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    Mm Pr Mm Pr Presentation Transcript

    • Marketing the Public Relations Media Marketing - LECTURE 8
    • Definition of Public Relations Marketing the Public Relations
    • Definition of Public Relations
      • Public relations consists of all forms of planned communication, outwards and inwards ( 外在到內在 ), between an organization and its publics for the purpose of achieving specific objectives concerning mutual understanding ( 共識 ).
    • Definition of Public Relations
      • An increasing important role for public relations is for a brand to engage consumers in more dialogue, today “public relations is defined as a set of management, supervisory and technical functions that foster an organization’s ability to strategically listen to, appreciate, and respond to those person whose mutually beneficial relationships with the organization are necessary if it is to achieve its missions, and values.” (Encyclopedia of public relations (2005)/ Robert Lawrence Heath)
    • Definition of Public Relations
      • In sum, public relations focuses on two-way communication and fostering of mutually beneficial relationship between an organization and its public .
    • Business of Public Relations Marketing the Public Relations
    • Business of Public Relations
      • Public relations firm has only one function: to serve its clients to the best of its ability and in their best interests at all times.
      • Sometimes, this mean telling the client that he or she is wrong and refusing to do the client’s bidding ( 命令 ). (“ 今時今日的服務態度係唔得 …” “ 你咁樣唔得嫁啦 …” “ 你咁講唔得嫁 …” )
    • Business of Public Relations
      • On other hand, a PR firm also has only one purpose: to achieve ( 達到 ) and maintain ( 維持 ) level of income and profit that will assure a reasonable financial return to its owners and fair and competitive compensation to its employees.
    • Business of Public Relations
      • Nowadays, many large organizations have employed at least one PR manager or may even have dedicated communication departments to communicate a message that coincides ( 一致 ) with organizational goals and seeks to mutual interests whenever possible.
    • Publicity 名聲
    • Publicity 名聲
      • The effective use of public relations in marketing often comes down to getting good publicity for a brand.
      • To get positive publicity, it is necessary to provide interesting and newsworthy ( 有新聞價值 ) information to the media.
    • Advantages of Publicity
      • Cost-effective 成本效益 : Publicity is far more cost-effective than advertising. Even if it is not free, you only expenses are generally phone calls and mailings to the media.
    • Advantages of Publicity
      • Cost-effective 成本效益 : Publicity is far more cost-effective than advertising. Even if it is not free, you only expenses are generally phone calls and mailings to the media.
      • Credibility 公信力 : Publicity has greater credibility with the public than does advertising. Readers feel that if an objective third party - a magazine, newspaper or radio report, is featuring your company, you must be doing something worthwhile ( 價得的 ). ( 廣告, No Way; PR Everyday…)
    • Disadvantages of Publicity
      • lack of control over how your releases will be used and ( 難以控制,因為 … 把口生係人果度 … )
    • Disadvantages of Publicity
      • lack of control over how your releases will be used and ( 難以控制,因為 … 把口生係人果度 … )
      • frustration over ( 失敗於 ) the low percentage of releases that are taken up by the media.
    • Demand for Public Relations 你幾時要 PR ?
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
      • To change certain behavior or opinion ( 改變大眾對公司的態度 )
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
      • To change certain behavior or opinion ( 改變大眾對公司的態度 )
      • To retain desirable behavior or opinion ( 保持大眾對公司的良好態度 )
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
      • To change certain behavior or opinion ( 改變大眾對公司的態度 )
      • To retain desirable behavior or opinion ( 保持大眾對公司的良好態度 )
      • To build up/maintain/reinforce a certain image/reputation ( 建立 / 保持 / 加強公司之形象
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
      • To change certain behavior or opinion ( 改變大眾對公司的態度 )
      • To retain desirable behavior or opinion ( 保持大眾對公司的良好態度 )
      • To build up/maintain/reinforce a certain image/reputation ( 建立 / 保持 / 加強公司之形象
      • To improve understanding ( 加強對公司的理解 )
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
      • To change certain behavior or opinion ( 改變大眾對公司的態度 )
      • To retain desirable behavior or opinion ( 保持大眾對公司的良好態度 )
      • To build up/maintain/reinforce a certain image/reputation ( 建立 / 保持 / 加強公司之形象
      • To improve understanding ( 加上對公司的理解 )
      • To establish a relationship ( 與公司建立關係 )
    • Use of Public Relations
      • To create certain awareness ( 吸引大眾注意 )
      • To change certain behavior or opinion ( 改變大眾對公司的態度 )
      • To retain desirable behavior or opinion ( 保持大眾對公司的良好態度 )
      • To build up/maintain/reinforce a certain image/reputation ( 建立 / 保持 / 加強公司之形象
      • To improve understanding ( 加上對公司的理解 )
      • To establish a relationship ( 與公司建立關係 )
      • To increase sales or use of services ( 增加收入或使用公司的服務 )
    • Use of Public Relations
      • Public Relations practitioners ( 從業員 ) serve as a pipeline 渠道 to move information from organizations to their publics.
