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  • 1. Media Costs and Buying Problems Media Planning - Lecture 8 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 2. (SEP 09) (DEC 09) (APR 10) (APR 10) (MAY 10) (WHOLE YEAR) (OCT 10) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 3. (SEP 09) (DEC 09) (APR 10) (APR 10) (MAY 10) (WHOLE YEAR) (OCT 10) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 4. Rate Card ( ) and Rates ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 5. All kind of media have their rate cards. Rate card means the prevailing ( ) document published by the medium containing ( ) all details about pricing ( ), booking ( ), volume rebates ( ), cancellation ( ) and other terms and conditions for the advertising spaces. Rates ( ) mean the rate of charges determined by the media from time to time as applicable to any booking. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 6. Television Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 7. Terminology ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 8. Prime Time ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 9. Prime Time ( ) Prime time is the timeslot ( ) with the most viewers and is generally where television networks and local stations reap ( ) much of their advertising revenues ( ). It is usually about the evening hours when most people return home from offices and schools. The exact ( ) timeslots depends on particular station or channel Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 10. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 11. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 12. Shoulder Prime Time ( ) The timeslot at the time class exactly one below that of prime time. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 13. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 14. Fringe Times ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 15. Fringe Times ( ) Timeslots preceding ( ) and following ( ) peak prime-time and shoulder prime-time timeslots. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 16. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 17. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 18. Timeslot ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 19. Timeslot ( ) The time period in a day in which the spots have same advertising rates. Only one timeslot for prime time or shoulder prime time, but more than one timeslots for fringe times. Timeslots are different for different channels. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 20. Time Class ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 21. Time Class ( ) The level that the timeslot is classified by the channel. It is denoted by a number, e.g. J7 for TVB Jade, C7 for ATV Home. Higher time classes entail higher rates. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 22. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 23. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 24. Rate Level ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 25. Rate Level ( ) It is the booking rate for a particular spot. High rate level can secure ( ) the airtime but entails higher cost for the advertiser, whilst low rate level may render the airtime taken up by later advertiser booking at higher rate. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 26. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 27. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 28. Preemption Rule of TVB ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 29. Preemption Rule of TVB ( ) A special program pre-empts a sponsored program. A sponsored program preempts a regular spot. A regular spot of a higher rate level pre-empts another regular spot of a lower rate level and a longer duration spot pre-empts a shorter duration spot of the same product category if it is less than 30 seconds ( - ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 30. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 31. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 32. LAST OUT Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 33. LAST OUT Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 34. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 35. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 36. Buying Practice Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 37. Normal Buying ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 38. Media planner chooses the suitable ( ) scheduling method(s), e.g. continuity, flighting or pulsing to allocate ( ) the budget among different time classes. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 39. Media planner chooses the suitable ( ) scheduling method(s), e.g. continuity, flighting or pulsing to allocate ( ) the budget among different time classes. They use their judgment ( ) and experience ( ) in selecting the entry ( ) rate level of a spot of particular time-class, e.g. the rate level F8A of the spot at the time class J7 in TVB Jade. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 40. Media planner chooses the suitable ( ) scheduling method(s), e.g. continuity, flighting or pulsing to allocate ( ) the budget among different time classes. They use their judgment ( ) and experience ( ) in selecting the entry ( ) rate level of a spot of particular time-class, e.g. the rate level F8A of the spot at the time class J7 in TVB Jade. Lower entry rate level can save costs but it can be pre-empted ( ) by spot of higher rate level. Higher entry rate level can secure the spot but it may render the ad cost unnecessarily high ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 41. In peak seasons, e.g. Christmas and summer, higher entry rate levels are necessary because of high ad cluster ( ) levels. They may than use software to calculate the reach ( ) and average frequency ( ) for the whole TV broadcast plan. