Intro to Agile and Lean UX
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Intro to Agile and Lean UX

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A workshop given by Will Evans and myself at Turner Broadcasting's UX Community Day showcase.

A workshop given by Will Evans and myself at Turner Broadcasting's UX Community Day showcase.

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Intro to Agile and Lean UX Intro to Agile and Lean UX Presentation Transcript

  • INTRODUCTION TO AGILE & LEAN USER EXPERIENCE WORKSHOP
  • WILL EVANS JACKLYN BURGAN Managing Director Interaction Designer TLC Labs Turner Broadcasting Design Thinker-in-Residence Chief Awesomeologist NYU Stern Graduate School of Management Glitter Queen @semanticwill @playfulpixel
  • True Fact The vast majority of projects fail NOT because they couldn’t build a great product using the latest new technology. They failed because they built something no one wanted.
  • Let’s start with an exercise!
  • Which is timeboxed 2min
  • Why Are We Here? •  All too often, leaders, managers, teams, designers rely on common approaches that may work well in one context, and fail in another. •  Teams want to create better customer experiences (user experiences), but aren’t sure what that really means. •  Teams often find it difficult moving from insights to action (based on this research, what should we do now?).    
  • Might as well give you the take-aways… •  Context matters – effective teams are adept at knowing which context (domain) they are in •  Different contexts (ontologies) require different ways of knowing (epistemologies). •  Sense-Making as a collaborative meaningmaking activity for framing problems & generating options. •  The Customer Experience is “owned” by everyone, not just a single role. 8
  • If you can't describe what you are doing as a process, you don't know what you're doing. - W. Edwards Deming
  • Lean* UX?
  • By Lean*UX most people really mean “UX Design in the context of the Lean Startup Method” Term coined by Janice Fraser, Founder of LUXR
  • We’ve heard the “UX Design” is important, and the customer experience is important, but…
  • WTF is UXD?
  • Principles of UX •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Articulated context Centered on customer’s needs, goals, desires Clear hierarchy of information and tasks Focus on simplicity; reduce visual complexity Provide strong information scent Use constraints appropriately Make actions reversible Provide meaningful feedback Aesthetics matter     *
  • Traditional Process
  • “Traditional” UX Practices •  Emphasize deliverables •  See the work as a solution that gets sold to stakeholders •  See the (UX) designer as the hero in charge of finding solutions to design challenges and getting approval before development starts
  • Over the past 35 years, UX* (CX, IxD/IA/UCD), much like Waterfall, accumulated a lot of wasteful, timeconsuming, CYA practices that delivered no discernable value to the business or to customers. *CX is a new term popularized by Forrester Research
  • Over the past 12 years, so has Agile.
  • “Waste is any human activity which absorbs resources, but creates no value.” - James P Womak and Daniel T. Jones, Lean Thinking
  • Why Agile or Lean? •  Companies innovates in a context of uncertainty. There’s insufficient evidence to confidently answer questions like will people want this kind of product? Will people buy it? What should it look like? What features should it have? •  Because of the uncertainty, progress is measured by what we learn through experiments. Product success is found through repeated cycles of “buildmeasure-learn” •  Work is organized into the smallest possible batch size and launched quickly -> Agile
  • (Lean UX) Process •  Figure out who it’s for? •  Interviews, personas, design target •  What can the user do that wasn’t possible before? •  Activity map, concept drawings, storyboards •  What features does the user need for that? •  Stickys, sketches, whiteboarding •  Sketch it, (prototype it), then build it •  “Fake it, then make it”
  • Shared Goals Agile development and Lean UX share a few goals: •  Shorten the time to market •  Working software over comprehensive documentation •  Collaboration over negotiation •  Responding to change over following a plan
  • How Can We Improve Our Process? •  The design work we do is often limited to onthe-go type of decisions •  We struggle with approvals •  We don’t have an established process that involves UXD, thus our scenario is not “going from traditional UX to Lean”, but rather, “establishing our approach to UXD”
  • Problem vs. Solution “Focus on the problem. If you’re only excited about the solution, you’ll lose interest when your solution doesn’t fix the problem.” - Adil Wali, CTO of ModCloth Business, UXD, and Development should all focus on the Customer, Problem, and Solution.