      • Demand for public relations activity can be viewed from both ends of the pipe.
        • At one end , organizations demand PR services to get their information out ;
        • at the other end, various publics demand PR information from the organizations .
    • Demand for PR Services
      • The demand for PR Services depends on the types of publics that interact with the organizations.
      • Public relations people deal with two types of publics:
        • Internal publics include employees, managers and stockholders. The inside publics have a much stronger commitment to the organization than do those outside.
        • External publics include consumers, government organizations, interest groups and media.
    • Demand for PR Information
      • Just as organizations eagerly ( 熱切 ) send out information about themselves, individuals and other groups seek information about those organizations.
      • Press releases, electronic and print, and press conferences are prime ( 主要 ) ways in which journalists find out about the activities of organizations.
      • Up to 30 percent of the content in some small newspapers comes from press releases.
      • PR information serves as a raw material for creating news content.
    • Supplying the demand for Public Relations PR 服待的對象有 …
    • Political and Government Groups 政府機關
      • Political and government groups inform citizens and advocate political candidates and positions. Information is supplied through videotapes, media interviews with politicians, press release and newsletters.
      • 政府新聞處
    • Interest Groups
      • Interest groups attempt to influence politicians to achieve public decisions that favor the group’s interests.
      • 支聯會 – 記招 – 同一個夢想、平反六四
    • Profit-seeking organizations “ 謀”利機構
      • Profit-seeking organizations use public relations to create and maintain favorable attitudes toward their goals and services.
      • Consumers who do not trust a company or a particular product will be less likely to purchase it.
      • PR practitioners in profit-seeking organizations use advocacy and information to maintain positive image in the public’s minds.
    • Non-profit organizations 慈善組織
      • Non-profit organizations depend heavily on public relations because much of their support comes from public donations.
      • Organizations such as Red Cross and the Salvation Army receive a large portion of their funds from individual donations.
      • Public must be aware of the services they offer.
    • Public Relations Campaign Marketing the Public Relations
    • What is Campaign?
      • Campaigns are coordinated ( 協調 ), purposeful ( 有目的 ), extended ( 長期的 ) efforts designed to achieve a specific goal or a set of interrelated ( 互相關聯 ) goals that will move the organization toward a longer-range objectives usually expressed in its mission statement.  
      • In short, campaigns are designed to accomplish ( 達到 ) organizational objectives.
      • Therefore, a PR & Advertising campaign does not stand alone. It is part of organization’s business plan; and thus, must be integrated into the overall organizational objectives.
    • What is PR campaign?
      • A PR campaign is a connected series of operations/actions designed to bring about a particular result. However, it is more of concerted ( 協同 ) efforts.  
      • PR campaigns are planned and implemented , often for the purpose of building up mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its various stakeholders through achieving certain goals/objectives which are (1)research based, and also through (2)applying communicative strategies, (3)followed by the measurement of the outcomes.
    • Reactive vs. Proactive Campaigns Types of PR campaign
    • Reactive campaign
      • A campaign undertaken to solve a problem or to respond to the development of unfavorable opinion/perception or behavior toward the organization, is called a reactive campaign . It is usually a short-range campaign.
    • Proactive campaign
      • A campaign designed to be in response to a unique opportunity to favorably influence public behavior or opinion/perception, is called a proactive campaign . It is often a long-range campaign.