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 42. Sponsorship Buying Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 43. Occasionally ( ), advertisers purchase spots on a full or partial ( ) sponsorship basis ( ). A full sponsorship involves purchase of all of the commercial spots available in a sponsored program. ( ) Partial sponsorship requires purchase of at least three or four 30-sec spots in a sponsored program. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 44. Billboard ( ) is an identifying announcement of sponsorship at the beginning, end, or breaks of sponsored programs. They are not sold, but usually are a bonus based on the advertiser’s volume or commitment of buy. ( “XXX ”) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 45. Sponsorship has several advantages: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 46. Sponsorship has several advantages: Audiences identify the sponsor with the program. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 47. SPONSORSHIP Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 48. Sponsorship has several advantages: Audiences identify the sponsor with the program. ( ) Advertiser gains additional exposure in the form of opening and closing billboards. ( - ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 49. SPONSORSHIP Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 50. Sponsorship has several advantages: Audiences identify the sponsor with the program. ( ) Advertiser gains additional exposure in the form of opening and closing billboards. ( - ) Advertiser may use cast members in commercials. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 51. Sponsorship has several advantages: Audiences identify the sponsor with the program. ( ) Advertiser gains additional exposure in the form of opening and closing billboards. ( - ) Advertiser may use cast members in commercials. ( ) Sponsorship can enable participation in high-quality programming. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 52. Sponsorship has several advantages: Audiences identify the sponsor with the program. ( ) Advertiser gains additional exposure in the form of opening and closing billboards. ( - ) Advertiser may use cast members in commercials. ( ) Sponsorship can enable participation in high-quality programming. ( ) Advertiser can get high advertising exposure within fixed budget. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 53. The drawbacks ( ) of sponsorship are: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 54. The drawbacks ( ) of sponsorship are: It is generally expensive ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 55. The drawbacks ( ) of sponsorship are: It is generally expensive ( ). Advertiser will take a chance that the program will not do well. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 56. SPONSORSHIP Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 57. The drawbacks ( ) of sponsorship are: It is generally expensive ( ). Advertiser will take a chance that the program will not do well. ( ) Audience reach is limited with a single program, compared to spreading the buy over a variety of programs. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 58. Special Event Buying ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 59. Special Event Buying ( ) The commercial time at a special-event program can be purchase unit by unit ( ) or as program sponsorship. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 60. Special Event Buying ( ) Specials such as (1) holiday parades ( ), (2) election night coverage, and (3) award presentations ( ) provide a good environment for new-product introductions and for seasonal advertisers because they frequently have mass audience appeal ( ) and high visibility ( ). In general, the commercial time at a special-event program carries a premium price ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 61. SPECIAL EVENT BUYING Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 62. Up-front (Long term) Buy ( ( ) ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 63. Up-front (Long term) Buy ( ( ) ) An up-front, or long-term, buy is the purchase of inventory ( ) of spots for all four quarters ( ) of the coming broadcast year. Such planning to buy is usually termed as “Advanced Commitment”, which is usually held at the year end. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 64. Up-front (Long term) Buy ( ( ) ) As a result, aggressive TV stations, like TVB Jade, will launch a special event on the parade of their coming TV programs, for informing the advertisers and the advertising agency at the year end. Such special-event program will also be broadcast to entertain the general audience. ( - ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 65. 3 (TVB 2008 ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 66. Up-front (Long term) Buy ( ( ) ) Advanced commitment usually entails ( ) great volume discount (rebate) because the spots are purchased in large lot at one time. Such commitment will insure ( ) the advertiser against “sellouts” ( - cancellation) and cost-efficiency ( ), but little flexibility ( ) with regard to possible cancellation. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 67. Radio Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 68. Buying Practice Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 69. Being a broadcast media, radio spots are purchased in the same way as television; that is, with a contractual obligation ( ) for a specified number of spots over a designated ( ) period. