to minimize damage if a fire were to break out on push the charged lunar dust particles off the the moon. surface. Due to the extremely harsh nature of the lunar soil it is also important to be able to IV. COMMUNITY SETTING easily replace scratched surfaces. With this design it is also possible to replace a single lens Because a lunar settlement must be as opposed to the whole light. multinational it is important to consider the community aspects of life for the settlement’s 5. Fire Detection inhabitants. Some of the aspects of a community setting that must be considered are Early detection of problems such as fire the social layout, privacy, the interior layout, is very important for living on the moon. If a protective systems, multiple Moontrifuges, and fire were to occur and get out of hand it could entrepreneurship on the moon. destroy essential structures on the moon causing an emergency situation. Jewel beetles are able Social Layout to detect fires up to 80 km away5. In order to do this they have groupings of deformable The seminal event in the politics of spheres located at the joint between the thorax space was the creation of the Principles and the second pair of legs. The compounds Governing the Activities of States in the contained in the spheres have numerous Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including chemical bonds which vibrate only when the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies23—which, infrared radiation at a wavelength of 3 to date, has been ratified by 99 different nations. micrometres excites them. This particular Article II of this treaty explicitly states that wavelength of radiation is able to escape celestial bodies are not subject to appropriation absorption and travel large distances from a fire. by any nation, and the treaty further states that The vibration forces the spheres to expand no military installation of any kind is permitted which in turn triggers nerves alerting the beetle in outer space. The treaty—which is supervised of the fire. A sensor based off of the beetle’s by the United Nations Office for Outer Space detection of the three micrometer wavelength Affairs—was written to encourage collaboration uses a sheet of polyethylene instead of spheres. and cooperation between space faring parties, Like the spheres, the polyethylene expands at and the lunar habitat would be expected under three micrometres and presses against a the articles of the treaty to be made available to piezoelectric crystal next to it. This induces a all nations. current in a pair of wires attached to the crystal, Because of the policies set forth by the allowing the fire to be detected. Current models space treaty, the lunar habitat—like the are only able to detect at a range of two meters, International Space Station—will not be but it is predicted that this can be increased to associated with a single nation or private ten km. Commercial sensors that detect enterprise. The extraterritorial nature of the infrared radiation at long distances are typically lunar station introduces some interesting and too expensive for most fire departments due to unusual conditions which are unlike those in their supercooled semiconductors which need a most terrestrial cities. In particular, the station constant supply of liquid nitrogen that can cost will need to meet the needs of a number of sub- tens of thousands of dollars5. Using the jewel populations representing different nations, beetle inspired sensor would be much less without creating a divide between the different expensive than the current design and could cultures. However, there has also never been a 8
  10. 10. space habitat of the scope and breadth of the share ideas. proposed lunar station, so a great deal of the According to the experience of the design for the station must be based on cogent UNU, shared sensibilities and ideologies of reasoning and speculation—mixed with members of a given profession can serve as a empirical evidence from the few analogous stimulant to bring people from different cultures terrestrial organizations. An interesting case together. Relying on professional camaraderie study for such a multicultural working could be a useful cornerstone onto which a environment is the United Nations University23, multinational society could be built, but this a multicultural think-tank headquartered in approach is not sufficient by itself. Kanas, et al. Tokyo, Japan. Like the UN headquarters in New observed that regular psychological monitoring York City, the UNU houses students and faculty and counseling is a critical counter-measure to from all over the world, with a particular space faring crews18. Moreover, the professional emphasis on scholars from developing nations. camaraderie utilized by the UNU is not The UNU model encourages professionals from guaranteed to aid in the counselor/counseled similar disciplines to collaborate, regardless of relationship. Kanas note that this is one their ethnic or cultural background25. The relationship that depends on shared cultural University relies on shared interests spanning viewpoints. As such, cultural difference must be across similar specialties, and the University accounted for in the context of psychological leaders have argued that education is a crucial countermeasures and counseling. component in encouraging a culture-spanning Cultural centers therefore could be dialogue. In the context of the lunar habitat, established on the lunar-habitat that would these ideas suggest that the inhabitants could be focus on preserving the unique characteristics housed according to vocation, rather than of every sub-population and providing services separating the crew by nationality as seen on that are unique to the people in question. the ISS. The potential drawback of such a