  • Integrating Design into Development Process The “Traditional” Way The Collaborative Way (Waterfall + Waterfall or Waterfall + Agile) (Lean UX + Agile Development) 1.  Have a great idea 2.  Wireframe 3.  Designer creates a static mockup 4.  Static mockup & specs are thrown to devs to implement, QA to test 1.  Have a great idea 2.  Sketch together 3.  Engage team (BA, UX, Dev, QA) to build a prototype 4.  Play, tweak, rinse, repeat 5.  Once UX is nailed have a visual designer polish to perfection
  • “A Startup is a human institution designed to deliver a product or service under conditions of extreme uncertainty” – Eric Ries
  • WHAT IS LEAN STARTUP?
  • 7 Steps Uncover your customers’ pain points through research Hypotheses, NOT Requirements Question your assumptions Collaborate to generate ideas Embrace experiments Learning isn’t failure Amplify what works
  • Minimize TOTAL time through the loop
  • The Customer Development Process
  • Lean UX Cycle
  • 4 Key Elements to Lean UX We have this problem, lets jump in and brainstorm a solution We have a new technology, what can we possibly use it for? Our competitors just launched X; how quickly can we also do X? •  •  •  •  Empathy through research Framing the problem Generative Ideation Prototyping & validation
  • BASICS OF CUSTOMER RESEARCH
  • Background
  • Malkovich Bias The tendency to believe that everyone uses technology the same way you do. - Andres Glusman
  • Customer Research
  • How much Research Customer research?
  • A Research Heuristic 12   People   0 Insights   Lot s  
  • UX Mantra 12   Mantra: You are not the customer. Only through research can we uncover people’s pains, needs, and goals, in their context.
  • Henry Ford never said, “If I’d asked customers what they wanted, they would have said, “a faster horse.” It’s a lie. A myth. An urban legend.
  • Types of Research
  • INTERVIEWING EXERCISE
  • Stand Up! A–B-C
  • A = Speaker B = Interviewer C = Observer
  • Speakers Close your eyes
  • Interviewers Chat with speaker about their commute to work
  • Observers Watch what happens. Write observations on post-it notes.
  • Interviewers Don’t take notes.
  • 2 minutes
  • Reflection
  • B = Speaker C = Interviewer A = Observer
  • Speakers Close your eyes
  • Interviewers Chat with the speaker about their car maintenance costs
  • Interviewers One more thing.
  • Interviewers After the first question – you cannot speak again. Shhh…
  • Observers Watch what happens. Write observations on post-it notes.
  • Interviewers Don’t take notes.
  • 2 minutes
  • Reflection
  • “The opposite of talking isn’t listening. The opposite of talking is waiting.” - Fran Lebowitz
  • C = Speaker A = Interviewer B = Observer
  • Speakers Close your eyes
  • Interviewers Chat with the speaker about parking in midtown Atlanta
  • Interviewers After the first question, you can only ask: “Can you tell me more about X?”
  • Observers Watch what happens. Write observations on post-it notes.
  • Interviewers Do note take notes.
  • 4 minutes
  • Reflection
  • More Tips •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Silence Reflect back (What I think you said was…) Remember to have empathy Ask open questions Ask for stories No leading questions Observations vs. Insights
  • Break
  • CUSTOMER EMPATHY MAP
  • Timeboxed 10 minutes
  • Empathy Map Process • Treat your table as a team • Draw an empathy map • Based on insights from your interviewing exercise, project yourself into the mind of a professional wanting more control over their schedule, including more time with their family
  • Empathy Map Process • What does she Think or Feel? (What matters?) • What does she See? (environment, friends, solutions in the market) • What does she Say and Do? (appearance, activities, behaviors) • What does she Hear? (What do friends, boss, colleagues say?) • Pain (fears, frustrations, obstacles) • Goals (wants, needs, desires)
  • Empathy Map Process • Write at least 2 insights per section silently •  5 Minutes • Discuss with your team •  5 Minutes •  Vote on top 2 per section • Teams Present
  • You have 10 minutes!