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 70. Planners need to have the total picture on the audience that will listen at various times to specific radio stations, e.g. the number of men, women and teenagers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 71. Planners need to have the total picture on the audience that will listen at various times to specific radio stations, e.g. the number of men, women and teenagers. They must have a close watch on the latest program schedules ( ) of the various stations. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 72. Planners need to have the total picture on the audience that will listen at various times to specific radio stations, e.g. the number of men, women and teenagers. They must have a close watch on the latest program schedules ( ) of the various stations. On the other hand, the format ( ), i.e. whether it is musical, stock market reports, weather reports, traffic reports, sports or news, is another important factor influencing station selection. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 73. Planners must rely heavily on the buyer’s experience in executing a local-market radio buy and ensuring a close match among the commercial copy, audience, and station format. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 74. Magazine Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 75. Terminology Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 76. ROP ( ) Run of Page or Run of Press, describe the advertisement for which a definite position is not specified. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 77. Junior-Page ( ) A page size that has same dimension ( ) ratio as full page. It permits ( ) an advertiser to use the same printing materials for small- and large- page publications. The advertisement is prepared as a full-page unit in the smaller publication, and in the larger publication as a junior page with editorial (e.g. ) around it. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 78. Centre Spread ( ) An advertisement appearing on the two facing pages in the center of a publication. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 79. Gatefold ( ) A special space unit usually consisting of one full page plus an additional page or part of page that is an extension of the outer edge of the original page and folds outward from the center of the magazine as a gate. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 80. Buying Practice Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 81. Magazine buying costs are highly negotiable ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 82. new magazines offer extremely flexible ad rates ranging from 0-70% of the rate card prices. ( - LV sell ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 83. new magazines offer extremely flexible ad rates ranging from 0-70% of the rate card prices. ( - LV sell ) larger and branded advertisers enjoy higher discounts ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 84. new magazines offer extremely flexible ad rates ranging from 0-70% of the rate card prices. ( - LV sell ) larger and branded advertisers enjoy higher discounts ( ). larger quantity buying is entitled to more discounts. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 85. new magazines offer extremely flexible ad rates ranging from 0-70% of the rate card prices. ( - LV sell ) larger and branded advertisers enjoy higher discounts ( ). larger quantity buying is entitled to more discounts. ( ) opportunistic ( ) buys involve the purchase of ad space at low rate at the last minute. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 86. Besides the pricing flexibility, media buying for magazines is so versatile ( ) that it may package a public relations or sales promotion event with a number of ad spaces. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 87. For example, the female magazine “Jessica” may package the PR event “Top 10 Cover Girls Election” with a yearly commitment of 26 ad insertions. Such package often entails great discount on the list price of the ad space (the normal discount is 30%) and the advertiser enjoys free write-ups on the event after launch. (Package - (e-zone magazine) (PR event) -> free write-ups (“ ”)) Except small advertisers, buying of a single ad space is seldom ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 88. Prevailing ( ) trend in media buying of magazines includes having another special rate card for the “Supplement Book”. Direct trade between media and advertisers is another prevailing trend that is threatening ( ) the role of advertising agency, e.g. the above- mentioned package. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 89. Newspaper Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 90. Unlike magazines, newspapers are not generally considered a negotiable medium for advertisers, unless they are large, e.g. supermarket chains, major retail stores, shopping centres, etc. ( ) Another negotiable situation is that opportunistic buy is being offered. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 91. Newspapers have been very aggressive in developing daily special sections geared ( ) to various audiences and issues. For example, a special section on dining tips can attract many food companies to advertise at the section. Other sections that can be advantageous ( ) in reaching selected audiences include sports, business, and special features on fashion, grooming ( ), and home care. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 92. In addition to the daily special sections, ad hoc supplement ( ) on a special event will be launched from time to time. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 93. MTR Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 94. Terminology Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 95. 