Additionally, even though suite-mates would be housing solution would be an insulating effect assigned by vocation, rather than culture, the on the various professions—leading engineers individual residences should be adapted to meet only to speak with other engineers and artists the specific needs of the inhabitant. The only to speak with artists. There are multiple configurable environment technology solutions to this problem. previously suggested could be useful in There has been a great deal of research customizing a generic studio residence into a into the notion of using a gradient of privacy in specific Asian or European style to suite the a habitat, and a similar gradient could be used resident. This would also give suite-mates the to allow professionals with a diverse array of opportunity to learn about the styles and backgrounds to interact with one another. For traditions shared by their multicultural example, our team has proposed a layered counterparts. The goal of the station would environment that would lead an inhabitant from ultimately be to overcome the cultural divisions a private living area, to a semiprivate suite, to a of people found on Earth, but this goal cannot public working area. As the individual moves be accomplished by ignoring the uniqueness of into more public areas, he or she also might the cultures themselves. begin to see a wider array of different In order for the culture-specific professionals. Engineers of different ethnic counseling to be useful, there must be sufficient backgrounds might share a suite, as proposed monitoring of the population to watch for signs by the UNU, but their working space could be of psychological duress. This issue relates to the contiguous with artist's studios or scientist’s more fundamental question of the rights of laboratories. Moreover, communal spaces privacy of the crew. Because of the unique should be situated strategically near the conditions of the lunar habitat, it is critical that working space that would encourage these every crew member be able to function different types of specialists to interact and psychologically and psychically without 9
  11. 11. endangering his or her crew-mates. natural settings and views, which may be able Subsequently, the colony's need to function to be represented by fractal patterns31. Fractals cohesively may, to some extent, circumvent the are by definition a recursive similar structure, individual's right to privacy. Day to day that when one part is magnified, resembles the monitoring should be made as autonomous as entire shape or form. The studies have shown possible, with data mining systems watching for evidence of psychological and physiological specific warning signs in crew behavior based health benefits of direct views onto natural on that crew member's personal history as well environment as opposed to manmade structures. as the corpus of research in extreme These effects included faster recovery from environment psychology. In addition to surgery with reduced complications, and automated monitoring, frequent psychological increased resistance to stress. This preference evaluations should be conducted by the cultural for natural patterns is believed to be a centers to guarantee the continued happiness genetically pre-programmed set of emotional and well-being of the constituent citizens. These responses and perceptual structuring developed measures can lead to a cohesive, successful over the course of early human evolution on the living environment. African Savanna. This aesthetic reliance on observing natural patterns was most likely a Privacy basic animal need to quickly identify surrounding environments. As a result, the The constant exposure to the complex suggestion is often made to base designs off of technical and social systems due to confinement nature in selecting materials, structure, and increases the need for privacy. Privacy is not forms. Structural ‘rhyming’, or mimicry of only the seclusion from external stimuli, but the natural patterns such as rolling hills, clouds, or ability to control the levels of interaction with forest treetops, generates a visually engaging people and environment. This control can be experience which is often appreciated by all implemented by allowing Mutopia inhabitants who observe it. In practice fractal patterns have to configure their own personal living quarters. exhibited the unique ability to assist in recovery While everyone is assigned their own space, from stress in confined areas. Fractal design is how an individual sets up that room is subject to not purely aesthetic however, and subtle design their personal preferences, and it is this personal implementations such as surface textures, set up that can identify one’s own personal patterns, lighting distribution, nested spatial private space. conditions, or even temperature variation have proven to be just as stimulating and beneficial Interior Layout and Fractal Design to psychological health. On Mutopia this would increase the focus on biologically inspired The interior of the Moontrifuge is designs for public places, and work spaces to formed from concentric layers. These layers reduce an inhabitant’s tendency to detach from will contain all of the required living and work an unstimulating setting. spaces. Living spaces will be located on the outer levels, while work and utility spaces will Protective Systems be closer to the center. Each floor will be tilted at an angle that will allow the resultant gravity There is a very serious need for acceleration to be perpendicular to the floor. protective systems in the Moontrifuge. As befits As sensory deprivation from one’s its unique location, it faces several unique surrounding environment causes the stressors dangers. The biggest danger that was identified related to isolation, it became important to look came from the threat of meteoroids impacting at what designs and aesthetics were required to the structure. The second biggest danger that stimulate the human eye. Several studies have was identified came from radiation, as this can suggested a biological preference for aspects of pose a significant health risk. 10
