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  • 1. Basic Measurements and Calculations Media Planning - LECTURE 5 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 2. Radio Commercial Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 3. Radio Commercial Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 4. Radio Commercial Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 5. Radio Commercial Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 6. Radio Commercial Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 7. How Media Vehicles are Measured 1. General Principle Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 8. General Principle  Most media audiences are measured through sample surveys ( ), using data about a small sample to infer ( ) larger universe’s exposure to a particular medium.  Sample sizes can vary from 200 to 26,000 individuals or homes. 8 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 9. Reasons for measuring sample instead of entire audience Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 10. Reasons  Lower Cost ( ) – survey are expensive to be carried out. The smaller number of sample, the smaller the cost incurred ( ). 10 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 11. Reasons  Lower Cost ( ) – survey are expensive to be carried out. The smaller number of sample, the smaller the cost incurred ( ).  Impossibility ( ) – survey for the entire audience is impossible to be carried out, e.g. to survey for the TV channel selections of all Hong Kong TV audience (about 7 millions) 11 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 12. Reasons  Lower Cost ( ) – survey are expensive to be carried out. The smaller number of sample, the smaller the cost incurred ( ).  Impossibility ( ) – survey for the entire audience is impossible to be carried out, e.g. to survey for the TV channel selections of all Hong Kong TV audience (about 6 millions)  Unjustified Efforts ( ) – even the entire audience can be measured, the improvement of accuracy ( ) is not justified by the huge amount of time, efforts and costs paid. 12 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 13. Television and Radio Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 14. Television and Radio  Homes are sampled and installed a measurement device called people meter ( ) by the research company, e.g. AC Nielsen (HK - SRG ).  It records when a particular TV or radio channel is being selected during the survey period. 14 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 15. Television and Radio  The shortcoming ( ) is that it records only the times the TV channel button is pressed.  It cannot tell whether the audience is watching the TV channel, not to mention if they will pay attention to the TV program or TV commercials. 15 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 16. Magazines and Newspapers Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 17. Recent Reading (for magazine) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 18.  Interviewees are presented with 200 logos of magazines and asked if they have been read within the last 6 months. 200 着 18 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 19.  Out of 12-15 magazines that are read with 6 months, they are asked if the publications have been read within a specific period, e.g. the last month, week, or others. 6 12-15 ( )内 “ ” 19 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 20.  The demographics of the positive respondents will be recorded and left with a detailed questionnaires. 20 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 21.  The questionnaires are picked up several weeks later 21 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 22. Advantages:  Rapid information for a large number of magazines ( ) 22 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 23. Advantages:  Rapid information for a large number of magazines ( )  Reliability ( ) proven for more than 20 years ( ) 23 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 24. Disadvantages:  Confusion ( )about the magazine read by recognizing the logo. 24 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 25. Disadvantages:  Confusion ( )about the magazine read by recognizing the logo.  Costly ( ) because the survey must be administered in person instead of mailing. 25 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 26. Frequency of Reading (for magazine) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 27.  Interviewees are shown with a list of magazine logo. Logo 27 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 28.  They are asked for each magazine the number of copies read out of the last four issues, i.e. one out of four, two out of four, and so on. 28 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 29. Advantages:  Most commonly used and facilitates ( ) comparison. 29 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 30. Advantages:  Most commonly used and facilitates ( ) comparison.  Less expensive because the survey can be conducted through the mail. 30 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 31. Disadvantages:  Limited to 50 magazines because of fatigue ( ). 31 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 32. Disadvantages:  Limited to 50 magazines because of fatigue ( ).  Inaccuracy ( ) due to difficulty in remembrance of the exact number of copies. 32 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 33. Frequency of Reading (for magazine) Additional Information Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 34. (Frequency of reading)  4 3 4 1 4 1  Loyal readers Quite often readers Occasional readers 34 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 35. Yesterday Reading (for newspaper) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 36. Yesterday Reading  Interviewees are sampled  They are asked which newspapers are read yesterday. 36 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 37. Yesterday Reading  The interview is rather short because relatively few newspapers are read in any given time and market. 37 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 38. 38 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 39. Internet Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 40. Internet Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 41. Internet  The most widely used service is Nielsen’s NetRating. It installs software on the sampled individual’s computer to record: 41 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 42. Internet  The most widely used service is Nielsen’s NetRating. It installs software on the sampled individual’s computer to record:  Which sites are visited? 42 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 43. Internet  The most widely used service is Nielsen’s NetRating. It installs software on the sampled individual’s computer to record:  Which sites are visited?  How many unique visitors ( Unique Visitor) to the site? 43 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 44. Internet  The most widely used service is Nielsen’s NetRating. It installs software on the sampled individual’s computer to record:  Which sites are visited?  How many unique visitors to the site?  How long they stay on each page? 44 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 45. Internet  The most widely used service is Nielsen’s NetRating. It installs software on the sampled individual’s computer to record:  Which sites are visited?  How many unique visitors to the site?  How long they stay on each page?  How deeply (in terms of no. of pages) they go into the site? 45 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 46. Internet  The most widely used service is Nielsen’s NetRating. It installs software on the sampled individual’s computer to record:  Which sites are visited?  How many unique visitors to the site?  How long they stay on each page?  How deeply (in terms of no. of pages) they go into the site?  How many times they return? 46 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 47. 