  • Those were all assumptions…
  • ETHNOGRAGHY
  • Ethnography Allows Us To
  • 1. Discover the semantics of living
  • 2. Decode signifiers of cultural practice
  • 3. Understand the language people use.
  • The Power of Pairing
  • Keys To Good Ethnography
  • Delve deeply into the context, lives, cultures, and rituals of a few people rather than study a large number of people superficially. This isn’t about booty calls, this is about relationships.
  • Holistically study people’s behaviors and experiences in daily life. You won’t find this in a lab, focus group, or 5 minute interview on the street.
  • Learn to ask probing, open questions, gathering as much data as possible to inform your understanding.
  • Practice “active seeing,” and “active listening.” Record every minutiae of daily existence, and encode on post-its.
  • Use digital tools for asynchronous data collection: Tumblr, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Flickr.
  • Use collaborative sense-making activities like cynefin and affinity diagramming to understand and formulate a narrative of experience.
  • Map the stories and insights back to the original customer hypothesis and problem hypothesis. Did it validate or invalidate your hypotheses?
  • Before Interviews 12   •  •  •  •  Identify who you are interviewing Articulate customer hypotheses Craft a topic map for your interviews Write down your prompts
  • 9 Keys to Customer Research 12   1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  One interview at a time Always pair interview (if you can) Introduce yourself Record the conversation Ask general, open-ended questions to get people talking As questions around the problem “Do you ever experience a problem like X” Then ask, “Tell me about the last time…” Listen more than you talk Separate behavior from narrative
  • Guidelines 12   1.  It’s about empathizing 2.  Listen, even when people go off topic 3.  Context is king – document it, and make sure the context of research maps to the problem being explored 4.  Start from the assumption that everything you know is wrong
  • You need to gather: 12   1.  2.  3.  4.  Factual information Behavior Pain Goals You can document this on the persona board as well as …. Photos, video, audio, journals…. Document everything
  • A simple 3-Point Interview •  Has [insert specific problem] been a problem for you? (context) • Tell me about the last time you dealt with this problem? (story) •  What’s your ideal solution for this problem? (solution)
  • Open Ended Questions Start With… 12   •  •  •  •  •  •  Tell me about… How so… What are your thoughts on… Could you elaborate on… Give some examples of Tell me about the last time you…
  • During the interview 12   DO •  Take notes •  Smile •  Ask open-ended questions •  Get their story •  Shut up and listen DON’T •  Talk about your product •  Ask about future behavior •  Sell •  Ask leading questions •  Talk much
  • PERSONAS
  • Lean Personas 12   •  Personas are an archetype of your actual, validated customers based on research. •  Personas are not a sheet of paper, they are a living document. •  (Just) making up personas is useless. •  BUT – creating persona hypotheses gets the ball moving… to do research.
  • Lean Personas 12   “Personas are to persona descriptions as vacations are to photo albums” - Jared Spool
  • Your person requires…. 12   1.  2.  3.  4.  Factual information Behavior Pain Goals You can document this on the persona board as well as …. Photos, video, audio, journals…. Document everything
  • 4 Key Elements to Lean UX We have this problem, lets jump in and brainstorm a solution We have a new technology, what can we possibly use it for? Our competitors just launched X; how quickly can we also do X? •  •  •  •  Empathy through research Framing Problem Spaces Generative Ideation Prototyping & validation
  • How do we make sense of the world so that we can act in it? FRAMING AND SENSE MAKING
  • Lean Startup Berrypicking Model
  • Problem Statement
  • Sophia “I schedule my entire life around traffic patterns.” - Sophia Sophia works in a large company as a UX Designer. She spends a lot of time with users—testing features, determining what their needs are, looking at how they interact with technology, etc. She then takes that insight back to the product managers to inform future product decisions. She has been working for about 5 years in this role and just got promoted to manager. Unfortunately, her personal life is starting to suffer because she spends extra time in the office and then spends an hour every day sitting in traffic. When she gets home, she doesn’t have the time or energy to put into her friendships.