  12. 12. A protective dome was identified as a redundancy by allowing the residents to simple solution that would significantly reduce evacuate to other Moontrifuges in the event of a the risks associated with the first two dangers. serious issue on their Moontrifuge. Multiple This dome would be built over the Moontrifuge, Moontrifuges also enables growth and opens utilizing regolith as the ballistic and radiation the way for entrepreneurship. absorbing material. It would be layered on top of a metal support structure. Although this Entrepreneurship on the Moon would increase the cost and duration of construction, it would significantly increase the Building a permanent settlement on the probability of survival in the event of a small moon would give entrepreneurial opportunities meteoroid impact. In addition, thick layers of for NASA, the government, and private regolith are capable of reducing the amount of companies. With the help of the government radiation passing through to acceptable levels. and private companies, funding for Mutopia is Having a single level of protection feasible and eventually could have a substantial against meteoroid impacts is not sufficient, net profit to continue with space exploration. given the danger they pose. A second layer of A big entrepreneurial opportunity for protection utilizing a self-sealing material private companies on Mutopia is Mutopian real would be required. Current self sealing estate and tourism. With the expansion of more materials are generally found in fuel tanks, and Moontrifuges, this will allow NASA to lease react with the leaking gas to seal holes. This out certain spaces on the Moontrifuges and method would have to be adapted, most likely permit the highest bidding private companies to by having a liquid or cell divided up into cells, commercialize on Mutopia. and sandwiched between two strong outer Mutopian tourism will likely grow from layers. space tourism. The Russian Space Agency has The overall effect would be similar to already started space tourism and being the only how ceramic plates in body armor work, provider of space tourism, a few wealthy wherein the outer layer dissipates the energy of individuals have paid $20 - $28 million to board the projectile while breaking it up, and the inner the spacecraft and take a trip to outer space. layer catches it. This system would be effective Many private companies are already planning against small objects, while also providing on beginning their own space tourism sufficient protecting against radiation. companies, and it has become such a popular attraction that over two hundred people have Multiple Moontrifuges put down their down payments for these trips11. Having sustainable life on the moon will permit It is advantageous to build several space tourism to advance to the next step and Moontrifuges to provide sufficient space for the allow people on Earth to take a vacation. settlement rather than building one huge Moontrifuge. These Moontrifuges would be Feasibility fairly close together and connected by an enclosed surface or subsurface tunnel-like Mutopia offers the benefit of being built building, allowing for easy transportation one Moontrifuge at a time which allows the between Moontrifuges. costs of building to either be increased or Having multiple Moontrifuges offers decreased as funding is received. In addition advantages during construction as each can be a this building method also will allow phase of the overall settlement allowing modifications to be made for any problems that builders to learn from earlier construction and occur so that future designs will be better refine their techniques as well as make small equipped to endure situations that cannot changes to the design. In addition, having currently be predicted. The modularity of multiple Moontrifuges creates additional Mutopia provides this flexibility in face of 11
  13. 13. today’s unstable economy. The technologies biologically inspired design were presented to a proposed for Mutopia have advanced to the class of the Biomimicry Guild. A more in depth point that it can be assumed they will be discussion of our project occurred after the available for use when building a lunar presentation with Bruce Walker, Karen Allen, settlement. This research allowed the Juan Rovalo, Michelle Namer, and Rodger identification of challenges encountered when Olivares explaining the competition more in building structures and living on the moon as depth and discussing the applications of BID to well the creation of new, innovative solutions to the RASC-AL competition. these challenges that will allow future lunar inhabitants to enjoy a safer, more enriching existence on the moon. By incorporating these V. SUMMARY safety and redundancy measures into Mutopia, it is feasible to consider lunar entrepreneurship The lunar environment provides a and tourism. unique opportunity for designers and astronauts to create innovative solutions that allow Outreach maximum use of lunar resources to create a multinational lunar base. The design of To inform the Earth-bound public of Mutopia is an example of how creativity has Mutopia, we can start with efforts similar to the been enhanced by our multi university team of outreach efforts we did to inform our local engineers, bio inspired designers and social community of the RASC-AL program. An scientists. A central feature necessary to this overview of RASC-AL, an introduction