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  • 1. Media Marketing – Lecture 1
  • 2. What is Mass Communication?
    • Mass communication is messages distributed by institutions such as the media have the potential to reach very large and anonymous( 無特定的 ) audiences in a process.
  • 3. What is Mass Media?
    • Mass media is a form of communication that used to reach( 接觸 ) a large number of people.
    • Most people agree that mass media include newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor & indoor advertising, direct mailing, public relations and Internet.
  • 4. Gatekeeper of information
    • Gatekeeper( 把關人 ) of information is a term to describe people who control the flow of information.
    • For example: newspaper editor, who selects some stories and discards others, acts as a gatekeeper.
  • 5. Mass Media Market System
    • Mass Communication can be described as a system that produces information on the basis( 基礎 ) of the interaction( 互相影響 ) between two forces:
    • Audience demand
    • Ability of media to supply content
  • 6. Mass Media Market System
    • Public have needs and wants, which they take to the three types of markets in the system - consumer, advertising, and the marketplace( 市集 ) of ideas.
    • Media companies observe the demand and supply content to the three market to satisfy the wants and needs.
    • At the same time, people also act as sources of information for the media organizations
    • Demand and supply from other countries would be served by sending and receiving the content
  • 7. Three Communication Markets
    • Media as a Consumer Market
    • Mass media can be described as operating in a market that sells useful information to audiences. 
    • For example: Newspapers, magazines organizations work for providing the latest and useful information to serve the need from the consumer market.
  • 8. Three Communication Markets
    • Media as an Advertising Market
    • Mass media can be described as operating in a market that sells the attention of audiences to product advertisers
    • For example: To present a TV commercial of Nike by Michael Jordan wearing Nike apparel to encourage basketball lovers to buy Nike products.
  • 9. Three Communication Markets
    • Media as a marketplace of ideas
    • Mass media can be described as operating in a market in which ideas interact and compete for acceptance. 
    • The marketplace of ideas does not require money. In this market, ideas compete for social acceptance. People and groups seek to influence the exchange of ideas and create norms( 準則 ) for behavior. 
    • For example: Efforts to develop a national health-care policy is an example of how the marketplace of ideas works.
  • 10. Demand for Information and Idea
    • Demand in the Consumer Market
    • Consumer demand for media content varies( 不同 ) considerably( 相當 ) depending partly on household decisions about the media mixes.  
    • Media mix is consumers’ use of a variety ( 不同的 ) of media such as newspaper, television, and Internet. 
    • A person’s mix represents his or her wants and needs.
  • 11.
    • Demand in the Advertising Market
    • Advertisers want to pay the lowest possible price to send their message to the highest possible percentage of potential customer.  
    • Hence, they must identify the location of potential customers and the best medium for reaching those customers. Besides, they should choose between mass and targeted advertising which depend on the size and type of audience they want to reach. 
    • Target advertising: Trying to promote a product or service to a specific and particular group of people.
    Demand for Information and Idea
  • 12.
    • Demand in the Marketplace of Ideas
    • Demand in the marketplace of idea is much more complex( 複雜 )
    • The demand is for ideas, information, and reinforcement( 加強 ) of cultural values that allow society to maintain and improve itself.
    • Such demand is diffuse( 四散 ) and difficult to quantify since not all people agree on how to maintain and improve the society.
    Demand for Information and Idea
  • 13. Supply of Content
    • Mass media organizations supply content to these three communication markets to meet their demand. Mass media organizations must follow these six processes:
  • 14. Supply of Content
    • Media must generate content
    • Sometimes organizations may create original content, and sometimes they may buy content from other sources.
    • For example: TVB and ATV
  • 15. Supply of Content
    • Media must produce and reproduce content in quantity
    • That is how media become mass media.
    • Content must be replicated many times over to serves large audiences .
    • For example: News
  • 16. Supply of Content
    • Content must be delivered to the users
    • All information should be transmitted to all users immediately through different kinds of media.
  • 17. Supply of Content
    • Media must generate financial support
    • Most mass media organizations sell space and time to advertisers.
    • However, other forms of financing are available, such as government’s support . (For example: RTHK (HK), BBC (UK))
  • 18. Supply of Content
    • The products of the organization must be promoted
    • Because so many media options are available today, an organization cannot assume that potential users will even know its product exits.
    • For example: NOW TV
  • 19. Supply of Content
    • Above five processes must be managed
    • The process must be well-coordinated( 良好的配合 ) so that certain activities are accomplished( 達到 ) in specific periods of time.
  • 20. Interaction between Supply and Demand
    • The interaction of media organizations’ supply and consumers’ and advertisers’ demand determines the types of information and ideas available in a media market system.
  • 21. Interaction between Supply and Demand
    • Ideally, ( 最理想 … )
    • (a) consumers will get useful information,
    • (b) advertisers will get effective advertisements, and media
    • (c) organizations will make a reasonable profit.
    • However, market interactions often fail to achieve this ideal.
    • Three important factors create interaction problems:
    • Level of competition for consumers
    • Level of media organization’s understanding of its customers
    • Level of media organization’s goals