    • My Media Marketing - Xanga
      • http://www.xanga.com/jackin_lecture_ive
      • Lecture Notes
    • Basic Principles for Effective Campaigns 五大守則
    • Basic Principles for Effective Campaigns
      • Careful and accurate assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audience. 小心了解 “ 老細 ” 有咩需要、想得到 D 咩、有咩未知的知素
    • Basic Principles for Effective Campaigns
      • Careful and accurate assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audience. 小心了解 “ 老細 ” 有咩需要、想得到 D 咩、有咩未知的知素
      • Systematic planning and production. 有系統的計劃
    • Basic Principles for Effective Campaigns
      • Careful and accurate assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audience. 小心了解 “ 老細 ” 有咩需要、想得到 D 咩、有咩未知的知素
      • Systematic planning and production. 有系統的計劃
      • Continuous monitoring and evaluation. 持續的監察同 “ 大、細 E”/“ 老檢 ”
    • Basic Principles for Effective Campaigns
      • Careful and accurate assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audience. 小心了解 “ 老細 ” 有咩需要、想得到 D 咩、有咩未知的知素
      • Systematic planning and production. 有系統的計劃
      • Continuous monitoring and evaluation. 持續的監察同 “ 大、細 E”/“ 老檢 ”
      • Consideration of the complementary roles of mass, interpersonal, and specifically, on-line communications. 溝通渠道配合
    • Basic Principles for Effective Campaigns
      • Careful and accurate assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audience. 小心了解 “ 老細 ” 有咩需要、想得到 D 咩、有咩未知的知素
      • Systematic planning and production. 有系統的計劃
      • Continuous monitoring and evaluation. 持續的監察同 “ 大、細 E”/“ 老檢 ”
      • Consideration of the complementary roles of mass, interpersonal, and specifically, on-line communications. 了解溝通渠道配合
      • Selection of the appropriate media for each of different target audiences. 選擇適合的途徑去將你的訊息傳送到目標的耳中
    • (1) Research (situational analysis) (2) Planning (goals/objectives, messages, themes, strategies, budget, etc.) (3) Communication (program tactics) (4) Evaluation Public Relations Campaign planning as a process Hong Kong Disneyland
    • 1. Research & Situational Analysis
      • Understand the client organization for whom the campaign is planned - three aspects to look into: (1) client organization, (2) target audience, (3) problem/opportunity - SWOT Analysis
    • Problem/Opportunity Statement
      • Part of the campaign research and situation analysis involves investigating the opportunity or problem that accounts for the campaign, and stakeholders/publics/audiences to be targeted for communication in the campaign.
      •  
      • One of the end results of campaign research and situation analysis is a “ problem/opportunity statement ,” which must be stated precisely 準確 , clearly 清晰 and concisely 簡潔 .
    • 2. Define the Problem/Opportunity
      • Based upon situational analysis and research, develop a clear, precise and concise problem/opportunity statement that the campaign under planning is intended to address to is very important.
    • A Useful Problem Statement
      • Describe the situation in specific and measurable terms, detailing most of, or all of the following:
        • What is the source of the concern/problem?
        • Where is this a problem?
        • When is it a problem?
        • Who is (are) involved or affected?
        • How are they involved or affected?
        • Why is this a concern to the organization and its publics?
    • Problem Statement
    • 3. Follow-up step, Campaign goals and Objectives
      • As a follow-up step, campaign goals and objectives must be set within the organizational framework of mission, goals and objectives (based upon the research and situation analysis).
    • 3. Follow-up step, Campaign goals and Objectives
      • Goals are clear statements of intent to solve a significant problem or achieve a significant result within a specific time frame.
      • They are the generalized ends –ends that provide a framework for decision-making and behavior. ( 了解對家係咩人 )
      • They are the single most important element in campaign planning because they represent the desired outcomes of the campaign in communicating with the targeted audiences. ( 目標唔需要多,準確定一個已經好足夠 )
    • 4. Identify key publics/stakeholders
      • To evaluate the impact of the problem on both publics/stakeholders and the organization.
      • Also, define issues or stakes involved in the problem, and identify alternative solutions.
      • Moreover, PR should develop their target audience profiles.
      • For Example: Disney’s Case
      • 政府
      • 大眾 - 一班覺得迪士尼好悶、無野玩的大眾
    • 5. Plan campaign themes, strategies and appeals to be used.
      • What is a campaign theme?
      • A campaign planner must select an overall theme for the campaign.
      • A theme embodies the ideas to be conveyed to publics. It is expressed over and over again.
      • It conditions all that is vocally or visually presented through the various media of communication.
    • Creative communication strategies
      • Determine creative communication strategies/tools to be used to reach target audiences, tailoring messages to media choices and to each of different segments of target audiences.
    • Creative communication strategies
      • Determine creative communication strategies/tools to be used to reach target audiences, tailoring messages to media choices and to each of different segments of target audiences.
