“Identity is complicated- everybody thinks they’ve
“A focus on Identity requires us to pay closer attention
to the ways in which media and technologies are used in
everyday life and their consequences for social groups”
Task with neighbour
• Make a list of all the
‘stars’ created by
internet videos such
as ‘Star Wars Kid’
What do you need for the exam?
• A Social group as a case study (such as “The Working Class”)
• Examples of various representations
• Refer to at least two different media
• Examples: Film and Newspapers; TV Drama and Magazines;
Internet and TV Documentary; TV News and Newspapers etc.
• Understanding of and reference to theory / cultural critics
• Stan Cohen; Owen Jones; David Buckingham; David Gauntlett
• Realism; Representation; Audience; Institution; Ideology;
Stereotyping; Moral Panic; “Folk Devils” etc.
• Your own voice! But don’t forget to show both Perspective and Context
• Ethnography of
• Analysis of the
• Analysis of
• Interpretive communities
• Fans as ‘cultural producers’
• Cultural identity
- something in which we actively participate
• Cultural convergence
• Is this incident concerned with the
representation of Sesame Street
• Or the representation of Osama Bin Laden
• Or both?
What is ‘ColleCtive
• Representation: the way reality is ‘mediated’
or ‘re-presented’ to us
• Collective Identity: the individual’s sense of
belonging to a group (part of personal
How do contemporary media represent different
collective groups in different ways?
• Our focus : The Working Class
•Diverse representations including fiction,
non-fiction and self-representation
•For the exam, your own examples from
the group you are studying will gain you
How does contemporary representation compare
with that of the past?
• Contemporary Examples: The Working
Class on TV / online, in The Press and in
• Examples needed for similarity and
• Examples from the past: Film, The Press
and TV are the most easily accesible
what are the social implications of different media
representations of groups of people?
• Stereotyping: what is its impact on The
Working Class and on the Public’s
perception of The Working Class?
• What power does the audience have to
‘resist’? What about ‘Self Representation’
• How do we ‘measure’ the representations
to what extent is human identity increasingly
• Does an increasing media lead to
increasing mediation in terms of
• What about re-presentation by others / by
• Other ways of
• Gauntlett’s lego
News coverage and moral panics: dual concerns:
•The Working (Under) Class as ‘deviant threat’
Representations of The
Working Class in The News
the “neW riGht”
• How would “The New Right” respond to this
list of deviant threats?
Moral panics: Representations of The Working
Class in the past
• Fiction Film:
•“It Always Rains on Sunday”
•“Saturday Night and Sunday Morning”
•“Upstairs Downstairs” (Original series)
• Work on history of
• Challenges news
A Haunt of Fears
• 18th Century theatre
• 19th century ‘penny dreadfuls’
• Music Halls 1890s
• Silent movie crime films
• Horror Comics 1950s
• Rock and Roll
• Video Nasties 1980s
DO these Sound
• They wore peaked caps, neck scarves, bell-bottom
trousers, and a hairstyle cropped close to the scalp,
with a "donkey fringe" over the forehead.
• There were pitched battles between rival gangs,
armed with iron bars, knives, powerful catapults, and
even guns. They patrolled their neighbourhoods
shouting obscenities and pushing people down.
The first ‘hooligans’ riots in Aug 1898
‘the needs of youth’
• "Relaxation of parental control, decline of religious influence,
and the movement of masses of young people to housing
estates where there is little scope for recreation and plenty
for trouble ... The problem is a serious challenge, the difficulty
of which is intensified by the extension of freedom which, for
better or worse, has been given to youth in the last
This quote comes from 1939 and represents
working class youths
Can you think of more recent examples of
Moral Panics of any sort?
• The hoodie and youth as threat
• Hip hop/gangsta rap
• Islamic ‘terrorists’
• Videogame violence
• Sexualisation of children
• Researches young
• Feminist approach
The Working Class on
• “The Jeremy Kyle Show”
• “Ladette to Lady”
“the Jeremy Kyle shoW”
• What issues in the
The Working Class
does ‘The Jeremy
Kyle’ Show’ raise?
• Who watches it?
• For what ‘pleasures’
• How do different
• Which cultural
stereotypes are used
• What is the purpose
of this programme
(beyond simply being
Different audience responses
• How would the following audiences respond to either programme?
• A Teacher
• A building site laborer
• A Psychologist
• A TV Producer
• A Bank Manager
• Do we simply make the meaning we want to make from texts?
• Interpretive communities
What ‘ColleCtive identity’Can mean
• Not just representations by mainstream
• Remember the use of self-construction by
users of the media
•Youtube, Facebook etc.
• Communities formed from shared identity:
age, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity,
cultural values, political ideas etc
• What does the question mean?
• What can you use for the answer?
• How can you ‘meet the rubric’ of two
media and past, present and future?
• SELECT your examples
• ORDER your argument
• PLAN your response
Advice on answers
• Know your case study
• Keep hunting out your own examples
• Adapt them to the question
• Look at both sides of any argument
• Refer to critics / theorists
Analyse the ways in which the media represent one
group of people you have studied
• Case study of The Working Class
• Two or more media for examples:
• TV drama and news, or Film and The Press etc.
• News and moral panics (past and present)- Barker / McRobbie
• TV sympathetic portrayal but still ‘constructed’ (present)
• Facebook, Youtube and self representation- Wesch (future?)
• To what purpose are all these images constructed and for what audiences?
“the media do not ConstruCt ColleCtive identity,
they merely refleCt it” disCuss.
• What does collective identity mean?
• What’s the difference between construction and reflection: Mediation
• Two or more media: Film (past), TV and online
• Case study examples: Construction of ‘The Working Class’ from “The Jeremy
Kyle Show” and other TV through memes (present). Draw upon Wesch
• Audience understandings constructing meaning: ‘Interpretive Communities’
• Use Jenkins’ ideas on active audiences throughout (future?) and Gauntlett on
• 20 marks for Explanation, analysis, argument
• 20 marks for use of examples
• 10 marks for terminology (including ‘theory’)