12-SHEET PANEL THE ADVERTISING POSITION (LIGHT-BOX) AT THE PLATFORM. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 96. 4-SHEET PANEL THE ADVERTISING POSITION ON WALLS OF THE STATIONS. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 97. ESCALATOR CROWN PANEL THE ADVERTISING POSITION ON ESCALATORS’ SIDE WALLS. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 98. Buying Practice Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 99. In Hong Kong, JCDecaux Pearl & Dean (www.jcdecaux.com.hk) manages the MTR Advertising Concession and the Hong Kong International Airport Advertising Concession also. Therefore, all advertisers and advertising agency have to work through JCDecaux for all kinds of advertisement bookings. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 100. In recent years, many new spaces and tools are opened up for creative buys. For example, Plasma TV, TV projector, pillar ( ), passageway ( ), interactive panels, exhibition display booth, ceiling ( ), station exterior ( ), etc. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 101. PLASMA RING, POSTER ON WALL BIOTHERM Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 102. PILLARS WITH 3D POP UP MCDONALD’S Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 103. EXHIBITION SITE BIOTHERM Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 104. 3D DISPLAY ON STATION TOP NISSIN Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 105. Internet Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 106. Terminology Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 107. Pay per click ( ) is an advertising model used on search engines, advertising networks, and content websites/blogs ( ) , where advertisers only pay when a user actually clicks on an ad to visit the advertiser's website ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 108. Advertisers bid on keywords ( ) they believe their target market would type in the search bar when they are looking for a product or service ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 109. Advertisers bid on keywords ( ) they believe their target market would type in the search bar when they are looking for a product or service ( ). When a user types a keyword query ( ) matching the advertiser's keyword list, or views a page with relevant content, the advertiser's ad may be shown. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 110. Advertisers bid on keywords ( ) they believe their target market would type in the search bar when they are looking for a product or service ( ). When a user types a keyword query ( ) matching the advertiser's keyword list, or views a page with relevant content, the advertiser's ad may be shown. These ads are called a "Sponsored link" or "sponsored ads" and appear next to, and sometimes, above the natural or organic results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a webmaster/blogger chooses on a content page. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 111. COST PER CLICK Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 112. KEYWORDS Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 113. INTERNET SPONSORED LINK OR SPONSORED ADS Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 114. INTERNET SPONSORED LINK OR SPONSORED ADS Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 115. INTERNET SPONSORED LINK OR SPONSORED ADS Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 116. Buying can be done for website one by one, or use the services provided by third-party ad server, e.g. DoubleClick Inc. (www.doubleclick.com). This ad server automates ( ) the posting of an internet ad(s) among dozens of websites based on the requirements of advertiser or media planner Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 117. e.g. which sites to be bought, the number of impressions to be delivered on each site, the creative executions and rotation instructions, and the target audience. Additional services the ad server provides including planning, budgeting, insertion order generation, creative trafficking ( ) and post-buy analysis Regarding advertising on Search Engine, Google AdWords, Yahoo! Search Marketing, and Microsoft adCenter are the largest network operators as of 2007. Depending on the search engine, minimum prices per click start at US$0.01 (up to US$0.50); these prices are often referred to as Costs Per Click (CPC). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 118. Buying Problems Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 119. For TV spots buying, media planner has to determine which program to carry the advertisement because the media plan analyzes the costing based on timeslots. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 120. For TV spots buying, media planner has to determine ( ) which program to carry the advertisement because the media plan analyzes the costing based on timeslots. For print and broadcast advertisement, if the advertiser waits too long before committing the designated ( ) budget, all the availabilities ( ) could be exhausted ( ), thus leaving nothing to buy. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 121. For TV spots buying, media planner has to determine ( ) which program to carry the advertisement because the media plan analyzes the costing based on timeslots. For print and broadcast advertisement, if the advertiser waits too long before committing the designated ( ) budget, all the availabilities ( ) could be exhausted ( ), thus leaving nothing to buy. For Internet advertisement, there is no standard way of counting exposures ( ). For example, on may count ads when they are sent out (even if the user clicks away while it is still downloading), while the other counts an ad only when it has been successfully displayed. Sunday, 27 December 2009