  • 4C
  • 4C Exploration §  §  §  §  Components Characteristics Challenges Characters
  • Components Components are parts of the problem or topic. For example, a component for Sophia may be her smart phone bill.
  • Characteristics Characteristics are features or attributes of the topic. For e x a m p l e , a characteristic of Sophia’s financial goals may be “risk tolerant”.
  • Challenges Challenges are obstacles associated with the topic. For example, Thursday evening girls night out might be a challenge.
  • Characters Characters are people associated with the topic. Friends, boss, colleagues, parents – anyone who may influence her financial habits.
  • Which is timeboxed
  • 4C Exploration §  §  §  §  Components Characteristics Challenges Characters
  • From Sense-Making to Abduction We have this problem, lets jump in and brainstorm a solution We have a new technology, what can we possibly use it for? Our competitors just launched X; how quickly can we also do X? •  Empathy through research •  Framing the problem •  Generative Ideation •  Prototyping & validation
  • GENERATIVE IDEATION
  • An Exercise!
  • Which is timeboxed 2min
  • You have 2 minutes
  • Ideation Process
  • Create. Pitch. Critique. TECHNICALLY THIS IS CALLED A CHARRETTE*.
  • It’s about generating many safe-to-fail experiments, not highly rendered solutions.
  • All ideas must map to Sophia’s goals & needs.
  • Design Studio Generate lots of design concepts (options*) Present concepts as stories Critique using Ritual Dissent Integrate (steal) & Iterate Check stories for coherence Converge around testable solution hypotheses *See Chris Matts Real Options Theory
  • Create. Pitch. Critique. TECHNICALLY THIS IS CALLED A CHARRETTE*.
  • Level playing field. Idea generation. Team buy-in. Ownership/investment. Vet design concepts.
  • 6.8.5
  • Create. Pitch. Critique.
  • Create six to eight concept sketches individually.
  • Line, Square, Circle, Triangle
  • Focus on the bare minimum to convey your concept
  • All ideas must map to person’s goals & needs.
  • Create. Pitch. Critique.
  • Three minutes to pitch how your concept solves the problem.
  • Create. Pitch. Critique.
  • Two minutes for critique.
  • Two to three ways it solves the problem and one to two opportunities for improvement.
  • Sophia “I schedule my entire life around traffic patterns.” - Sophia Sophia works in a large company as a UX Designer. She spends a lot of time with users—testing features, determining what their needs are, looking at how they interact with technology, etc. She then takes that insight back to the product managers to inform future product decisions. She has been working for about 5 years in this role and just got promoted to manager. Unfortunately, her personal life is starting to suffer because she spends extra time in the office and then spends an hour every day sitting in traffic. When she gets home, she doesn’t have the time or energy to put into her friendships.
  • Sketching 5 minutes
  • Pitching (pick a timer) 3 minutes
  • Critique 2x2 2 minutes
  • nd 2 Iteration
  • 5 minutes
  • Storyboarding! 5 minutes
  • Pitching 2 minutes
  • Critique 2x2 2 minutes
  • nd 3 Iteration
  • 10 minutes
  • Sketching – 1 Interface/Solution 10 minutes
  • “Many ideas grow better when transplanted into another mind than the one where they sprang up.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • Pitching 3 minutes
  • Critique 2x2 2 minutes
  • Team Sketch 1 Concept 25 minutes
  • Ritual Dissent
  • “Whenever we propose a solution to a problem, we ought to try as hard as we can to overthrow our solution, rather than defend it.” - Karl Popper
  • Present Pick a spokesperson 5 minutes to prepare
  • Ritual Dissent •  The basic approach involves a spokesperson presenting a series of ideas to a group of investors who listens to them in silence. •  You’re spokesperson will only have 5 minutes to present •  Team must imagine they are a group of investors hearing a pitch from a startup. •  No questions can be asked of the spokesperson. •  Investor team must find all the things wrong with the concept, why it solves no problem, and all the other solutions in the marketplace that do things better.