    • Creative communication strategies
      • Determine creative communication strategies/tools to be used to reach target audiences, tailoring messages to media choices and to each of different segments of target audiences.
    • Creative communication strategies
      • Determine creative communication strategies/tools to be used to reach target audiences, tailoring messages to media choices and to each of different segments of target audiences.
    • Creative communication strategies
      • Determine creative communication strategies/tools to be used to reach target audiences, tailoring messages to media choices and to each of different segments of target audiences.
      • Decide on what media to be used as channels of communication (medial planning)
      • Determine responsibilities for campaign implementation.
      • Prepare budgets and timetables.
      • Decide how to monitor each action or tactic as the campaign progresses.
      • Conduct research to evaluate the results or effectiveness of the campaign in reaching its stated goals and objectives.
      • In sum, PR campaign planning involves careful research and creative implementation and execution.
      •  
      • Campaign planners can apply the related theories and concepts to better understand the situation under which a campaign is needed. It is an area requiring lots of knowledge, expertise and skills. It is challenging but also exciting.
    • Crisis Management Marketing the Public Relations
    • Crisis Management
      • Public Relations personnel develop long-range plans for managing issues so they can help companies avoid crises.
      • Nevertheless, sometimes an unexpected catastrophe ( 災難 ) hits, and the public relations staff is called on for crisis management.
      • Typical crises include product tampering ( 貨物出錯 ), serious accidents ( 嚴重的意外 ) and even some labor disputes ( 員工爭議 ).
      • In addition to the potential financial damage done to a company by the crisis, the organization’s image can be damaged if the crisis is not handled well. (Crisis 令公司財務出現問題之外,亦令公司形象受損 e.g. 成報 )
    • Crisis Management
      • Crisis management requires contingency plans that anticipate possible crises.
      • These plans include (a) who and what should be communicated to news media ( 要搵邊一個新聞媒體同有咩野講 ) and (b) what actions should be taken with products if they are involved.
      • The plans play a crucial ( 決定性 ) role in management actions. An unexpected crisis can cost an organization millions of dollars and even destroy a business.
    • Public Relations Campaign planning as a process
      • Research & Situational Analysis 了解一下現在發生咩事
      • Define the Problem/Opportunity 了解問題及機會
      • Follow-up step, Campaign goals and Objectives 整個計劃有咩目標
      • Identify key publics/stakeholders (demographic, psychographics, and inforgraphics) 了解主要對象、有關人仕
    • Public Relations Campaign planning as a process
      • Plan campaign themes, strategies and appeals to be used. 訂主題 – 具體表明整個計劃的中心
      • Determine creative communication strategies/tools to be used to reach target audiences, tailoring messages to media choices and to each of different segments of target audiences. 決定用咩策略去接觸你的 target - 為佢地特別度身訂造的訊息,傳送俾到班 target
      • Decide on what media to be used as channels of communication (medial planning) 用咩媒體去接觸依班 target
    • Public Relations Campaign planning as a process
      • Determine responsibilities for campaign implementation. 邊個 take-in-charge
      • Prepare budgets and timetables. 準備好個 budget 同時間表
      • Decide how to monitor each action or tactic as the campaign progresses. 決定點去檢察成個 campaign 的進行
      • Conduct research to evaluate the results or effectiveness of the campaign in reaching its stated goals and objectives. 做一個 research ,了解一下係唔係達到目的
    • In-class Exercise PR Campaign and Crisis Management
    • Problem Statement
      • Result of Research and Situation Analysis:
      • IVE-KT’s PR office notices that only 5% of this year’s new graduates join the alumni association; while in the past, that rate was as high as 20%.
      • Consequently, IVE-KT may suffer from this decline because it may lose graduates’ support to the campus. Situation analysis reflects the fact that the lack of adequate communication between the IVE and its students may contribute to the problem.
    • Problem Statement
      • Result of Research and Situation Analysis:
      • IVE-KT’s PR office notices that (s) only 5% of this year’s ( when? ) new graduates join the alumni association; while in the past, that rate was as high as 20% . ( What? )
      • Consequently, IVE-KT ( where? ) may suffer from this decline because it may ( How? ) lose graduates’ support to the campus . Situation analysis reflects the fact that the ( why ?) lack of adequate ( 足夠 ) communication between the IVE and its students ( who? ) may contribute to the problem.
    • Suggested Problem Statement
      • (s) Only 5% of new graduates join the alumni association this year, compared to 20% in the past year, resulting in (b) lost contact and (a) reduced support to IVE.