to lunar base is gravity. Gravity, generated in the biologically inspired design, some of the mag-lev supported Moontrifuge, provides a challenges faced when designing for a lunar physiologically-friendly environment needed inhabitation, and the biologically inspired for healthy human life. These Moontrifuges design concepts that we are including in our will be built using lunar materials and will Mutopia design were presented to three science operate using sustainable methods. Energy and classes at Lamar County Comprehensive High materials are derived locally or transported School on April 13, 2009. Before the compactly from Earth. The Moontrifuges will presentation the students took a short quiz to be outfitted with well designed environmental determine if they knew what biologically systems to maintain the essential needs for inspired design was and if they knew whether continued life on the moon. In addition by NASA is planning on building a lunar using biologically-inspired design it is possible settlement. After the presentation they were to create new solutions that are better suited to asked the same two questions in addition to the challenges of the lunar environment. Bio being asked to identify two of the biological inspired designs for sensing danger and inspirations for our lunar settlement. Before the repairing walls and pipes through self healing presentation 13.5% of the students knew what and the redundancy of multiple Moontrifuges biologically inspired design was and 81% knew shielded under a dome gives the layers of that NASA is planning a lunar settlement. After protection needed for safety. The fractal layout the presentation each of the students were able of the multiple units forms an integrated to define biologically inspired design, knew that system. Outreach efforts inform entrepreneurial NASA is planning a lunar settlement, and were Earthlings of the variety of possibilities for an also able to identify that woodpeckers and enriching experience by living on the moon. geckos are two of our biological inspirations. Mutopia will provide a new, sustainable In addition to the high school solution for lunar exploration that offers the presentations a brief overview of RASC-AL and chance to create a multinational settlement that selected examples of how our group is will enable the maximization of attaining approaching this design challenge using knowledge of the moon and outer space. 12
  14. 14. References 1. Artificial Gravity, Gilles, C. and Bukley, 10. Forbes, Peter. The Gecko's Foot. New A. Editors; Space Technology Library, York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. 2007. 11. Freeman, Val. "Regolith of the Apollo 16 2. Barry, P.L. Philips, T. (2000). Water on Site." Apollo 16 Lunar Surface Journal the Space Station. Retrieved February 3, F.19 February 2009 149. Web.1 May 2009. 2009. <http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a16/F- <http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000 Regolith.pdf>. /ast02nov_1.html> 12. Gajda, Matthew Gerald, Kulcinski John, 3. Becker, R.H. and Clayton, R.N. (1975). Santarius Gregory, Sviatoslavsky Igor, Nitrogen abundances and isotopic Sviatoslavsky. "A Lunar Volatiles compositions in lunar samples. Proc. Miner." Engineering Physics Department Lunar Sci. Conf. 6th, p. 2131-2149. University of Wisconsin - Madison 07 03 2006 Web.1 May 2009. 4. Bell, Trudy E. "NASA - Lunar Dust Buster." NASA - Science@NASA. 19 13. "Gravity Hurts (So Good)". NASA. Apr. 2006. 28 Apr. 2009 August 2001. Retrieved February 2, <http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006 2009. /19apr_dustbuster.htm>. <http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001 /ast02aug_1.htm> 5. Biever, Celeste. "Bug-based sensors raise the fire alarm." New Scientist183 14. Helms, M., S. Vattam, A. K. Goel, J. (2004): 20. Yen, and M. Weissburg. 2008b. Problem- driven and solution-driven design: twin 6. Boeing Aerospace Company. 1983. processes of biologically inspired design Space Station/Nuclear Submarine Proc. ACADIA-2008. Analogs, U.S. Naval Submarine Interview Report, Space Station Crew 15. Helms, M., S. Vattam, A. Goel J.Yen and SystemInterface Study. Granada Hills, M. Weissburg. 2008. Learning about and California. National Behavior Systems. through biologically inspired design. Proc. Second Design Creativity 7. Carrére, S., Evans, G. E., Stokols, D. Workshop, Atlanta, June 22, 2008. Winter-Over Stress: Physiological and Psychological Adaptation to an Antarctic 16. Kanas, N. Chair. Psychology and Culture Isolated and Confined Environment. During Long-Duration Space Missions. International Academy of Astronautics 8. Demere, Raymond, Flakes, Sooyung, Study Group on Psychology and Culture Lollar, Michael, and et al. EverFLO Self During Long-Duration Space Missions. Healing Pipes. Georgia Tech Final Report (Revised), November 28, Biologically Inspired Design Class Fall 2006. 2008. 17. Kanas, N. (2008). Space Psychology and 9. Eckart, P., Lunar Base Handbook, An Psychiatry. 2nd Edition. El Segundo: Introduction to Lunar Base Design, Microcosm Press. Development & Operations, © 1999. 13
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  16. 16. VI. APPENDIX Figures Figure 1: Exterior of Moontrifuge Figure 2: Section of Moontrifuge 15
  17. 17. Figure 3: Self Healing Polymer28 Figure 4: Self-Healing Pipes8 16
  18. 18. Figure 5: Compound Eye and Apposition Compound Eye19 Figure 6: Superposition Compound Eye19 Acknowledgements We recognize the contributions of Dr. Charles Camarda of NASA, the members of the Polytechnic Institute of NYU class, entitled: Psychological Issues in the Design of Long Term Space Habitats, and the members of the Pennsylvania State University class, entitled: EcoInnovation. 17

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