  • Ritual Dissent •  The spokesperson turns to face the wall, so that their back is to the investor team and listens in silence while the group attacks the idea. •  The spokesperson cannot respond to questions or defend the ideas. •  Investor team must be as harsh as possible. •  Spokesperson can only take notes on everything he/she hears.
  • “The opposite of talking isn’t listening. The opposite of talking is waiting.” - Fran Lebowitz
  • For all critique decide: •  Ignore (backburner) •  Remove (de-solve) •  Research Solution (best practice) •  Research Problem (innovate)
  • Active Decision Making Model Comment Ignore Remove Research Solution Research Problem
  • Iterate as a team based on the critique. 15Min Then pitch to the whole workshop.
  • But first…
  • Rip up your designs.
  • Team Sketch Use ADM & Sketch 15 minutes
  • Team Present 3 Minutes
  • Ritual Assent 2 Minutes
  • •  Tips •  •  •  •  •  Timebox: 5 minutes sketch / 5 minutes per person No more than 6 or 7 people per table (4 is best) Don’t introduce too many business rules up front Imagine no technology constraints Make explicit all potential channels (not just mobile or web)* •  Move people from team to team to prevent premature convergence •  Don’t serve Turkey sandwiches
  • Potential Pitfalls •  Having a solution before Design Studio starts – “we already have a solution – we just want buy-in” •  Not adequately scoping design studio to match the problem – “we can only spend 2 hours on design studio because of people’s schedules” •  Introducing blockers or business constraints too early •  The invisible hand of the absent stakeholder Process & Pitfalls: http://bit.ly/vpeuJn
  • Articles to learn more on UXMag Introduction to Design Studio The Design of Design Studio Design Studio in AgileUX: Process and Pitfalls
  • PROTOTYPE & VALIDATE
  • Minimize TOTAL time through the loop
  • Why prototype? •  Explore • Quickly create testable solution options • Identifies problems before they’re coded • Reflection-in-action* •  Experiment • Early frequent feedback from customers • Low opportunity cost •  Evolve understanding of customer behaviors * Theory in Practice, Chris Argyris & Donald Schön
  • What Fidelity? •  Low fidelity • Paper •  Medium fidelity • Axure • Omnigraffle • Indigo Studio • Clickable Wireframes •  High Fidelity • Twitter Bootstrap • jQueryUI • Zurb Foundation Beware of “endowment effect,” also called the divestiture aversion. Once people invest time/effort “sketching with code,” its very difficult to throw the concept away and explore new options.” Identify what you want to learn, pick the least effort to go through Build > Measure > Learn
  • Maximize Optionality From insights, you can create multiple problem & solution hypotheses sets. It's not about designing the one right solution and refining. It's about testing many solutions to multiple problem hypotheses. It's about many small bets.
  • Some Ideas for Good Product Design •  Balanced team Design + PM + Development = One team •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Externalize thought process Flow: Think > Make > Check Research to understand Problem Space No proxies between customers and team Collaborative Sense-making Generative Ideation: It’s about optionality Formulate many small tests & measure outcome
  • Reading Recommendations
  • THANKS! WILL EVANS JACKLYN BURGAN Director of Design & Research Interaction Designer TLC Labs Turner Broadcasting Design Thinker-in-Residence Chief Awesomeologist NYU Stern Graduate School of Dancing Queen Management @semanticwill @playfulpixel