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  • XXXXXXX Do you mind if I film you during this lecture.\nDo you mind if we film you every minute of the day?\n\nPrivacy means something to us, it’s something which is regarded as a basic right and one which is central to acts of law and forms a major part of the basis of democracy and the view of individuals as autonomous self directed beings we choose what data or images can be seen. Privacy is the right to control how we are seen. \n\nHow important is your privacy\n\nIn the past few weeks we have discussed how the battle for our minds is often fought through a visual narrative the battle to control and govern is often fought by controlling who sees what and what we are allowed to see.\n\n\n\n\n
  • FOUCAULT QUOTE\n\nThis is a fundamental shift, this is what distinguishes totalitarian regimes and dictatorship with a modern democratic power, one visibly demonstrates its power whilst the other uses making other visible to demonstrate power\n\nWHERE ELSE CAN WE SEE THIS MODEL?\n
  • What is the significance of the fact that this is an imagined gaze?\n
  • DO THEY DISCIPLINE THEMSELVES ACCORDING TO WHAT CAN BE SEEN? FACEBOOK?\n
  • Consider the design of an open plan office, layout of hospital wards etc, the panopticon is not just a reality of life but a design principle.\n
  • Paradox between our concern with growing government surveillance and our lack of concern with commercial breaches of privacy/ People complain about erosion of privacy then sit down to watch bigbrother.\n\n\n\nWhat does chatroulette say about our views on privacy, does voyeurism outweigh our fears or is this actually driven by the fact that this is how government behaves?\n\nMugshots to profile pictures\n\nHas government eroded privacy or corporate?\n\n\n\n
  • \n\n\nHow much of us has been surveilled already?\n\nDo we agree that privacy is dead then or has privacy become even more important, has it infact become the currency of the day? Who else trades privacy?\n\nDo you agree with this? Is this the trade off we make as producers as stars of our own little channels, to face the virtual data paparazzi?\n
  • \n
  • \n\nHow are companies treating this - Union Square with photographers,\n\nThis is what concerns some people about the erosion of public space.\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Do these artists highlight an issue or do they normalise these methods, does there use of these technologies further validate these techniques?\n\n\n
  • \n

Transcript

  • 1. Visual CulturePanopticism andsurveillance
  • 2. PanopticonPanoptic
essentially
means
all
seeing
Pan(All)Optic(Seeing)In
1785
philosopher
and
social
theorist
Jeremy
Bentham
designed
the
panopticon,
a
prison
which
allowed
the
guards
to
observe
all
the
prisoners
from
a
central
point
without
the
prisoner
knowing
whether
or
not
they
were
being

  • 3. PanoptisismThe
panopticon
building
was
a
twelve
sided
polygon,
its
internal
and
external
walls
were
made
of
glass.
The
central
tower
was
pierced
with
windows
that
allowed
a
view
of
every
cell
placing
the
prisoner
in
a
state
of
conscious
and
permanent
visibility.
The
panopticon
illustrates
the
power
of
the
seer
-
seen
relationship.
Creating
a
‘brutal
dissymmetery
of
visibility’The
relationship
provides
the
‘unseen
seer’
with
a
sense
of
omnipotent
voyeurism
and
disciplines
the
seen
by
the
fact
that
they
are
in
permanent
visibility.The
power
of
the
panopticon
was
that
the
prisoners
were
objects
of
an
imagined
gaze,
it
was
not
the
fact
they
could
be
seen
it
was
the
feeling
that
they
were
always
being
seen
whether
or
not
they
were
which
controlled

  • 4. PanoptisismFrench
philosopher
Michel
Foucault
saw
the
panopticon
as
an
ideal
architectural
model
of
modern
disciplinary
power.He
described
the
power
of
the
panopticon
in
Disipline and Punish:“He
who
is
subjected
to
a
field
of
visibility,
and
knows
it,
assumes
responsibility
for
the
constraints
of
power....
he
becomes
the
principle
of
his
own
subjection.”For
Foucault
this
was
not
just
an
efficient
piece
of
architectural
design
but
‘the
diagram
of
a
mechanism
of
power
reduced
to
its
ideal
form’
power
and
discipline
which
is
automated,
self
discipline.
  • 5. PanoptisismFor
Foucault
it
was
the
act
of
disciplining
society
through
unseen
and
subtle
ways,
which
the
panopticon
stood
for,
which
was
of
importance,
how
schools,
police
forces,
hospitals
etc
discipline
us
by
forms
of
surveillance
and
classification.
Though
Bentham
never
built
the
panopticon
it
has
certainly
been
influential
both
in
the
was
other
buildings
have
been
built
and
also
in
how
power
operates.Consider
the
manner
in
which
the
following
advert
operates.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKWtife5BqA
  • 6. SurveillanceBritain
is
now
the
most
surveilled
nation
on
earth
in
terms
of
CCTVIn
2003
there
were
reported
to
be
4.2
million
CCTV
cameras
in
Britain:
one
for
every
fourteen
people.Each
day
we
are
estimated
to
be
captured
on
over
three
hundred
cameras
During
the
1990s
the
Home
Office
spent
78%
of
it
crime
prevention
budget
on
installing
CCTV,
an
estimated
£500MDavid
Murakami
Wood
-
Surveillance
Society
Report-
Click
to
downloadInterestingly
the
power
of
the
panopticon
may
be
failing
as
the
home
office
has
reported
that
CCTV
has
done
little
to
impact
on
crime
rates.
What