47 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 48. Internet  The advantages are that (1) the survey can be done automatically ( ) without relying on the respondents’ memories and hence (2) the number of sites for survey can be much more within a period. 48 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 49. Outdoor Advertising Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 50. Outdoor Advertising  Media sales would like this information for promoting the media to advertisers and advertising agencies. They may conduct survey by themselves [(i) & (ii) below] or obtain secondary research data [(iii) below]: i. No. of pedestrians ( ) passing the spot, e.g. for the large TV Billboard at the junction near Sogo Department Store. 50 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 51. 51 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 52. 52 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 53. Outdoor Advertising  Media sales would like this information for promoting the media to advertisers and advertising agencies. They may conduct survey by themselves [(i) & (ii) below] or obtain secondary research data [(iii) below]: i. No. of pedestrians ( ) passing the spot, e.g. for the large TV Billboard at the junction near Sogo Department Store. ii. No. of vehicles passing the spot, e.g. for the billboard advertisement at the entrance of Cross Harbour Tunnel. 53 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 54. 54 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 55. 55 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 56. Outdoor Advertising  Media sales would like this information for promoting the media to advertisers and advertising agencies. They may conduct survey by themselves [(i) & (ii) below] or obtain secondary research data [(iii) below]: i. No. of pedestrians ( ) passing the spot, e.g. for the large TV Billboard at the junction near Sogo Department Store. ii. No. of vehicles passing the spot, e.g. for the billboard advertisement at the entrance of Cross Harbour Tunnel. iii. No. of ticket sales, e.g. for the billboard advertisements at Hong Kong Coliseum ( ). 56 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 57. How the Data Are Interpreted Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 58. How the Data Are Interpreted  Having obtained the responses from the surveyed sample, the results are projected by simple multiplication to reflect the situation of the geographic area. 58 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 59. How the Data Are Interpreted  Having obtained the responses from the surveyed sample, the results are projected by simple multiplication to reflect the situation of the geographic area. 59 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 60. How the Data Are Interpreted  Having obtained the responses from the surveyed sample, the results are projected by simple multiplication to reflect the situation of the geographic area.  For example, suppose 35% of the surveyed sample watched a particular TV program on TVB Jade (i.e. rating point = 35), the number of audience for that TV program is calculated by:  35/100 * 6,500,000 =2,275,000 (Number of TV audience = 6,500,000) 60 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 61. General Use of Measurements Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 62. General Use of Measurements  Media planners often want to know which media vehicles produce the right targets, instead of exact figures about the audience projected by the measurements. media planner 62 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 63. General Use of Measurements  Media planners often want to know which media vehicles produce the right targets, instead of exact figures about the audience projected by the measurements.  They use audience measurement and product usage data for the following comparative purposes: media planner 63 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 64. Comparative purposes  To learn the demographics of product or brand users ( ) 64 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 65. Comparative purposes  To learn the demographics of product or brand users ( ) 65 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 66. Comparative purposes  To learn the demographics of product or brand users ( )  To learn the audience demographics of various kinds of media vehicles – who reads, sees, or hears the vehicles ( - D ) 66 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 67. Comparative purposes  To learn the demographics of product or brand users ( )  To learn the audience demographics of various kinds of media vehicles – who reads, sees, or hears the vehicles ( - D )  To learn the way purchasers use a product or brand (How many are heavy, medium, or light users?) ( / ) 67 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 68. Comparative purposes  To learn the demographics of product or brand users ( )  To learn the audience demographics of various kinds of media vehicles – who reads, sees, or hears the vehicles ( - D )  To learn the way purchasers use a product or brand (How many are heavy, medium, or light users?) ( / )  To learn whether audience members of a particular media vehicle are heavy, medium , or light users of the products ( / ) 68 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 69. Comparative purposes  To learn the demographics of product or brand users ( )  To learn the audience demographics of various kinds of media vehicles – who reads, sees, or hears the vehicles ( - D )  To learn the way purchasers use a product or brand (How many are heavy, medium, or light users?) ( / )  To learn whether audience members of a particular media vehicle are heavy, medium , or light users of the products ( / )  To learn how many people were exposed to vehicles. ( ) 69 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 70.  Two concepts used by media planners in selecting the media vehicles: i. The vehicle that can reach the largest number of prospects (highest coverage) ( ) ii. The vehicle that can reach the fewer number of but more concentrated prospects. (highest composition) ( - ) 70 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 71. The vehicle that can reach the largest number of prospects (highest coverage) ( ) The vehicle that can reach the fewer number of but more concentrated prospects. (highest composition) ( - ) 71 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 72. The vehicle that can reach the largest number of prospects (highest coverage) ( ) The vehicle that can reach the fewer number of but more concentrated prospects. (highest composition) ( - ) 72 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 73. The vehicle that can reach the largest number of prospects (highest coverage) ( ) The vehicle that can reach the fewer number of but more concentrated prospects. (highest composition) ( - ) 73 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 74. Syndicated and Proprietary research Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 75.  Syndicated research ( ) is based on an industry assessment ( ) via a survey of the customers in that sector. ( ) 75 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 76.  Syndicated research ( ) is based on an industry assessment ( ) via a survey of the customers in that sector. ( )  Proprietary research ( ) conducts custom research and customer satisfaction measurement and tracking for individual companies. ( ) 76 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 77. Syndicated Research 77 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 78. NMR Media Index | Synovate Media Index | CSM Television Audience Measurement 78 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 79. Proprietary Research  Examples of proprietary research including those conducted for middle-class or women spending habit (by market research company), PR media coverage (by PR agency), general consumer product testing (by Consumer Council, HKSAR) etc. 79 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 80. PR media coverage 80 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 81. 81 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 82. 82 Sunday, 27 December 2009