  • 7. SurveillanceThe
extent
of
our
surveillance
clearly
doesnt
stop
with
CCTV,
how
else
are
monitored
and
classified
each
day?
  • 8. SurveillanceWith
google
looking
after
our
email,
hosting
our
videos,
pictures,
blogs,
conversations,
diaries,
knowing
where
we’ve
been
and
what
we
watch,
read
and
buy,
where
we
are
planning
on
going,
in
the
future
perhaps
holding
our
medical
records
some
people
may
feel
uneasy
about
the
huge
amount
of
information
that
google
hold,
in
response
to
this
Google
has
released
Google
Dashboard
which
lists
some
of
the
information
google
holds
about
the
Google
services
that
you
use
and
aims
to
answer
the
question
"What
does
Google
know
about
me?".How
much
information
do
we
trade
each
day
and
for
what?How
far
is
this
satirical
sketch
from
the
onion
to
where
we
are?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lMChO0qNbkY#
  • 9. SousveillanceSousveillance
can
be
seen
as
the
opposite
of
surveillance
or
a
form
of
inverse
surveillance
where
individuals
monitor
those
in
power.This
can
take
the
form
of
feedback
“how
am
I
driving”
stickers
or
student
feedback
forms
or
in
the
more
direct
form
of
counter
surveillance
such
as
protestors
filming
police.The
advances
in
mobile
phones
are
making
this
kind
of
activity
the
norm,
with
the
ability
to
not
only
photograph
or
film
on
our
phone
but
the
ability
to
upload
those
films
and
photographs
to
you
tube,
twitpic
etc
almost
instantly.Regardless
of
who
is
surveying
who
the
panoptic
model
still
holds,
the
knowledge
that
we
could
be
being
monitored
or
observed
at
any
time
acts
to
change
our
behaviour.
With
regards
to
social
networking
sites
what
effect

  • 10. Surveillance ArtThe
rise
in
surveillance
in
modern
society
has
seen
a
number
of
artists
and
media
collectives
introduce
the
tools
and
technologies
of
surveillance
into
their
work.David
Valentine
video
artist
and
member
of
grass
roots
media
initiative
MediaShed
creates
and
coordinates
community
media
projects
which
highlight
the
rise
in
surveillance
culture
in
the
UK.Video
Sniffin
is
a
series
of
short
films
where
young
people
hacked
a
series
of
wireless
cctv
camera’s
in
the
area
and
used
the
cameras
to
shoot
a
short
film
placing
the
viewer
and
participants
of
the
film
in
the
role
of
the
panoptic
viewer.

Another
david
valentine
piece
which
follows
this
theme
is
The Duellists(2007)
which
was
shot
using
only
the
CCTV
network
of
160
cameras
in
Manchesters
Arndale
centre.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
  • 11. Surveillance ArtLondon
Based
Austrian
artist
Manu
Luksch
also
addresses
issues
of
surveillance
and
data
protection
in
her
work.Faceless made
under
Luksch’s
Manifesto for CCTV filmmakers
is
a
science
fiction
filmed
from
public
CCTV
cameras
with
the
footage
being
requested
under
the
Data
Protection
Act.
The
film
is
narrated
by
Tilda
Swinton
and
has
been
shown
internationally. Mapping CCTV aroundhttp://www.youtube.com/watch? Whitehall 
a
2
part
exercise
to
v=yLzJCeGYgbg map
CCTV
cameras
around
 Whitehall,
London,
within
a

  • 12. Surveillance ArtTrevor
Paglen
is
an
American
artist,
geographer,
and
author
who’s
work
uses
forms
of
surveillance
to
explore
the
work
of
the
American
Military.Work
has
included
a
database
tracking
cia
planes,
photography
of
hidden
military
bases
and
exposing
code
names
of
thousands
of
classified
military
programshttp://www.paglen.com/pages/projects.htmAlso
see
Marco
Peljan’s
work

  • 13. Further ReadingSTURKEN,
M.,
&
CARTRIGHT,
L.
2001.
Practices of Looking- AnIntroduction to Visual Culture. Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.Mirzoeff,
N.,
The
Visual
Culture
Reader,
2008
RoutledgeFoucault,
M.,
Discipline
and
Punish
1975The
Statistics
of
CCTV
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8159141.stmCCTV
Boom
Fails
to
cut
Crime
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7384843.stmSousveillance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sousveillance